3/01/2013

Teikin Orai textbooks

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Teikin Oorai, Teikin ōrai 庭訓往来 textbooks for teaching at home




Illustrated textbook 庭訓往来絵本


quote
Before Japan had Western-style "textbooks," it had ōraimono 往来物, compilations of letter-writing samples.
Ōrai 往来 literally means "coming and going," here in the sense of correspondence back and forth between two parties — although eventually the meaning of ōrai was diluted to just "textbook".

From the 14th to the 19th century, the king of ōraimono was Teikin ōrai 庭訓往来. The title literally meant "Correspondence [samples] for education at home," but it was eventually used in temple schools (terakoya) as well. It contained 25 letters dated from the first month through the twelfth, artfully crafted to cover as much as possible of the topic and vocabulary pool from which your standard social letter might draw.

"The "Teikin Orai" had made the following development.
(1) At first it was a calligraphy text.
(2) By writing phonetic symbols (kana) alongside Chinese characters to indicate the pronunciation, it was used as a reader.
(3) By annotation its text was linked to other texts. It became a kind of commentary book.
(4) The notes were illustrated. It became a book with a lot of illustrations."
Katsumata Masano
source : Matt Treyvaud





Japanese samples for letters to be written in the 12 months.
They start off with a greeting for the New Year.
The letters are placed in a stationary box, called "bunko" 文庫, a word later used for a library.
© More in the Japanese WIKIPEDIA !


oorai 往来 "the coming and going of people"


絵本庭訓往来 Illustrated by Hokusai 北斎


CLICK for more photos !


- 鵜飼.北斎の”絵本庭訓往来”より - on a page about cormorant fishing is this one



黙想中の達磨と伸びをしている達磨.根付より -著者の収集品 -
(No. 51. Daruma in contemplation, and Daruma stretching himself. From netsukes. (Author's Collection.))

International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, Japan
- source : db.nichibun.ac.jp/ja... -

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- quote -
庭訓往来は当初は貴族武士僧侶の子弟の教育ための教科書であったが、江戸時代になると寺子屋が発達して庶民のための教科書としてもっとも普及して使われた教科書といわれている。

Teikin ōrai 庭訓往来 was initially used as a textbook for eduction of children of nobility, bushi warriors and monks in training in the 14th century. But in the Edo period, when the terakoya temple school became popular, Teikin ōrai 庭訓往来 became a standard textbook for serving as many as 150,000 schools, of which the city of Edo had about 1,500 establishments in the late Tokugawa period (in the first half of the 19th century).



庭訓往来の成立は室町時代頃、著者は鎌倉後期・南北朝時代の僧玄恵(生年不詳~1350年)とも伝えるが詳細は不明である。玄恵げんえ(ゲンネとも)は、号は独清軒・健叟。玄慧とも。天台宗の僧。京都の人。一説に虎関師錬の弟。天台・禅・宋学を究め、後醍醐天皇に古典を講じ、また足利尊氏・直義に用いられ、建武式目の制定に参与。「太平記」「庭訓往来」の著者とも伝える。

Teikin ōrai 庭訓往来 is said to have been composed by monk Gen'e 玄恵 (also known as Gen'ne, ?-1350), but who composed it is not clearly understood. Gen'e 玄恵 was born in Kyoto and a Buddhist monk trained in the Tendai sect. He tutored classics to emperor Godaigo 後醍醐天皇. He also served Ashikaga Takauji and Naoyoshi, advised the established of Kenbu shikime 建武式目. He is said to have composed the Tale of Taiheiki 太平記.

- Very extensive resource:
- reference source : geocities.jp/ezoushijp/teikinouraikousyaku... -
Tr. Yoshio Kusaba

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Kakimori Bunko is a museum- library for the Kakimori Collection,
one of the world's
three major collections of haiku poetry and painting.



Basho Exhibition 2009, at Kakimori Bunko
芭蕉「新しみは俳諧の花」柿衞文庫開館25周年特別展

. WKD : Kakimori Bunko 柿衛文庫 .
Itami, Hyogo.



. ezooshi 絵草子 illustrated book or magazine of Edo .
otogizooshi 御伽草子 popular tales


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a book about Basho-an Tosei from Chuukoo Bunko 中公文庫
bunko is now also used as a name for a publishing company.


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庭訓の往来誰が文庫より今朝の春
tēkin no ōrai taga bunko yori kesa no haru
teikin no oorai taga bunko yori kesa no haru

a letter sample
in a simple stationary box -
New Year's morning

Tr. Gabi Greve

Written in 延宝6年, Basho age 35, on the first day of the New Year.
"kesa no haru" lit. spring of this morning, was identical with the first day of the New Year in the lunar calendar.
Maybe Basho is wondering who will be the first to send him a greeting.


. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


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. terakoya 寺子屋 "temple school", private school .

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1 comment:

Gabi Greve said...

Markus Rüttermann
Schreib-Riten (shorei 書礼): Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der japanischen Briefetikette
(Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2011)
translates "Teikin ōrai" into German as "Korrespondenzen für Hausgartenermahnungen"
.