10/02/2013

jookamachi - castle town

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The following keywords are introduced below:

jookamachi 城下町 Jokamachi, castle town

koku, kokudaka 石/石高 unit of volume, rice bushels

han 藩 feudal domaine, shoohan 小藩 small domaine

monzenmachi 門前町 "town in front of the gate" - of a temple or shrine

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jookamachi 城下町 Jokamachi, castle town
joukamachi 城下町



source : www.rekihaku.ac.jp


- quote
Lit. town below the castle. A castle town.
A town's fortress was located as a rule in a mountain, while the accompanying settlement of farmers, craftsmen, and merchants was located in a lower location below the mountain. In the case of a medieval castle, the settlement was temporary and the market was held only periodically. Early joukamachi date back to the Kamakura, the Nanbokuchou and Muromachi periods.

In the Momoyama and early Edo periods as the castle structures became more durable, the attendant settlements became permanent, some eventually growing large and prosperous. The term joukamachi came to mean castle city, jouka tokai 城下都会. Castle towns were sometimes laid out to surround the castle. Sometimes the whole castle town was surrounded by a compound, or the castle town would be protected on three sides by water. Military and aristocratic residences, temples and shrines, and merchant residences commonly made up a castle town.

Each class of structure often was grouped together hierarchically within the overall town plan. Frequently, but not always, the town was laid out on a grid. The roads of a castle town were frequently quite narrow, turned and twisted around, sometimes doubling back and ending in dead ends, helping to defend the town against enemy attack.
source : JAANUS



. Edojoo, Edo joo 江戸城 Edo Castle .


Kanazawa


Jokamachi Chofu (castle town)
Chofu had been the centre of culture and politics from ancient times to medieval period, as it entered modern history, Moori Hidemoto built Gomangoku in Chofu-han, thus Jokamachi (castle town) was born.
Due to the feudal warrant in Genna period, the castle was abandoned. What left of it now is only stonewalls. You can find remains of samurai families housing in different sizes in the street layout today, it comes from the feudal period since Moori moved in, there is samurai-machi as you enter Yamate, as well as housing area for high ranking vassals. The remains of earthen walls today still display the richness of its history.
source : www.visit-jy.com


Yonago Castle Town 米子城下町
Situated at the Sea of Japan

under construction
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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

春や昔十五万石の城下町
haru ya mukashi juugomangoku no jookamachi

it's spring - in olden times
this castle town
of great riches

Tr. Gabi Greve

- or rather

it's spring - in olden times
this castle town
of onehundred fiftythousand KOKU

Tr. Gabi Greve


The richness of a domain in the Edo period was calculated in bushels or bags of tax rice (koku, -goku) and 150.000 barrels was not that much, but Shiki was proud of his hometown.
Nowadays the word "jookamachi" is often used with a lot of nostalgia for the good old times in the Edo period.
The castle of Matsuyama is right up on a large hill, overlooking the city and can bee seen from many small streets in the town.

. Masaoka Shiki 正岡子規 .



The koku, kokudaka (石/石高) is a Japanese unit of volume, equal to ten cubic shaku. In this definition, 3.5937 koku equal one cubic metre, i.e. 1 koku is approximately 278.3 litres. The koku was originally defined as a quantity of rice, historically defined as enough rice to feed one person for one year (one masu is enough rice to feed a person for one day).
A koku of rice weighs about 150 kilograms.
During the Edo period of Japanese history, each han (fiefdom) had an assessment of its wealth, and the koku was the unit of measurement.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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漸寒や一万石の城下町
yaya samu ya ichimangoku no jookamachi

light cold in autumn -
this castle town
of ten thousand KOKU

Tr. Gabi Greve

. Takahama Kyoshi 高浜 虚子 .

I do not know where Kyoshi was when he wrote this.
There are quite a few "ichimangoku" in Japan.

For example Yasugi town in Tottori, former Hakuta Cho 伯太町.
鳥取県安来市
Look at some photos of this town:
source : kominkapro.com/bunka


. WKD : yaya samu 漸寒 a bit cold in autumn .
kigo for late autumn



The poem of Kyoshi is a typical example of a
. WKD : honkadori 本歌取り allusion to another poem .


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春日差し小藩なれど城下町
haru hizashi shoohan naredo jookamachi

sunshine in spring -
only a small domain and yet
a castle town


Ichimura Sumiko 市村須美子


- quote
The han (藩, han) or domain is the Japanese historical term for the estate of a warrior after the 12th century or to a daimyo in the Edo period and early Meiji period.
In Japan, a feudal domain was defined in terms of projected annual income. This was different than the feudalism of the West. For example, early Japanologists like Appert and Papinot made a point of highlighting the annual koku yields which were allocated for the Shimazu clan at Satsuma Domain since the 12th century.
In 1690, the richest han was the Kaga Domain with slightly over 1 million koku.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

see also kokudaka above.


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鬼城忌や俳人多き城下町
kijooki ya haijin ooki jookamachi

Kijo Memorial Day -
so many haiku poets
in the castle town


Furukawa Shimozuru 古川芋蔓


. Murakami Kijo 村上鬼城 .
and Takasaki town 高崎.

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夏みかん土塀に溢れ城下町
natsumikan dobei ni afure jookamachi

summer tangerines
overflowing the mud walls
of the castle town


Kitasato Senju 北里千寿

natsumikan are a speciality of the castle town of Hagi 萩, Yamaguchi.




. WKD : natsumikan, natsu mikan 夏蜜柑 summer mikan tangerines .
kigo for all summer


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お七夜の空荒れ通す城下町
o-shichiya no sora are-toosu jookamachi

Kishikawa Soryuushi 岸川素粒子 -

oshichiya, o-shichi ya 御七夜(おしちや) "seven nights"
in memory of Saint Shinran


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樗牛忌の雪が降るなり城下町
kagyuu ki no yuki furu nari jookamachi

Satoo Ryuushoo 佐藤柳湖 Sato Ryusho

. Kooda Rohan, 幸田露伴 Koda Rohan .
He lived in Kagyu-An 蝸牛庵 "snail cottage". - Kagyuuki 蝸牛忌 "Memorial Day for the Snail"


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城下町どこも坂なす星月夜 松本夜詩夫
城下町は夏の雨ふるいちにちお城の山 涓滴不喚洞
城下町小春の小鳥鳴きにけり 吉武月二郎句集
城下町抜け金魚田の広ごれり 瀧川雅子
城下町瓦光りて夏めきぬ 宮口 征子
城下町眼鏡に梅を映す人 川崎展宏
城下町茶房も遺跡花ミモザ 嶋田摩耶子

かはほりや古地図のままの城下町 内田裕夫
すぐ曲り曲る薄暑の城下町 徳澤南風子
よしきりのこだまをりをり城下町 長谷川双魚
マラソンが見ゆ青梅雨の城下町 柴田白葉女
凌霄や家うち暗き城下町 風間和雄
初日浴ぶレールきらきら城下町 豊田晃

早梅や碧虚を生みし城下町 星野 椿 Hoshino Tsubaki
春がすみ城下町が坐つている 中塚銀太
朝顔が駅のシンボル城下町 玉置浩子
水打てば御城下町の匂かな 芥川龍之介

片影に地震の水槽城下町 西本一都
白炎となる八月の城下町 柴田白葉女
竹伐りて里山せまる城下町 鈴木雅子
羽目板を反らす秋日の城下町 鍵和田[ゆう]子
腐れ鮓近江に古き城下町 田中冬二 俳句拾遺
金魚田の水にゆらぎし城下町 野中亮介
門松も根曳きのままに城下町 蓼汀
雪残りつつ水ぬるむ城下町 杞陽
鮎落ちて山迫りくる城下町 岡山か寿子
鰍釣り舟の出て行く城下町 天野 菊枝
鳥雲に水うつくしき城下町 山崎中
鴨食べる聖夜のくらき城下町 岩淵喜代子
source : HAIKUreikuDB


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monzenmachi 門前町 "town in front of the gate"
of a temple or shrine
They were especially prosperous with pilgrims during the Edo period.

- quote
Also pronunced monzenchoo.
A settlement in front of the main gate of a temple (or *torii 鳥居 of a shrine), principally engaged in catering to the needs of pilgrims and visitors. Generally a linear settlement made up of houses, inns, hatago 旅籠, and shops mostly selling food and drink or local products on both sides of the approach road to the temple or shrine. Such settlements may often have derived from a market, ichiba 市場, held before the gates of a major sanctuary in the latter part of the ancient period and the mediaeval period.

As specifically pilgrim-oriented townships, they had begun to emerge by the end of the Kamakura period, but they developed enormously in the Edo period, when peaceful conditions and prosperity, combined with a tolerant attitude towards them on the part of the Tokugawa regime, made pilgrimages increasingly popular.

Examples include the monzenmachi before the gates of Zenkouji 善光寺 Zenko-Ji in Nagano prefecture and Kotohira 琴平, before the shrine of Kompira 金毘羅 in Kagawa prefecture.
The term is sometimes applied more widely to religious settlements in general.
source : JAANUS




With a map of the most famous monzenmachi in Japan
source : kanko/monzen


門前や何万石の遠がすみ
monzen ya nan man goku no toogasumi

this temple town -
how many thousand bushels
of far-away mist?


. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .





暦売る門前町の古本屋
koyomi uru monzenmachi no furu honya

the used bookstore
of the temple town
sells calendars


Tsuchiya Kyooko 土屋孝子 Tsuchiya Kyoko

. WKD : hatsugoyomi 初暦 "first calendar" .
kigo for the New Year

. koyomi uri, koyomi-uri 暦売り vendor of new calendars .

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山積に門前町のアロハシャツ
yamazumi ni monzenmachi no aroha shatsu

piling up
in the temple town -
these aloha shirts


Suzuki Ryooka 鈴木良戈 Suzuki Ryoka



. WKD : aroha shatsu アロハシャツ aloha shirt .
kigo for summer



ひた洗ふ門前町のキムチ甕 文挟夫佐恵
初不動門前町の鰻の香 片山桃弓
解夏の僧門前町を列なせり 坂本静子
雪吊の門前町に赤子抱く 大峯あきら



. mon, kado  門 gate .


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. machi, choo  町 town and village   .


. Japanese Architecture - cultural keywords used in haiku .


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