10/18/2013

kaki, kakine - hedge, fence

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kakine 垣根 hedge, fence
kakoi 囲い, saku さく. hei 塀


The main word is KAKI, read ..GAKI in compound words.


ishigaki 石垣 stone wall, stone fence
ikegaki 生け垣 "living fence", hedge
shooen, shirogaki 城垣 castle "hedge", castle wall

. kamigaki 神垣 fence of a shrine .
"Fence of the Gods"
igaki 斎垣 / tamagaki 玉垣 / mizugaki 瑞垣





- quote
kaki 垣
Also read en; also called kakine 垣根.
A generic term for a fence, garden precinct wall, or partition. Some varieties of bamboo take 竹, Japanese bush clover hagi 萩, brush kanboku 潅木, or azalea tsutsuji 躑躅 are used for hedges *ikegaki 生垣. If the fencing material is cut and dried it is referred to as dead material shinigaki 死垣, and can include such things as embedded bamboo posts hottate-no-take 掘立の竹, posts with bark, or bamboo stake and bamboo reeds takeho 竹穂, as for example at Katsura Rikyuu 桂離宮 in Kyoto, specifically known as katsuragaki 桂垣.
Long fences are known as *oogaki 大垣 and short fences as *sodegaki 袖垣.
Light fences used to divide a garden are called shikirigaki 仕切垣.


ikegaki 生垣
Lit. living fence.

A type of hedge made of trees, bamboo or other living plants planted in a row and trimmed so as to form a fence. Ikegaki (called ikekigaki 生木垣 or living tree fence in Edo period) are different than itagaki 板垣 (board fences), *ishigaki 石垣 (stone fences), *takegaki 竹垣 (bamboo fences) and other types of shinigaki 死垣 (dead fences). When composed of thorn bushes they are called ibaragaki 茨垣, when made of bamboo, sasagaki 笹垣, and when created with several kinds of tree, called *mazegaki 交垣.
A large clipped hedge or ookarikomi 大刈込 may be used to block out unwanted views *dankei 断景. Ikegaki around houses often serve as windbreaks, while their use between different people's land serves as a property marker.
Because of the ancient belief that a god kami 神, resided in evergreen plants himorogi 神籬, ikegaki were often used in shrines and temples to divide space. Evergreens such as Japanese cypress hinoki 桧, Chinese black pine maki 槇 and sakaki 榊 are most frequently employed, although deciduous trees may be used.
For protective hedges, thorn bushes are effective, while the dense leaves of Japanese azaleas, satsuki さつき and tsutsuji 躑躅 make them effective when used to block unwanted views.


sodegaki 袖垣
Lit. sleeve fence.

A narrow fence which may serve to screen off some garden element or may be completely ornamental. Commonly found in tea gardens *roji 露路, sodegaki are attached at right angle to the edge of a building. They are generally about two meters high and a meter across. The fence is named for its proportions which resemble those of a kimono 着物 sleeve.
Varieties of sodegaki include *chasengaki 茶筅垣, *ensouhishi sodegaki 円窓菱袖垣, *teppoogaki 鉄砲垣, *nozokigaki 覗垣 and *yaegaki 八重垣 as well as yoroigaki 鎧垣 (armor-pattern fence), *uguisugaki 鶯垣, to name just a few of the many variations.
Sodegaki are contrasted with functional continuous fences, *oogaki 大垣.
- source : JAANUS


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- - - - - We have some kigo with fences and hedges:

kigo in spring

kaki tsukurou 垣繕う (かきつくろう) repairing the hedge
..... kaki teire 垣手入れ(かきていれ)

yukigaki toku 雪垣解く(ゆきがきとく)
taking down the snow guard hedges


konome gaki 木の芽垣(このめがき)
fence of budding trees



ukogigaki 五加垣(うこぎがき)hedge of aralia trees
the leaves can be picked and prepared for tea


kakidooshi 垣通 Glechoma hederacea subsp. grandis
a creeper plant of the mint family


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kigo in summer

bara no hanagaki 茨の花垣(ばらのはながき)
hedge of wild roses



kakoi bune 囲い船 (かこいぶね) fencing ships


unohana gaki 卯の花垣(うのはながき) hedge of deutzia blossoms


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kigo in autumn

shishigaki 鹿垣 (ししがき) fence against wild boars
and other animals


inagaki 稲垣(いながき)fence to protect the rice plants


mukuge gaki 木槿垣(むくげがき)
fence with the rose of Sharon



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kigo in winter


CLICK for more photos
ishigaki ichigo 石垣苺(いしがきいちご)
strawberries grown on stone walls

They are grown in hot houses, to provide strawberries for the Japanese christmas cake.



kazegaki 風垣(かざがき) wind-protecting hedges
yukigaki 雪垣(ゆきがき)snow-protecting hedge


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topics

beech tree hedge

Robin-run-the-hedge / Galium aparine


. Katsuragaki かつらがき【桂垣】Katsura-Hedge
"takehoogaki" 竹穂垣, hoogaki 穂垣
made from the leaves of living bamboo.


. ukogi うこぎ / 五加木 kind of aralia tree .
The leaves have been used as food in the Yonezawa area since the Edo period, when the daimyo Naoe Kanetsugu 直江 兼続(なおえ かねつぐ 1560 - 1619) made them plant this trees for fences around the homes and have some food in times of need.




nerihei 練り塀 mud and tile wall or fence, topped with tiles
Stone-wall ("NERIHEI"), nerihei-wall, stonel-mud wall/fence

It helps protect the property from fire and is used in small fishing villages, especially in Iwaishima island in Yamaguchi.





紫陽花や練り塀長き国分寺
ajisai ya nerihei nagaki Kokubunji

hydrangeas -
the long stone-mud-wall
of temple Kokubunji


anonymous
source : slownet

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. - Temple fences and walls - 塀   


. . Japanese Haiku with KAKINE hedge . .

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yaraigaki矢来垣, ootsugaki 大津垣 Otsugaki, Lit. Ootsu fence



- quote -
chousengaki 朝鮮垣, and chousen yarai 朝鮮矢来 (chosen yarai, Korean fence).
A type of simple wooden fence. In 1711 a Korean mission traveling from Ootsu 大津 to Edo attracted so much attention that the government ordered people to erect fences along the road on which the Koreans passed. These fences were made with pieces of uncut bamboo tied on intersecting diagonals between two or three cross bars of split bamboo. Often the projecting bamboo at the top is cut to create a sharp edge.
- source : JAANUS -

. Yaraicho 矢来町 - "Palisade quarter" in Edo .


More Types of hedges in Japan
建仁寺垣 / 光悦寺垣・竜安寺垣 / 網代垣 / ななこ垣
四つ目垣・金閣寺垣・鉄砲垣・篠垣・清水垣
御簾垣 . 沼津垣 / 蓑垣・鎧垣 桂垣
竹穂垣・時雨垣・長穂垣・大徳寺垣
茶筅垣・清水鉄砲・萩鉄砲・松明垣
http://homepage3.nifty.com/fuj-takeya/takegaki.htm

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. WKD : Fences and Hedges in Kenya .


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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

- - - - - Matsuo Basho - - - - -

蝶の羽のいくたび越ゆる塀の屋根
choo no ha no ikutabi koyuru hei no yane

butterfly's wings -
how many times do they flit
over the roofed wall?

Tr. Ueda

Written in 1690 元禄3年春. Basho stayed with his disciple from Iga, Saboku 乍木. The wall between the homes of Saboku and his neighbour might have been quite tall.

. - choo, chō 蝶 butterfly - and Basho .
butterfly - kigo for spring



桐の木に鶉鳴くなる塀の内 
. kiri no ki ni uzura naku naru hei no uchi .
quails inside the garden wall


. yoku mireba nazuna hana saku kakine kana .
(New Year) sheperd's purse. looking closely. hedge



. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


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- - - - - Yosa Buson - - - - -

冬鴬むかし王維が垣根哉
. fuyu uguisu mukashi Oi ga kakine kana .
the hedge of the Chinese Oi. - Wang Wei 王維 -(699 - 759)


白梅や誰が昔より垣の外 
. shiraume ya taga mukashi yori kaki no soto .
outside the fence

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妹が垣ね三味線草の花咲ぬ
imo ga kakine shamisengusa nohana sakinu

- quote
In the hedge of his girl's
He sees
Shepherd's purses in bloom.


'Kinshin o motte bijin ni idomu': 琴心挑美人
The prefatory note derives from a historical event in old China. In the Haiku the Poet replaces a 'koto' with a 'samisen'.

Prof. Tsutomu Ogata comments that 'he' may have walked by her house very often, hoping to see her; but probably in vain . Anyway, so much time has passed and shepherds' purses are now blooming in the hedge of her house. Little as they are, they look so fresh and vivid. For so much waste of dear time, the white flowers may give him a new hope and he will surely regain strength and try his best to win her heart.
Mr. Takahashi says that we associate a white little flower with a pretty beloved girl. 'He' in the Haiku is not necessarily the Poet himself. Here is clearly read a man's strong devoted love for the girl in his heart.
- source : Shoji Kumano -

- James Karkoski wrote:

Kinshin chō bijin 琴心挑美人
The mind to challenge a beautiful women with a stringed instrument

The women a hedge,
certainly the shepherd's purse flowers
have come in bloom!


This haiku is difficult to translate because the common name for shepherd's purse in Japanese is 'shamisen grass' which alludes to the three stringed instrument that is still popular in Japan today.
This ties in with the maegaki (forward) Kinshin chō bijin 琴心挑美人
that alludes to an episode in the life of the Chinese poet Sima Xiangru that is recorded 'Shiki' (Records of the Grand Historian), a book that has biographies of famous people during the Han Dynasty in China. Xiangru was introduced to the beautiful daughter of a wealthy family who was recently widowed, and he when played a song on a zither in admiration of her beautiful she fell in love with him and they later eloped against her father's wishes.
The reason why it is called 'shamisen grass' is because the way the way the stems of the flowers shake resembles the sound that a shamisen makes, and traditionally children will break off the flowery part of the plant and placing it in one hand will play shamisen by moving it like a plectrum. Commentators note that is recorded that Buson was remembering a lost love around the time he wrote this haiku.
The opening phrase 'Imo ga kakine' is very vague and I have kept to the literal translation of it, although you could play around with the articles if you want. Commentators tend to read it as meaning that the women is at the hedge, and that is plausible as well depending on how you want to read what verb is being implied here.
I think that the allusion to Xiangru's triumph naturally reads the haiku into being about Buson's childish attempts to win this women's heart.
There is another forward that is also attributed to this haiku that translates as 'First folded pocket paper' which no doubt is about Buson passing love poetry on his love, and, hopefully, he didn't use shepherd's purse as the central image to express his affections for this women.This counts as 18.
- source : James Karkoski facebook -


. shamisengusa 三味線草 "Shamisen plant" - sheperd's purse .
kigo for all spring

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垣越しにものうちかたる接木かな
kakigoshi ni mono uchikataru tsugiki kana
(1770)

over the hedge
they exchange stories
while grafting trees . . .


The cut marker KANA is at the end of line 3.

. WKD : tsugiki, tsugi-ki 接木 (つぎき / 接ぎ木) grafting .
kigo for mid-spring


筍や柑子をゝしむ垣の外
takenoko ya kooji o oshimu kaki no soto
(1775)

these bamboo shoots -
outside the hedge that guards
the sweet tangerines



. WKD : take no ko 筍 bamboo shoots .
kigo for summer

. WKD :
yabukooji 藪柑子 (やぶこうじ) Ardisia japonica .



. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .


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- - - - - Kobayashi Issa - - - - -

笹鳴も手持ぶさたの垣根哉
. sasa naki mo temochi-busata no kakine kana .


来る蝶に鼻を明するかきね哉
kuru choo ni hana o akasuru kakine kana

a fence shows
an amazed butterfly
something very special

Tr. Chris Drake

This spring hokku was written toward the end of the 2nd month (late March or early April) of 1820, when Issa was in and around his hometown. The hokku seems to be about a bamboo (probably lattice) fence or a hedge used as a fence that is being visited by a butterfly (or butterflies) and how the fence wows or "knocks out" the visitor with its unexpected attractions for butterflies. The idiom in the second line is used mainly when a person who is normally in a weak position manages to outperform or beat or grab the attention of someone who is in a stronger position. I take this to mean that Issa is reversing common sense in this hokku and looking at the world from the fence's point of view.

During the winter and early spring the fence wasn't much to look at, and it had no flowers in bloom, but suddenly, at the end of March, the flowers that twine around the bamboo fence posts begin to unfold with attractive flowers and sweet nectar. If it is a hedge, then the hedge has suddenly put out its own flowers. Until now butterflies have been simply flying over the nondescript fence, ignoring it as if it didn't exist, but today a butterfly finally notices the flowers and can't help but stop and drink for a while. No doubt there will be more visitors from now on. Issa may be sharing in the joy he imagines the ignored fence must somehow be feeling at finally being able to impress and attract a beautiful butterfly. The hokku may also be about how humans, like butterflies, tend to overlook plain-looking things until suddenly something happens to stun them into recognition of how important these almost invisible things actually are.

Chris Drake


. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .


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source : fuuknaag.exblog.jp

露葎より城垣の反り上がる
tsuyu muguro yori shirogaki no soriagaru

from dewy weeds
the castle wall curves
and rises

Tr. Gabi Greve

Kashiwabara Min-u 柏原眠雨


花木槿弓師が垣根夕日さす
内藤鳴雪

桃折れば牛の面出す垣根かな
梅本塵山

洪水名残り照らす垣根の螢かな
金尾梅の門


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. WKD : Fences and Hedges in Kenya .


. Japanese Architecture - cultural keywords used in haiku .


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1 comment:

Gabi Greve said...

tsuijibei 築地塀 Tsuiji wall
https://haikutopics.blogspot.jp/2006/05/berlin-wall.html
.