1/08/2014

senryu Yoshiwara

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. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu in Edo - Introduction .
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Yoshiwara 葦原 / 吉原 pleasure quarters in Edo - senryuu 川柳 collection
Senzoku 4-chome in Taito-ku

Yoshiwara 葦原 "reed plains" named after the first location in Edo near Nihonbashi. When it was moved North of Asakusa, it was re-named (or rather written with a different character, 吉原, "pleasure plains".

They were build similar to the first pleasure quarters in Kyoto, built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi,
to show that PEACE was to be the new rule of the land.
Therefore the Tatami rooms in Yoshiwara used the measures of Kyoto tatami straw floor mats (Kyōma (京間 Kyoma).
Kyoma measure 0.91 m by 1.82 m - thickness, 5.5 cm
Edoma measure 0.88 m by 1.76 m - thickness 6.0 cm




Since the quarters were most possibly constructed with the possible purpose as a fortress toward the North, the access is only via a narrow zig-zag road.
The original area of ponds and marshland was drained to create space for the pleasure quarter. Streets were laid out in a grid pattern and the area surrounded by walls and a moat, to stop unhappy women from escaping.

Other cheap pleasure quarters were in the postal stations along the roads leading out of Edo.
. Okabasho 岡場所 "Place on a Hill" .
Here the meshimori onna 飯盛女 "rice-serving ladies" were on duty.
yotaka 夜鷹 "nighthawks (night hawks)"
yuujo 遊女 "woman to play with", cheap prostitutes  


. fuuzoku, fûzoku 風俗 Fuzoku, entertainment and sex business .
funamanjuu 船饅頭 "sweet buns on a boat"

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Yoshiwara (吉原) was a famous yūkaku (遊廓、遊郭, pleasure district, red-light district) in Edo, present-day Tōkyō, Japan.
In the early 17th century,
there was widespread male and female prostitution throughout the cities of Kyoto, Edo, and Osaka.
A leading motive
for the establishment of these districts was the Tokugawa shogunate attempt to prevent the nouveau riche chōnin (townsmen) from engaging in political intrigue.

The Yoshiwara was created in the city of Edo, near what is today known as Nihonbashi, near the start of the busy Tōkaidō that leads to western Kyoto in western Japan. In 1656, due to the need for space as the city grew, the government decided to relocate Yoshiwara and plans were made to move the district to its present location north of Asakusa on the outskirts of the city.

People involved in mizu shōbai (水商売) ("the water trade") would include hōkan (comedians), kabuki (popular theatre of the time), dancers, dandies, rakes, tea-shop girls, Kanō (painters of the official school of painting), courtesans who resided in seirō (green houses) and geisha in their okiya houses.

By 1900, there were about 9,000 prostitutes in Yoshiwara.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !



viewing cherry blossoms in Yoshiwara 花見

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. Oiran 花魁 Great Courtesans and Daruma san .


. amigasa chaya 編笠茶屋 renting a large braided straw hat .
to hide the face for a Yoshiwara pleasure quarter visit.

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TOKUGAWA JAPAN - Ukiyo: The Pleasure Quarters

Robert Oxnam :: With the rise of a merchant class came the expansion of entertainment districts. These pleasure quarters were called ukiyo, the floating world. The floating world also provided a whole new source of subject matter for popular culture and art. Fresh trends in drama, literature, and poetry thrived on the economic and social changes of the time.

Donald Keene :: The pleasure quarters included houses of prostitution, restaurants, theaters, and many other places where people would go. When people were in there, men who went there and went inside there, they forfeited all their particular privileges. An aristocrat or a samurai going in there had no more privileges than a baker or a shoemaker or whatever he happened to be.

The only thing that counted in this world was money. If you had enough money to pay for the pleasures, you would be the person who could enjoy them. And the women — the courtesans, prostitutes, and so on of this quarter — were known by names, Genji names, names taken from the Tale of Genji. So that a merchant could have the illusion that he was spending the evening with a woman who was described in the Tale of Genji.

These women were the subjects of the ukiyo-e, the paintings of the floating world, the pictures of the floating world. These pictures begin as almost advertisements for these women. This is the kind of beautiful woman who lives in this place.

The word "ukiyo" itself in the medieval period had meant the "sad world." That is the world of our existence, this sad world which we should be glad to leave for another world, a permanent world, a world where there is no more of the hardship that we experience in this world. But, by a pun, the same sounds, "ukiyo," were used to mean "floating world." And what "floating world" meant was a world which is full of change and desirable change, and change that's fun. An insistence on now, something that's going on right now, as opposed to the past.

The Japanese traditionally looked back to the past, a golden age when people were wiser than they are now. They lived more graciously than they do now. But in this period the emphasis was on now. Being up to date, knowing what the latest fashions were; knowing the newest slang; going to the theater and hearing about what was most exciting. That was the floating world.

Perhaps the most vivid representation of this spirit is in the paintings of waves. Waves rise, they have crests, they sparkle, they disappear, but another wave appears. It isn't the end of everything once a wave has disappeared.

And so, people of this time were proud of being up to date, which was a rather unusual attitude for the Japanese. They also enjoyed going to the theater and seeing people like themselves. Not only the heros of the past, or people who appeared in the Tale of Genji, but their neighbors, people they knew about. Scandal sheets were circulated, people would sell these broad sheets, and people would know about who killed whom, or what couple committed love suicide together. Any of these activities would be quickly reported. People would buy them and then some dramatist was as likely as not to make a play about it.

Robert Oxnam :: Plays, novels, and poetry all came to reflect the tastes of this urban population. Novels were written to describe the life of the common man. In poetry, the haiku form became extremely popular, as it remains to the present day. Theater became the rage — both Kabuki with live actors and Bunraku with puppets. And famous playwrights wrote for both forms.

- Look at the video here :
- source : afe.easia.columbia.edu/at/tokugawa -

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川柳江戸吉原図絵 - by 花咲一男

Illustrated Senryu from Yoshiwara

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At the old entrance gate to the Yoshiwara quarters 吉原大門 was a weeping willow tree, where visitors stopped after a visit and sighed.



mikaeri yanagi 見返り柳 the willow of looking back


source : collection.imamuseum.org
Tamagiku of the Nakamanjiya, Inaki Shinnojō, and
Nakamanjiya Yahei (looking through window)

Utagawa Kunisada 歌川国貞 (1786-1864)

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- - - customers, who visited a red-light district, used to stop around it and look back at the district with reluctance on their way home.
Around the Ichiyo Memorial Hall, there are shrines, temples and a lot that was once Shin-yoshiwara, which are settings of "Take-kurabe".
"Model of Tamagiku Toro"
(created by Hiroshi Miura, right) -- 玉菊灯篭 "Tamagiku Toro" was an event in Nakano-machi, which comforted the spirit of "Tamagiku," a courtesan at a bordello "Nakamanji-ya" in Shinyoshiwara Sumi-cho. Teahouses on both sides of the street placed this lantern in front of their houses. Tamagiku is said to have had both wit and beauty, and have been good at tea ceremony, flower arrangement, popular linked verse and koto music.
She died at the age of 25 in 1726.
- Yoshiwara Shrine 吉原神社
- source : taito-culture.jp/culture/ichiyou


万字屋玉菊 Nakamanji-Ya Tamagiku
Utagawa Kunisada 歌川国貞


見返れば意見か柳顔をうち
mikaereba iken ka yanagi kao o uchi


きぬぎぬのうしろ髪ひく柳かな
kinuginu no ushirogami hiku yanagi kana

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闇の夜は吉原ばかり月夜かな   - 其角 Kikaku

吉原のうしろ見よとやちる木の葉
吉原をゆらゆら油扇かな
目の毒としらぬうちこそ桜哉
吉原も末枯時の明りかな
霜がれや新吉原も小藪並
かすむ夜やうらから見ても吉原ぞ
三弦(さみせん)で雪を降らする二階哉
乙鳥(つばくら)やぺちやくちやしやべるもん日哉
陽炎や新吉原の昼の体
時鳥待まうけてや屋根の桶
- source : members.jcom.home.ne.jp/michiko328


- reference : tamagiku nakamanjiya -

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吉原へ男の知恵を捨てに行き 
Yoshiwara e otoko no chie o sute ni yuki

to Yoshiwara
men go to leave their better judgement
behind  


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男一度は伊勢と吉原
otoko ichido wa ise to yoshiwara

a real man
must visit Ise once
and Yoshiwara




. Ise Jingu 伊勢神宮 Great Shrine at Ise .


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Light Verse from the Floating World
Makoto Ueda - keyword Yoshiwara
- - books.google.co.jp - -

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Minako: Last Geisha of the Yoshiwara



Brief presentations on geisha and Edo culture by director Makoto Yasuhara and Edo specialist Kenji Watanabe, followed by a screening of Minako.
Director Makoto Yasuhara spent six years getting to know and document the life of a practicing geisha of the Yoshiwara district of Tokyo. Until Minako’s death in 2010 at age 90, she was the last living geisha (literally “a practitioner of the arts”) of the Yoshiwara, the only licensed area for prostitution in the old city of Edo (present Tokyo). Yoshiwara was once occupied by courtesans and those versed in traditional arts. Following World War II, the district was officially closed, but the cultural traditions lived on through the work of geisha like Minako.
- source : The Department of Asian Studies Vancouver Campus -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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kayougami 通う神

須佐高浜村出身の松本清十郎は江戸の吉原で揚屋尾張屋を営んでいた。彼は内庭に吉原の遊客が障りのないようにと通い神(道祖神)を祀り、吉原中の信仰を集めた。後に江戸京橋銀座の保根屋吉佐エ門が、日枝神社の山王祭りでなじみになった遊女らを呼び派手に振る舞って世間の問題になり投獄された。彼は投獄前から刃物を振り回したり檻から出てきても多くの買い物をしたり妾を次々かえたりと奇行が目立っていた。これは吉佐エ門が吉原の清十郎方へ通う神を勧請した祟りではないかといわれる。

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sokaku 其角,雨乞の句 Haiku master

俳諧師である其角と長游の二人が、紀伊国屋文左衛門に誘われて吉原に向かう途上、小梅村のあたりで人々が雨乞いをしていた。そこで文左衛門が雨乞いの和歌があるように、俳諧で雨乞いができるかと其角にいう。そこで其角は降らざれば身を川に沈めようとの覚悟で詠んだところ見事雨が降ったという。命捨てるほどの誠があればこそ、天地を動かし鬼神を感じせしめるのだと語った。

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Yakushi san 薬師さん Yakushi Nyorai

徳川家康が大平の薬師様に参って目が治った。もっと人里に祀ろうとしたが、吉原まで来たら動かなくなった。薬師様は大平が見えない所に行きたくなかった。

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yuurei 幽霊

天明の頃、三縁山に霊瞬という僧がいた。彼は吉原へ誘われ、琴柱という遊女と出会い、相思相愛となる。あるとき、酔った霊瞬は琴柱に身の上を語り、金があれば友のように出世もできるのにとつぶやく。そこで琴柱は金を与え、二度と吉原に来ぬよう諭し、僧の守りとなると述べ、後日自殺した。霊瞬は悲しんで日々彼女の回向を行った。その後は、遊郭に行くと琴柱の幽霊が現れて諫める。そこで霊瞬は一念発起して修行し、大僧正となった。

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Shizuoka 静岡県 吉原村 Yoshiwara village

dokuryuu 毒龍

牲渕に住む毒竜が少女を害していた。得寿寺の芝源和尚がこれを教化し、毒竜は女となって和尚のもとに来て、鱗を残して去った。毒竜は人を害する代わりに毎年祀ってくれるように頼み、それで6月28日に供養を営むようになった。

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鶏頭豆,弘法大師 Keitomame and Kobo Daishi

この地に鶏頭豆という1本の茎に実を2合つける豆がある。昔、豆と鶏頭を蒔く老夫婦がいた。ある時、老夫が鶏頭の種だけを蒔いてしまった。老婆が罵ると、ある法師が、鶏頭を豆に変えた。それが鶏頭豆の由来である。その法師は弘法大師だった。

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- source : nichibun yokai database -

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. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


. Japanese Architecture - cultural keywords used in haiku .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .



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