7/08/2014

isha doctor

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isha 医者, ishi 医師 doctors in Edo


source : www.gakken.co.jp
江戸時代の医者 Doctors in Edo

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- How to wrap powder medicine in Edo
A small square sheet of paper was usually folded into a triangle.

. - igaku 医学 Medicine in Edo - .
- Introduction -

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. Chinese Medicine 漢方 Kanpo, Kampo .
medicine from China, kanpoo, kanpooyaku 漢方薬
- - - biwayootoo 枇杷葉湯 (びわようとう) biwa yootoo, biwa yoto
drink from dried loquat leaves


. kusuribukuro  薬袋 Chinese medicine in bags .
Toyama no kusuri-uri 富山の薬売り Medicine sellers from Toyama



Many young doctors went to Nagasaki to study
. rangaku 蘭學 / 蘭学 Dutch learning .
science from oranda オランダ / 阿蘭陀 Holland


. yashi 薬師 vendor of medicine by the roadside .
koogushi, yashi 香具師 performer, yashi 野師、野士、弥四、矢師
tsuji isha 辻医者 doctor by the roadside


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- all kinds of doctors -
ban ishi 番医師 doctor for each Han
chootei i 朝廷医 doctor for the Imperial Court
isha 医者 / ishi 医師 doctor

kan i 官医 doctor for government officials, for the Shogun and his entourage
He was allowed to come to the Kikyo hall 桔梗の間 in Edo castle to attend to his duties.

machi ishi, machi-ishi 町医師 doctor of the town
doctor for the townspeople
oku ishi 奥医師 doctor for the harem (Oku) of the Shogun in Edo castle
te ishi, te isha 手医師 / 手医者
yabu isha, yabuisha  藪医者 quack doctor


under construction
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gosei-ha 後世派 School of Later Developments in Medicine
die "Schule des späteren Zeitalters"

kohooha, kohooha 古方派 Koho-Ha, School of Classical Formulas


Manase Doosan Imaooji 曲直瀬 道三 Manase Dōsan, Manase Dosan
(1507 - 1594)
His honorable name was Suichiku-In 翠竹院 "Green Bamboo Hall" „Grünbambus Halle“



japanischer Arzt, der im Zeitalter der streitenden Reiche (戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) auf die Entwicklung der Medizin in Japan einen entscheidenden Einfluss ausübte und neben Nagata Tokuhon und Tashiro Sanki zu den „Drei verehrungswürdigen Ärzten“ (三聖, sansei) im Umbruch zur Frühmoderne zählt. Auf ihn geht die „Schulrichtung des späteren Zeitalters“ (後世派, Gosei-ha auch 後世方派, Goseihō-ha) zurück.

Kaiteki-In 啓迪院 "Aufklärungsakademie"
„Abendgespräche im Schnee-Feldlager“ (雲陣夜話, Setsujin yawa)
„Keiteki-Sammlung“ (啓迪集, Keiteki-shū)

© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

His nephew was Manase Gensaku 曲直瀬玄朔 (1549-1632)

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Nagata Tokuhon 永田徳本 Kai Tokuhon Nagata (1513 - 1630)
Kai no Tokuhon 甲斐の徳本. トクホン
juurokumon sensei 十六文先生 "doctor healing for 16 mon only"



ein japanischer Arzt, der im Zeitalter der streitenden Reiche (Sengoku-jidai) auf die Entwicklung der Medizin in Japan einen nachhaltigen Einfluss ausübte.

Atempraktiken (神仙吐納, Shinsen tonō)

Der Überlieferung zufolge zog Nagata Tokuhon mit einer Kuh durchs Land, um deren Hals Beutel mit diversen Arzneimitteln baumelten, die er zu einem äußerst niedrigen Einheitspreis abgab. Das galt auch für den Shōgun Hidetada. Arme wurden kostenlos behandelt.

Unter seinen Schriften fanden die „Neunzehn Rezepte des ehrwürdigen Tokuhon“ (徳本翁十九方, Tokuhon-ō jūkyū hō) eine große Verbreitung.
Im „Diskurs über die Medizin“ (医之弁, I-no-ben, 1585) zeigte er den zeitgenössischen Ärzten, dass das chinesische Werk Shānghán lùn („Abhandlung über die Kälte-Krankheiten“) mit seiner Krankheitslehre und den ebenso brauchbaren Therapieverfahren eine bedenkenswerte Alternative zu Manase Dōsans Lehren bot.
Dieser Ansatz wurde in der „Alten Schule“ (ko-ihō-ha, 古医方派) der Edo-Zeit aufgegriffen und weiter entwickelt.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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Tashiro Sanki 田代三喜 (1465 - 1544)

in Tashiro, Provinz Musashi (heute Koike, Ogose, Iruma-gun, Präfektur Saitama) - ) war ein japanischer Arzt, der im Zeitalter der streitenden Reiche (Sengoku-jidai) der Medizin in Japan einen starken und nachhaltigen Impuls gab und neben Manase Dōsan und Nagata Tokuhon zu den „Drei verehrungswürdigen Ärzten“ (三聖, sansei) im Umbruch zur Frühmoderne zählt.
Sanki Kaiō isho (三帰廻翁医書)
Sanki jikishi-hen (三喜直指篇)
Wakyoku-shū (和極集)
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校, Ashikaga Gakkō for Chinese medicine

Depending on two Chinese doctors
Li Gao (李杲, alias Li Dongyuan (李東垣), 1180–1251)
Zhū Dānxi (朱丹溪, 1281–1358).

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Gekkō Dōjin, Gekkoo Doojin 月湖道人 Geko Dojin


. Itoo Genboku 伊藤玄朴 Ito Genboku (1801 – 1871) .


Rosner, Erhard Rosner: Medizingeschichte Japans.



. Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (1796 – 1866) .

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- quote
The Edo period saw a major advancement in Kampo, with the splitting of the two major styles of this therapeutic technique, each with different operating philosophies. The two schools were the Goseiha School (School of Later Developments in Medicine) and the Kohoha (School of Classical Formulas).

The Goseiha School was founded by Dosan Manase, who lived from 1507 to 1594. He was a student of Sanki Tashiro (1465-1537) and stayed in China for twelve years, spending his time there studying the medical systems used in the Jin (1115-1234 A.D.) and Yuan (1279-1368 A.D.) dynasties. There Manase found that the basis for Jin Yuan medicine was the dichotomy of the yin and the yang, as well as the ‘five elements’ theories, which compared the human body to a small universe. Manase wrote many textbooks such as Keitekishu. He also established a medical school, Keitekiin and trained several hundred physicians. Manase’s most significant contribution to Japanese medicine is also his most subtle; his ideas of simplicity and practicality, imparted through his lectures and his writing in Keitekishu, came to serve as a thematic foundation of the development of Kampo.

As the Jin Yuan style of medicine became to see wide practice in Japan, a small group of physicians began to criticize it. They claimed that it was ideology based only on speculative theory and they advocated a return to the classical concepts of Chinese medicine. They particularly advocated returning to the concepts and the teachings of the Shang Han Lun, translated as the ‘Treatise on Cold Damage’ and Jinkui Yaolue (Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer). These texts were written over a thousand years earlier, and were hallmarks of the Kan period (Han Dynasty, 202 BC –220 A.D.). It is because these scholars sought a return to Kan medicine that they were, this group of physicians were referred to as Kohoha, or ‘followers of the classic method.’
The Kohoha School was proposed by Geni Nagoya, who lived from 1628 to 1696, then advocated by other proponents such as Konzan Goto (1659-1733), Toyou Yamawaki (1705-1762), and Todo Yoshimasu (1702-1773).

Todo Yoshimasu is considered to be one of the most influential figures in the history of Kampo medicine. Known for his positivistic Kampo approach, Yoshimasu was known as willing to accept and use any technique so long as it proved clinically effective, regardless of the surrounding theories or its particular philosophical background.
Although Yoshimasu made some controversial claims and often performed controversial treatments, he is most credited for his work in developing Kampo abdominal diagnosis. His abdominal diagnostic theories and practices not only became one of the most integral parts of today’s Kampo, but they are also commonly credited with differentiating Kampo from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Although various abdominal diagnoses were originally described in Chinese medical classics such as Shang Han Lun (‘Treatise on Cold Damage’) and Nan Jing (‘Canon of Eighty-One Difficult Issues’), this specific method had long been abandoned in China.

During the later part of the Edo period, many Kampo practitioners integrated the two teachings, utilizing the strengths of both the Goseiha and Kohoha schools. They are known as disciples of the Sechu-ha, or ‘eclectic’ school of Japanese medicine.
- source : www.kampo.ca/history


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Hanaoka Seishū 華岡青洲
(October 23, 1760 – November 21, 1835)

Hanaoka Seishu was a Japanese surgeon of the Edo period with a knowledge of Chinese herbal medicine, as well as Western surgical techniques he had learned through Rangaku (literally "Dutch learning", and by extension "Western learning").
Hanaoka is said to have been the first to perform surgery using general anesthesia.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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. Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内 .
(1728 - 1780) - A well-known doctor, inventor and scientist :
"the spirit of Tokugawa genius"

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Sugita Genpaku 杉田玄白 (1733 - 1817)
rangaku doctor

a Japanese scholar known for his translation of Kaitai Shinsho 解体新書 (New Book of Anatomy).



Besides Kaitai Shinsho, he also authored Rangaku Kotohajime 蘭学事始 (Beginning of Dutch Studies).

Sugita assembled a team of Japanese translators and doctors to translate a Dutch book of anatomy: Kulmus' "Ontleedkundige Tafelen". He did so because he found out, after observing the dissection of a human corpse, that the western drawings of human organs were much more accurate than the ones in his Chinese handbooks. They tried to make a Japanese translation. At a rate of one page a week/month, the work was published in 1774.
As an example of how difficult this work was, the collaborators had to study and discuss for several days before they realised that "neus" (nose) in Dutch, being a bulb on the front, meant hana (鼻) in Japanese.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Genpaku was born in Edo,
. Yaraichoo  矢来町 Yarai-Cho "Palisade quarter" .

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. Takano Chooei, Takano Chōei 高野長英 Takano Choei . - (1804 - 1850)
He lived in hiding in the Hyakuninchoo 百人町 Hyakunincho district.

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- - datai 堕胎 abortion - - ryuuzan 流産 miscarriage - - - -

chuujooryuu joisha, jo-isha 中条流女医者 doctors specializing in abortion "of the Churyu lineage"

joisha 女医者 here refers to male doctors attending to female patients.

chuujoo, nakajoo, 中条 - Nakajo is the popular pronounciation of Osaka.

chuujooryuu 中条流 chujoryu, medicine to induce abortion
Often disguised as menstruation treatment.

Chuuryuu Tatewaki 中条帯刀 Churyu Tatewaki
was a doctor attending to Toyotomi Hideyoshi 豊臣秀吉 (1536 - 1598). He also helped the womenfolk of the court with their problems. His famous book is called 中条流金創.

One popular medicine to induce abortion was Chuujoo maru 中条丸 Chujomaru , which contained quicksilver and rice powder. There are even some senryu about this:

罪なこと仲条蔵をまた一つ
女医者とんだ所へ叱加減


The concubines of the Shogun (O-Tsubone お局) in Edo castle were not allowed to "play with men", but they did anyway and had to use abortion . . .

院殿もてんねき見える女医者
お局の名に近い子おろし
お局の女医者とはすまぬこと



Many doctors lived at a moat named after the mortar to prepare medicine, called Yagenbori 薬研堀 in Edo.


Some of their homes had various exits for the patient to come and go unnoticed.

おろすこともっとも至極薬研堀
orosu koto mottomo shigoku Yagenbori

abortion
is most extremely done
at Yagenbori moat




pun with orosu - making to powder (orosu) in a mortar for medicine (yagen 薬研)
and orosu - the common word for aborting a child (子を下ろす)

The bakufu Shogunate had banned abortion in 1842, but it was still practiced in other parts of Japan. Only in 1869 was abortion forbidden by law in all of Japan.
Punishment was usually only given if the pregnant woman died during the process.


薬研堀とは現在の東京都中央区東日本橋 - Yagenbori
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


- quote
A Short History of Reproductive Medical Problems in Japan
. . . . . In pre-modern Japan, the Tokugawa Shogunate Government took a policy of isolation from Euro-American countries, except the Netherlands, for more than 200 years up to 1858.
In this pre-modern period of the Tokugawa Shogunate, although the birth-rate in Japan was high, in other words probably more than 35 per 1,000 population, Japan's population stayed at a fairly constant 31-32 million people. This stabilization was a result of a variety of socioeconomic reasons, including frequent famines, natural disasters such as great earthquakes, and recurrent epidemics of acute infectious diseases such as smallpox, typhoid, dysentery, and measles. Besides these reasons, it is widely speculated that induced abortion and the practice of infanticide were quite common especially among poor peasants.
- source : www.eubios.info / Shinryo N. Shinagawa


- quote
Silences and Censures: - Abortion, History, and Buddhism in Japan
William LaFLeur
. . . Edo-period ema in a Chichibu temple that depicts a woman who turns into a demon by smothering a child.
- source : nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp - PDF


Those who killed newborn babies saw themselves as responsible parents to their chosen children.
. Mabiki まびき 間引き infanticide  .
and the kokeshi こけし of Japan

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. nakoodo isha 仲人医者 doctors as matchmakers for marriage .
keian 慶庵 / 桂庵 Keian matchmaker


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- medicine peddlers and vendors 

. akagaeru uri 赤蛙売り selling red frogs (medicine for children) .
- akahikigan 赤蛙丸 "red frog medicine".
. biwa yootoo uri 枇杷葉湯売り selling biwa leaves as medicine .
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. joozai uri 定斎売り selling Josai medicine .
. . . kusuri-uri 薬売り all kinds of medicine vendors
. . . Medicine sellers from Toyama 富山の薬売り


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- Reference -

世事見聞録 - Lust, Commerce, and Corruption:
An Account of What I Have Seen and Heard, by an Edo Samurai

- Beginning with warriors and farmers, he moves on to temple and shrine clergy, doctors, the guild of the blind, townspeople, rice agents, prostitutes, brothel keepers, actors, outcasts and more, outlining the position of each group within the larger society.
. Buyo Inshi 武陽隠士 .


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. Yakushi Nyorai, the Buddha of Medicine 薬師如来 .
The Buddha of Healing
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- - - To join me on facebook, click the image !

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. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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2 comments:

Gabi Greve said...

Curious depictions of syphilis, measles, gonorrhea & other diseases from 19th-century Japan

The University of California at San Francisco has an incredible collection of 400 health-themed woodblock prints from 19th-century Japan. The collection includes advertisements for medicines and treatments, illustrated guidelines for the treatment and prevention of various contagious diseases (first and foremost measles but also syphilis and gonorrhea), and visual guides to the human body from the late Edo and early Meiji periods.


http://dangerousminds.net/comments/curious_depictions_of_syphilis_measles_gonorrhea_other_diseases_from_19th-c
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Gabi Greve said...


Sugiyama Waichi 杉山和一 / 杉山検校 Sugiyama Kengyo (1614–1694)

was a Japanese acupuncturist, widely regarded as the "Father of Japanese Acupuncture".
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- Temple 平塚山 Hiratsukazan 安楽院 Anraku-In 城官寺 Jokan-Jii
The doctor 山川城官貞久 Yamakawa Jokan Shokyu (1596 - 1615 ), who attended to Shogun 将軍家光 Tokugawa Iemitsu, came to Hiratsuka Jinja to pray for the healing of his patient. His grave is in the compound and his name Jokan is the temple name.
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In the compound are also graves of other Shogunal doctors of the 多紀桂山一族 Taki Keizan family.
The father of Keizan, 藍渓 Taki Kankei, served as Shogunal doctor from 1772 to 1781 and also held the title 法印 Hoin of a high Buddhist priest. He produced a lot of medicine and tried to educate more doctors. Keizan followed in the footsteps of his father. He received the title of 医官 Ikan (now maybe Health Minister) and also Hoin. But for some reason this title was lost around 1812. In his later years he wrote books about medicine.
His son, 多紀元堅 Taki Kengen (1795 - 1857) also became official Ikan and treated all people, regardless of their social status, from the High to the poor lowly. He even distributed money to the very poor.
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https://gokurakuparadies.blogspot.jp/2017/03/gofunai-temples-46-and-47.html
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