10/12/2014

Aesthetics bigaku

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Japanese Aesthetics エスセティクス - Nihon no bigaku 日本の美学

The most common terms for aesthetics and design will be introduced here.


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. basara ばさら / 婆娑羅 / バサラ flamboyant elegance .


. fuuryuu 風流 elegant, tasteful refined .
fuuga, fūga 風雅 fuga, elegance, sincerity
fuukyoo, fûkyô 風狂 fukyo, poetic eccentricity
fuugetsu, fūgetsu 風月 fugetsu, to enjoy the beauty of nature, lit, "wind and moon"


. iki いき / イキ / 粋 / 意気 the CHIC of Edo .


karei 華麗 gorgeous, magnificent elegance


kazari 飾り ornamentation, decoration


. koogei, kôgei 工藝 / 工芸 Kogei, industrial art .

. Mingei 民芸 Beauty of Folk Art and Craft .   


. miyabi 雅 / みやび court elegance .


. mono no aware ものの哀れ the pity / pathos of things .


. shibui 渋い / shibusa 渋さ subdued elegance .


. Storytelling in Japanese Art .


. yuugen 幽玄 yugen. deep, mysterious elegance .
and the Noh theater 能楽


. wabi and sabi 侘び 寂び .
wabi ... simple and quiet, austere refinement
sabi ... elegant simplicity, patina, rusty


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Japanese Aesthetics
First published Mon Dec 12, 2005;
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Although the Japanese have been producing great art and writing about it for many centuries, the philosophical discipline in Japan corresponding to Western “aesthetics” did not get underway until the nineteenth century. A good way to survey the broader field is to examine the most important aesthetic ideas that have arisen in the course of the tradition, all of them before aesthetics was formally established as a discipline: namely, mono no aware (the pathos of things), wabi (subdued, austere beauty), sabi (rustic patina), yūgen (mysterious profundity), iki (refined style), and kire (cutting).

1. Introduction
2. Mono no aware: the Pathos of Things
3. Wabi: Subdued, Austere Beauty
4. Sabi: Rustic Patina
5. Yūgen: Mysterious Grace
6. Iki: Refined Style
7. Kire: Cutting
8. Ozu Yasujirō: Cinematic Cuts
Bibliography / Academic Tools / Other Internet Resources / Related Entries
- source : plato.stanford.edu

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Nihon no Bigaku 日本の美学 - monthly magazine


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- quote
Japanese Aesthetics, Wabi-Sabi, and the Tea Ceremony
Aesthetics (snip)
...
Japanese Aesthetics
To understand the art and aesthetics of Japan, it is necessary to investigate a Japanese world view, ideas about the nature of art, and influences brought about through contact with other cultures. The aesthetics of Japan developed in a unique fashion, partly because of its geographic location, a string of islands about 100 miles from Korea and 500 miles from China. Its isolation by the sea helped protect Japan from foreign invasion and allowed its rulers to control contact with other nations.

During long periods of self-imposed isolation, art forms and aesthetic ideas developed which were specifically Japanese. Over the centuries, when interactions with foreign cultures occurred, they influenced the traditional arts and aesthetics of Japan. For the purposes of this discussion, the focus will be on what remained essentially Japanese.

Traditional Japanese art and aesthetics we are most affected by the Chinese and by Buddhism, but influences from the West are also evident. For example, the Japanese made no distinction between fine arts and crafts prior to the introduction of such ideas by Europeans in the 1870s. The Japanese word that best approximates the meaning of "art" is katachi.
Katachi translates to mean "form and design," implying that art is synonymous with living, functional purpos e, and spiritual simplicity.

The primary aesthetic concept at the heart of traditional Japanese culture is the value of harmony in all things. The Japanese world view is nature-based and concerned with the beauty of studied simplicity and harmony with nature. These ideas are still expressed in every aspect of daily life, despite the many changes brought about by the westernization of Japanese culture. This Japanese aesthetic of the beauty of simplicity and harmony is called wabi-sabi.
- source : ntieva.unt.edu

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. Tea Ceremony Aesthetics .
Datsuzoku (脱俗) Freedom from habit or formula.
Fukinsei (不均整) Asymmetry or irregularity.
Kanso (簡素) Simplicity or elimination of clutter.
Seijaku (静寂)Tranquility.
Shibui/Shibumi (渋味) Beautiful by being understated,
Shizen (自然) Naturalness.
Yugen (幽玄) Profundity or suggestion rather than revelation.


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- - - - - Japanese aesthetics - wikipedia - - - - -
1 Shinto-Buddhism
2 Wabi-sabi
3 Miyabi
4 Shibui
5 Iki
6 Jo-ha-kyū
7 Yūgen
8 Geidō
9 Ensō
- - -Fukinsei: asymmetry, irregularity; Kanso: simplicity; Koko: basic, weathered; Shizen: without pretense, natural; Yugen: subtly profound grace, not obvious; Datsuzoku: unbounded by convention, free; Seijaku: tranquility.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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The one thing we can always count on in Japanese design is that aesthetics are important not only in the design industry, but also in the lifestyle of the citizens. From the culinary arts, to religion, to fashion, the visual aspect of life is an important part of Japanese culture. How a food is presented is just as important as how it tastes, if not more. It is then important to note how much aesthetics are important in the automotive industry of Japan.

Leon, an automotive design student at RMIT in Melbourne, Australia, has broken down the basic principles of Japanese aesthetics, and how they can help us better understand and work to Japanese design.
- source : vehicle4change.wordpress.com


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Kenya Hara On Japanese Aesthetics
by Oliver Reichenstein, 2009

What makes Japanese design so special? Basically, it’s a matter of simplicity; a particular notion of simplicity, different from what simplicity means in the West. So are things in general better designed in Japan? Well, actually, it’s not that simple…

The New York Times asked us to put them in touch with Kenya Hara, creative director of MUJI and professor at the Musashino Art University. The NYT wanted to know whether everything in Japan was designed as well as the famous bento boxes. Mr Hara gave an answer worth reading and contemplating. The text in the New York Times was shortened down to fit their format. We are proud to be able to provide the full text in English and in Japanese.

Why does it seem like Japan is more attuned to the appreciation of beauty? Do the Japanese value the aesthetic component and experience more than other places? Are things in general better designed in Japan?
When coming back to Tokyo from abroad, my first impression usually is: what a dull airport! And yet it’s clean, neat and the floors deeply polished. To the Japanese eye, there’s a particular sense of beauty in the work of the cleaning staff. It’s in the craftman’s spirit — “shokunin kishitsu” — which applies to all Japanese professionals, be they street construction workers, electricians or cooks.

A Japanese cleaning team finds satisfaction in diligently doing its job. The better they do it the more satisfaction they get out of it.

The craftman’s spirit, I think, imbues people with a sense of beauty, as in elaboration, delicacy, care, simplicity (words I often use). Obviously, this also applies to bento-making and the pride people take in making them as beautiful as they can.

There is a similar craftman’s spirit (“shokunin kishitsu” or “shokunin katagi“) in Europe. Yet in Europe I can see it coming alive only from a certain level of sophistication. In Japan, even ordinary jobs such as cleaning and cooking are filled with this craftman’s spirit. It is is common sense in Japan.

While Japanese are known for their particular aesthetic sense, I would say we also have an incapacity to see ugliness. How come?

We usually focus fully on what’s right in front of our eyes. We tend to ignore the horrible, especially if it is not an integral part of our personal perspective. We ignore that our cities are a chaotic mess, filled with ugly architecture and nasty signage. And so you have the situation where a Japanese worker will open a beautiful bento box in a stale conference room or on a horrendous, crowded sidewalk.

Are things in general better designed in Japan?
A central aesthetic principle in Japan is simplicity, but it is different from simplicity in the West. Let me explain the difference by comparing cooking knives. For example, the knives made by the German company Henckel are well crafted and easy to use because they are highly ergonomic. The thumb automatically finds its place when you grab the knife.

HENCKEL knife, photo by Kenya Hara
Japanese cooks who have special skills prefer knives without any ergonomic shape. A flat handle is not seen as raw or poorly crafted. On the contrary, its perfect plainness is meant to say, “You can use me whichever way suits your skills.” The Japanese knife adapts to the cook’s skill (not to the cook’s thumb). This is, in a nutshell, Japanese simplicity.

YANAGIBA knife, photo by Kenya Hara
The knife’s simple shape is not seen as poor or raw. Beauty beyond fanciness is an aesthetic principle that is sleeping at the bottom of Japanese perception. It’s also a guiding principle to Japanese high tech architecture, and the minimal products of Muji.

Applied to the bento this simply means: don’t try to be fancy; don’t overdo it. A beautiful bento is done using seasonal ingredients; it is done quickly and easily.
- source and Japanese text : ia.net/blog


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A History of Modern Japanese Aesthetics
by Michael F. Marra / Michele F Marra, 2001

This collection of twenty-one essays, a companion volume to Modern Japanese Aesthetics, constitutes the first history of modern Japanese aesthetics in any language. It introduces readers through lucid and readable translations to works on the philosophy of art written by major Japanese thinkers from the late nineteenth century to the present. Selected from a variety of sources, the essays cover topics related to the study of beauty in art and nature.
- source : books.google.co.jp

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The Aesthetic Feeling of the Japanese - 日本人の美意識

INSPIRED DESIGN - Japan's Traditional Arts
by Michael Dunn

anji, "suggestivity"; 暗示
kanso, "simplicity"; 簡素
fukinkoo,"asymmetry"; 不均衡
hakanasa, "transience"; 儚さ, 果敢なさ
ma, "space."  間
. Japanese Design and Daruma .


Traditional Japanese Design: Five Tastes
Michael Dunn
Japanese craftsmen, fusing a love of natural materials like wood, bamboo, and clay with an eye for bold, essential form, elevated the design of utilitarian objects to an art unparalleled elsewhere in the world. Today the finest of these objects created for daily use are hugely popular-and eminently collectible.
This richly illustrated book, which accompanies a major exhibition organized by the Japan Society, is divided by five aesthetic tastes. It presents a superb selection of objects of lacquer, ceramics, metalwork, basketry, and textiles-ranging from humble tools for farmers to spectacular arms and armor, and refined utensils associated with the tea ceremony. Craft lovers, collectors, artists, and designers will welcome this tribute to these highly influential Japanese crafts.
- source : http://www.amazon.com


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John LaFarge -  ジョン・ラファージ 
(March 31, 1835 – November 14, 1910)
He was a pioneer in the study of Japanese art.
. AN ARTIST'S LETTERS FROM JAPAN .


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Japanese Design: Art, Aesthetics and Culture
Patricia J. Graham - Spetember 2014
What exactly is the singular attraction of Japanese design? And why does Japanese style speak so clearly to so many people all over the world?
The Japanese sensibility often possesses an intuitive, emotional appeal, whether it's a silk kimono, a carefully raked garden path, an architectural marvel, a teapot, or a contemporary work of art. This allure has come to permeate the entire culture of Japan—it is manifest in the most mundane utensil and snack food packaging, as well as in Japanese architecture and fine art.
In Japanese Design, Asian art expert and author Patricia J. Graham explains how Japanese aesthetics based in fine craftsmanship and simplicity developed. Her unusual, full-color presentation reveals this design aesthetic in an absorbing way, using a combination of insightful explanations and more than 160 stunning photos. Focusing upon ten elements of Japanese design, Graham explores how visual qualities, the cultural parameters and the Japanese religious traditions of Buddhism and Shinto have impacted the appearance of its arts.
Japanese Design is a handbook for the millions of us who have felt the special allure of Japanese art, culture and crafts. Art and design fans and professionals have been clamoring for this—a book that fills the need for an intelligent, culture-rich overview of what Japanese design is and means.
- source : www.amazon.com


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Elements of Japanese Design
Boye Lafayette De Mente
Learn the elements of the timeless beauty that is Japanese design in this concise reference volume.
Japanese design is known throughout the world for its beauty, its simplicity, and its blending of traditional and contemporary effects. This succinct guide describes the influence and importance of 65 key elements that make up Japanese design, detailing their origins—and their impact on fields ranging from architecture and interior design to consumer products and high fashion.
Learn, for example, how the wabi sabi style that's so popular today developed from the lifestyle choices made by monks a thousand years ago. And how unexpected influences—like tatami (straw mats) or seijaku (silence)—have contributed to contemporary Japanese design.
Elements of Japanese Design offers new insights into the historical and cultural developments at the root of this now international aesthetic movement. From wa (harmony) to kaizen (continuous improvement), from mushin (the empty mind) to mujo (incompleteness), you'll discover how these elements have combined and evolved into a powerful design paradigm that has changed the way the world looks, thinks and acts.
- - - Chapters include:
Washi, Paper with Character
Ikebana, Growing Flowers in a Vase
Bukkyo, The Impact of Buddhism
Shibui, Eliminating the Unessential
Kawaii, The Incredibly "Cute" Syndrome
Katana, Swords with Spirit
- source : www.amazon.com


. Nichōsai 耳鳥斎 Nichosai, Nicho-sai and Kawaii 可愛い .
(?1751 - 1802/03) - - A painter from Osaka.

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Japan Style
by Gian Carlo Calza
Japan Style, written by one of the world's most respected scholars of Japanese art and culture, is an authoritative and wide-ranging visual essay on the aesthetics of Japan.It serves as a unique handbook that aids an understanding of Japanese culture through its architecture, arts, crafts, cinema, and literature.
It gives an insight into the essence of Japanese culture, identifying its specific qualities and characteristics from ukiyo-e to Tadao Ando. The author draws connections between art, religion, history, philosophy, and mythology, using the links to frame specific examples of Japanese cultural memes.
The book features over 150 illustrations ranging from the traditional to the contemporary. Japan Style is a perfect introduction to Japanese style and culture.
- source : www.amazon.com



A Grammar of Japanese Ornament and Design
by Thomas W. Cutler
With the opening of Japan to the West in the mid-19th century, much of Japanese life that had been sealed off from the rest of the world for centuries was now revealed to the public at large — including the artistic styles and subjects depicted in this excellent collection. Rendered by a trained British architect, the images comprise one of the most comprehensive surveys of Japanese art and ornamentation. Included are graceful details from landscapes, floral motifs, abstracts, sea life, and other designs — ideal for use in modern textiles, graphics, and a host of other art and craft projects.
A delight for anyone interested in Japanese art and culture, this volume will be an invaluable source of permission-free graphics for designers and decorators in search of new subjects with authentic Japanese flavor. Over 300 figures on 65 plates.
- source : www.amazon.com

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WA: The Essence of Japanese Design
Stefania Piotti
Explore the enduring beauty of Japanese design through some 250 objects, ranging from bento boxes, calligraphy brushes, and Shoji sliding doors to Noguchi’s Akari lamp, the iconic Kikkoman soy sauce bootle, and a modern‐day kimono designed by Issey Miyake.
Printed on craft paper and bound in the traditional Japanese style, WA features stunning, full‐page illustrations and an introduction by MUJI art director Kenya Hara.
- source : www.amazon.com


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Influence of Japanese Art on Design
Hannah Sigur, 2008
This stunning book explores the story of Japan as the catalyst of modern design in the Gilded Age. Author Hannah Sigur juxtaposes glass, silver and metal arts, ceramics, textiles, furniture, jewelry, advertising, and packaging with a spectrum of Japanese materials ranging from one-of-a-kind art crafts to mass-produced ephemera, showing the ways that Japanese arts and ideas about Japan changed the world.
The "Japan Craze" came at a time of radical change in society. Western culture was yearning for the values of a past it believed were embodied in Japanese traditional arts, and Japan felt the demand for modernity it saw embodied in the West. During this time, both traditional arts and modern manufactures from Japan became the focus of an international coterie of artists, dealers, and thinkers who proselytized Japanese aesthetics as a model.
- source : www.amazon.com

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Zen and the Fine Arts
Shin'ichi Hisamatsu (Author), G. Tokiwa (Translator)

Examples of painting, architecture, gardens, drama and ceramics probe the relationship between Zen Buddhism and the fine arts.

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- further reference and books


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. Japanese Architecture - cultural keywords used in haiku .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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2 comments:

Gabi Greve said...

Iwamura Sadao
(1912 - 1944)

http://darumapedia-persons.blogspot.jp/2014/10/iwamura-sadao.html


and Art Deco / Japonism
http://darumamuseum.blogspot.jp/2007/05/japonism-and-daruma.html
.

Gabi Greve said...

Huish Marcus Bourne Huish
(1843- 1904)

Author of “Japan and its Art”
Chairman of the British Japan Society
.
http://darumapedia-persons.blogspot.jp/2014/10/huish-marcus.html