10/15/2014

bugyo in Edo

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government and Administration .
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bugyoo, bugyō 奉行 Bugyo officials in the Edo government


source : hakuzou.at.webry.info

江戸の名奉行 Famous Bugyo from Edo
丹野顕 - Tanno Akira

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- quote from wikipedia -
Bugyō (奉行), often translated as "commissioner" or "magistrate" or "governor," was a title assigned to samurai officials of the Tokugawa government in feudal Japan; other terms would be added to the title to describe more specifically a given commissioner's tasks or jurisdiction.

During the Edo period, the numbers of bugyō reached its largest extent. The bureaucracy of the Togukawa shogunate expanded on an ad hoc basis, responding to perceived needs and changing circumstances.
- reference : wikipedia

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- - - ABC - List (to be updated) - - -

Doochuu bugyoo 道中奉行 - Dochu Bugyo - responsible for controlling the five routes out of Edo (Gokaido), their branch routes and related matters
. Edo Gokaidoo 江戸五街道 Edo Gokaido, Gokaidō - Edo Five Ruotes .

Edo machi-bugyō machibugyoo 江戸町奉行 – Magistrates or municipal administrators of Edo.
-- Kita-machi-bugyō (北町奉行) – North Edo magistrate.
-- Minami-machi-bugyō (南町奉行) – South Edo magistrate.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Tooyama 遠山景元 Toyama Saemon no Jo Kagemoto .
(1793 – 1855) Edo Machibugyo


Fukiage-bugyō 吹上奉行 - Supervising the Fukiage park 吹上御苑
..... 吹上花畑奉行, 吹上御花畑奉行

Fushin-bugyō 普請奉行 – Superintendents of Public Works.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Gaikoku-bugyō 外国奉行 – Commissioners in charge of trade and diplomatic relations with foreign countries after 1858.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Gunkan-bugyō 軍鑑奉行 – Commissioners in charge of naval matters (post-1859).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Gusoku-bugyō 具足奉行 – Commissioners in charge of supplying the shogunal armies.
- - Bugu-bugyō 武具奉行 – Commissioners in charge of supplying the shogunal armies (post-1863), replaced Gusoku-bugyō.


Hakodate bugyō 箱館奉行 – Overseers of the port of Hakodate and neighboring territory of Ezo / Hokkaido.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Haneda bugyō 羽田奉行 – Overseers of the port of Haneda; commissioners of coastal defenses near Edo (post-1853).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Hata bugyo 旗奉行 - Oversees the flags.

Hyōgo bugyō 兵庫奉行 – Overseers of the port of Hyōgo (post-1864). In the Amagasaki domaine.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Jisha-bugyō 寺社奉行 – Ministers or administrators for religious affairs; overseers of the country's temples and shrines.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Jiwari-bugyō 地割奉行- Commissioners of surveys and surveying. ...official with responsibility for surveying land ..


Kanagawa bugyō 神奈川奉行 – Overseers of the port of Kanagawa (post-1859).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Kanjō-bugyō 勘定奉行 – Kanjo Bugyo - Ministers or administrators for Shogunal finance (post-1787).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Gundai 軍代 – Deputies.
-- Daikan (代官)- Assistant deputies.

-- Kane-bugyō 金奉行 – Superintendents of the Treasury.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Kura-bugyō 倉庫奉行 – Superintendents of Cereal Stores.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Kinza 金座 – Gold za or monopoly office (post-1595).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Ginza 銀座 – Silver za or monopoly office (post-1598).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Dōza 銅座 – Copper za or monopoly office (post-1636)[14] and (1701–1712, 1738–1746, 1766–1768).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Shuza 朱座 – Cinnabar za or monopoly office (post-1609).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Kanjō-ginmiyaku  勘定吟味役 – Supervisor of Financial affairs.

Kantō gundai  関東郡代 – Kantō deputies.

Kinzan-bugyō 金山奉行 – Commissioners of mines.

Koshimono no bugyoo 腰物奉行 - Superintendant of the Government swords and armour
..... 御腰物奉行, 御腰物頭. 御腰物番頭

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Kyoto shoshidai 京都所司代 -- Shogunal deputies in Kyoto.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Kyoto machi-bugyō 京都町奉行 – Magistrates or municipal administrators of Kyoto.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Fushimi bugyō 伏見奉行 – Magistrates or municipal administrators of Fushimi (post-1620).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Nara bugyō 奈良奉行 – Governors of Nara.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Machi-bugyō, machibugyoo 町奉行 – Magistrates or municipal administrators in shogunal cities: Edo, Kyoto, Nagasaki, Nara, Nikkō, and Osaka.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Nagasaki bugyō 長崎奉行 – Governor of Nagasaki. He enjoyed a lot of freedom with the foreigners.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Niigata bugyō 新潟奉行 – Overseers of the port of Niigata.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Nikkō bugyō 日光奉行 – Overseers of Nikkō.
Nikkō houses the mausoleum of shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (Nikkō Tōshō-gū)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Ongoku bugyoo 遠国奉行 - magistrates placed at important areas directly controlled by the government

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Osaka jōdai 大阪城代 – Overseers of Osaka Castle.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Osaka machi-bugyō (大阪町奉行) – Magistrates or municipal administrators in shogunal cities.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

-- Sakai bugyō 堺奉行 – Overseers of the town of Sakai, a significant trade center
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Rōya-bugyō 牢屋奉行 – Commissioners of the shogunal prison.
His official residence was immediately adjoining the same prison, in Kodenma-chō, Kodenmacho.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kodenmachō 小伝馬町 Kodenmacho district .


Sado bugyō 佐渡奉行 – Overseers of the island and gold mines of Sado Island.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Sakuji-bugyō 作事奉行 – Commissioners of works, architecture and construction matters (post-1632).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shimoda bugyō 下田奉行 – Overseers of the port of Shimoda and foreign trade in the area..
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shomotsu bugyoo 書物奉行 - "Writing Magistrate - Since 1633
..... Go Shomotsu Bugyoo 御書物奉行
..... Momijiyama Bunko


Sunpu jōdai 駿府城代 – Overseers of Sunpu Castle (Shizuoka Castle).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Uraga bugyō 浦賀奉行 – Overseers of the port of Uraga.
a port of inspection for Japanese coastal vessels
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Yamada bugyō 山田奉行 - Representatives of the shogunate at Ise Yamada 伊勢.
to supervise pilgrims and shrines in the area of the Grand Ise Shrine
The town of Ujiyamada 宇治山田,
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Yari bugyoo 槍奉行 - magistrate of spears

. Yoseba bugyoo 寄場奉行 Yoseba Magistrate .
ninsoku yoseba 人足寄場 rehabilitation facility for criminals / Ishikawajima 石川島 Ishikawa Island in 1790.
Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 Hasegawwa Heizo

to be updated
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- quote -
Law Enforcement in the Edo Period
A COMPLICATED PATCHWORK
The system for maintaining law and order during the Edo period differed fundamentally from our modern system in that law enforcement and criminal justice were carried out by the same organs. That is to say, one agency or office carried out the functions that are today performed separately by police, prosecutors, and the courts. This means that the administrative and judicial functions of government were merged rather than deliberately separated as they are in modern democratic states.
- snip -
A PREMODERN POLICE COMMISSIONER
The third commissioner was the machi bugyô, literally “town commissioner,” sometimes translated as magistrate. The machi bugyô was the top law enforcement official of the most important shogunal domain of all, the city of Edo. If one were forced to choose a corresponding contemporary post, it would have to be that of police commissioner, but it would be more accurate to call the machi bugyô a combination of metropolitan governor, police commissioner, and district court chief justice, since his duties included the adjudication of civil and criminal cases and general administration, as well as administration of the city’s police functions. For this reason, separate police organs were established from time to time to supplement the functions of the machi bugyô. One of these was a special police force called the hitsuke tôzoku aratamekata, which was set up to crack down on vicious gangs of armed robbers; its chief was also selected from among the hatamoto.

Among the men who at one time or another served as magistrate or as chief of the hitsuke tôzoku aratamekata, the most famous evolved into legendary heroes glorified in Japanese novels, movies, and television series—a phenomenon recalling the depiction of Marshall Wyatt Earp in American novels, movies, and TV shows about the wild West.

In Edo there were at any given time two appointed magistrates referred to as the minami (south) and kita (north) bugyô. However, these names are misleading, giving rise to the misconception that each was in charge of half of the city. In fact, the two alternated on active duty, rotating each month; the south and north merely refer to the location of the two magistrates’ offices.

Working beneath the magistrates were supervisors called yoriki and lesser officers known as dôshin. Each magistrate’s office generally had 25 yoriki and somewhere around 120 dôshin (the exact number fluctuated over time). Thus, with the staff for the north and south combined, the entire Edo police force amounted to a mere 50 yoriki and 240 dôshin for a population estimated to have been at least 1 million from the eighteenth century on. To be sure, the magistrate’s office also employed low-ranking officials called chûgen and komono, but these merely provided supporting clerical and other services; only the yoriki and dôshin had police authority. Moreover, as noted above, the magistrate’s office handled not only the investigation and adjudication of criminal cases but also civil suits and general administration. Under the circumstances, how was such a small force able to maintain law and order in such a large city? In the following section, we will examine two important factors.

One factor that allowed the machi bugyô to get by with such a meager staff was the use of unofficial assistants. The dôshin, who handled the criminal investigations, all had working under them community informants known as meakashi or okappiki. These were common townsfolk, not samurai, with no official connection to the magistrate’s office. In many cases they were themselves criminals or even yakuza gang leaders. But they were useful resources for the dôshin because their familiarity with Edo’s underworld often put them in a position to provide information critical to a crime investigation.

Most of these undercover informants ran a business of some type as a means of supporting themselves and, in some cases, their henchmen; many owned restaurants or neighborhood vaudeville theaters. For their services, the dôshin paid them a small amount out of their own pockets. Of course, the use of underworld characters in criminal investigations was problematical in many ways, and the shogunate frequently issued edicts prohibiting the practice, but it seems the dôshin were unable to do without them.

The second factor facilitating the maintenance of law and order in Edo was the important role of community self-government associations. Each neighborhood (called machi or chô) in Edo had an organization made up of the area’s property owners and their managers or superintendents, and headed by someone referred to as the nanushi. The superintendents, known as ienushi or ôya, were in frequent contact with the tenants, who regarded them as powerful authority figures—a relationship frequently portrayed in the comic rakugo monologues of the period.

Working out of an office called the jishinban, the ienushi was charged with settling all kinds of disputes in the neighborhood, at least on a temporary basis, and otherwise keeping order within the community. This sort of self-governing capability no doubt contributed significantly to the maintenance of law and order in Edo. Of course, the communities were only autonomous within the limits set by the shogunate, and the system could be criticized for fostering an atmosphere of suspicion in which people’s activities were continually monitored by their neighbors. However, it also seems clear that it helped keep the peace in Edo by supporting the work of the city’s very modest police force.

We might also note that when the dôshin went on patrol, the jishinban was one of the regular stops along their route. The jishinban was also where suspects were temporarily taken into custody and questioned. All of this suggests that the jishinban was in fact the forerunner of the kôban (police boxes) for which the modern Japanese police system is known.

- - - - - read the full article here :
- source : japanecho.com/sum/2004 - YOSHINO Jun -

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. sankin kootai 参勤交代 Sankin Kotai Daimyo attendance in Edo
daimyoo gyooretsu, daimyō gyōretsu 大名行列 Daimyo procession .



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. Japanese Architecture - cultural keywords used in haiku .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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