5/05/2016

bijin beauties of Edo

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. Ukiyo-e 浮世絵 "pictures of the floating world" - Introduction .
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Edo no bijin 江戸の美人 the beauties of Edo

. kanban musume 水茶屋の看板娘 Kamban "advertising servant girl" .


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Beauties with a sumptuous body and plump face 豊かな体, ふくよかな顔 in the Early Edo period,
but the ideals for "beauty" were changing with time.



弾琴美人 Beauty playing the Koto / 鈴木春信 Suzuki Harunobu

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. bijin 美人 beauty - beauty amulet 美守 - bijin kigan 美人祈願お守り .
Next to prayers for good health, prayers for a beautiful face, skin or body were quite popular.
biyoo jisha 美容寺社 praying for beauty at a Shinto Shrine

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江戸時代における美人の条件は? Conditions for a beauty in the Edo period.

面長
切れ長で涼しげな一重
鼻筋の通った中高の鼻
小さな口
きめこまやかで白い肌
美しく豊かな黒髪

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biidoro o fuku musume ビードロを吹く娘 girl blowing a poppen
美人画の大家・喜多川歌麿 Kitagawa Utamaro
This Bijin is a normal girl from the village 町娘. Her kimono is special, with an Ishimatsu pattern and cherry blossoms, signs of Spring.

. poppen, hoppen ぽっぺん / ポッペン glass ball plopping .
The glass balls are also known as "biidoro ビードロ", from the Portuguese vidro.

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江戸美人の原点?江戸時代初期の美人 Early Edo Period


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「浮世絵の祖」ともいわれる浮世絵師・菱川師宣 Hishikawa Moronobu (1618 - 1694)
Japanese artist known for popularizing the ukiyo-e genre of woodblock prints and paintings in the late 17th century.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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美人というより美少女 - Beautiful Young Girls
明和期(1764 - 72年)の美人 Meiwa period


chaya no kanban musume 看板娘 Kamban Musume Girls
水茶屋「鍵屋」の看板娘・お仙 Kagiya no S-Sen
浅草寺奥山の楊枝屋「柳屋」の看板娘・お藤 Yanagiya no O-Fuji
二十軒茶屋の水茶屋「蔦屋」の看板娘・およし。Tsutaya no O-Yoshi

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抜群のプロポーション! Nice proportions
健康美人 Healthy Bijin



人気絵師・鳥居清長の美人画 Torii Kiyonaga (1752 - 1815)
『当世遊里美人合 たち花』Tachibana
- Conditions for a nice body:
すらりとした長身
長い手足
あごは細めのシャープな顔立ち
きりりとした濃い眉
切れ長で涼しげな目元

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女性らしさ満点、グラマラスな寛政美人 100 points for being a beautiful Female
寛政期(1789~1801年)
Three beauties of the Kanei period 寛政の三美人



浅草寺随神門前の水茶屋「難波屋」のおきた O-Kita from Asakusa、
両国の煎餅屋「高島屋」のお久 O-Hisa from Ryogoku, Takashimaya
吉原芸者の富本豊雛(とよひな)Toyohina Geisha from Yoshiwara
by . Kitagawa Utamaro 喜多川歌麿 (1753 - 1806).


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個性的すぎる文政美人 Beauties around 1818 - 1830 文政 Bunei
with strong personalities
painted by 渓斎英泉 Keisai Eisen (1790 - 1884)
- Conditions
6頭身
首が短く猫背ぎみ
細長い顔
小さくつり上がり鋭い目
受け口


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Keisai Eisen
(渓斎 英泉, 1790–1848) was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist who specialised in bijin-ga (pictures of beautiful women). His best works, including his ōkubi-e ("large head pictures"), are considered to be masterpieces of the "decadent" Bunsei Era (1818–1830). He was also known as Ikeda Eisen, and wrote under the name of Ippitsuan.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


【おすすめ】こちらの江戸トリビアもどうぞ - further literature and links
- source : edo-g.com/blog/2016/

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daidokoro bijin 台所美人 "kitchen beauties"


Kitagawa Utamaro 喜多川 歌麿


. . . CLICK here for more Ukiyo-E Bijin on stamps !


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浮世絵に見る江戸美人の化粧 Cosmetics of the Edo Bijin Beauties in Ukiyo-E
白、紅、黒―三色の美 The beauty of the three colors white, red and black

white 白粉 o-shiro for face powder
beni 紅 red for lip coloring
black for teeth coloring (o-haguro お歯黒) and eyebrows 眉



白、紅、黒はそれぞれ「白粉の白」「口紅の紅」「お歯黒と眉化粧の黒」で、それぞれについて浮世絵と化粧道具が展示されていました。

展示品の主な所有者はポーラ研究所で、なるほど化粧品メーカー、と印象アップ。江戸期の美人画にはそれぞれの店(勤務先)や、描かれてる化粧品の店構えが小窓に描かれてたりで、勤務先が描かれてる場合はそれこそ「看板娘」で、商品扱う店が描かれてる場合は「販促チラシ」みたいなものかと。そういえばどこかの茶屋の娘が大層美人でファッションリーダーになってたとかいう話をどこかで見かけたな…芸者や遊女や歌舞伎役者がいわゆるプロで、ファッションリーダーやった時代に茶屋の娘(看板娘)となるとさしずめ読モみたいな感じだろうか。
- reference : cella.fem.jp -

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oshiroi, o-shiroi (hakufun) おしろい / 白粉 white face powder
Rice bran powder was often used to wash the face until it was white.

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During the Nara Period (710–94), women painted their face with a white powder called oshiroi, and in the Heian Period (794–1185), a white facial color continued to stand as a symbol of beauty.
During the Edo Period (1603–1868), the culture of fair skin gained ground among commoners. The look sought after at this time, however, was a natural one. Ukkiri, a term for moist, naturally colored skin, appeared in a manual on beauty titled Miyako fūzoku kewaiden (A Handbook of Cosmetics in the Capital), which was published in 1813 and remained a bible for beauty through the next century. The work introduces a range of techniques for making the skin “beautifully white,” including facial cleansing, facial packs made from a natural mineral form of lead oxide, and herbal treatments for acne.
... “The tone the Japanese seek to achieve is not milky white but translucent, like a polished stone. Since the Edo period, women have gone to great pains to achieve this.” Records show that women spent a great deal of time putting on makeup and that cosmetics were geared toward accentuating the natural beauty of the skin. Miyako fūzoku kewaiden, for example, describes how oshiroi should be repeatedly applied and removed and the cheeks rubbed with a towel in order to make the skin look like porcelain.
- source : nippon.com/en -

- reference : edo o-shiroi white -

oshiroishi, o-shiroi shi 白粉師 making white face powder


source : メタボンのブログ

Different kinds of O-Shiroi were available, from Kyoto 京白粉, from Ise 伊勢おしろい, "natural white" 生白粉 and others.
Some were made including metal powders not really suited for the skin. Some were in powder form, some hard like soap, but all were applied with a special face brush.
suigin 水銀 mercury cloride was a main ingredient, so even the craftsmen who made the powder were exposed to this poison.
Others were white lead oxide, see below.
They had a special shop sign with a 白鷺 white heron.


新たな仙女香七変化粧 - Yokai Novel

A famous brand of the time was 仙女香 Sennyo-Ko.
The name was taken from the stage name of the Kabuki actor Segawa Kikunojō 瀬川菊之丞 Segawa Kikunojo (1693 - 1749).
The poor people had to use some face wash to keep the face as white as possible, but with the rise of rich merchants in Edo the use white powder among the townspeople spread quite fast.

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In time new products arrived on Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese ships. "Among the various compounds used, oshiroi [白粉 or おしろい], a white powder, and beni (rouge) [紅 or べに] contributed in constructing a woman's beauty. White powder was used to whiten the face and other parts of the body. The oldest form of face powder was made from white soil and rice flour. In the seventh century, the manufacture of keifun (mercury chloride) [けいふん] and empaku (white lead) [鉛白 or えんぱく] was imported from China. Their use was confined to the upper classes until the seventeenth century, when it became popular among the general public." The empaku "...was used extensively during the Edo period... It was mixed with water and applied with a brush. In the 1870s, the toxic quality of lead was recognized, and soon after a lead-free facial powder began to be domestically produced." (Ibid.)

In A Treatise on Chemistry by Roscoe, Cain and Schorlemmer (published by MacMillan, 1913, p. 685) the production of keifun is described: "Calomel has long been known and manufactured in China and Japan under the name keifun (light powder). This product occurs as a light bulky powder, consisting of very thin minute scales, lustrous, transparent, and white or faintly cream coloured. It is quite free from corrosive sublimate and is manufactured by heating balls of porous earth and salt, soaked in bittern (the mother-liquor of partially evaporated sea-water), along with mercury in iron pots lined with earth. The forms hydrochloric acid from the magnesium chloride in the bittern, the mercury sublimes into the clay covers of the pots, air enters by diffusion and the following reaction occurs: 4Hg + 4HCl + O2 = 2Hg2Cl + 2H2O. The cover thus becomes filled with a network of micaceous particles of calomel."

There is an article on "Gender and Hierarchical Differences in Lead-Contaminated Japanese Bone from the Edo Period" from the Japan Society for Occupational Health (Journal of Occupational Health, vol. 40, no. 1, 1998). In this study it was found that members of the samurai class had far higher lead content in their systems than did that of farmers and fishermen. Women in both strata had higher lead deposits in their bones than did their male counterparts. In the abstract to this article it states: "We assume that facial cosmetics (white lead) comprised one of the main routes of lead exposure among the samurai class, because cosmetics were a luxury in that period." While male samurai may not have used white lead makeup they were exposed to it through their contact with samurai females and this accounts for the lead content found in their bones. In fact it would seem that the wealthier the samurai the higher the lead content.
- source : printsofjapan.com/Index -


. Edo shokunin 江戸の職人 Edo craftsmen .


. shinise 老舗 a long-established store .
The store Sakamotoya 坂本屋 selling oshiroi白粉 the white powder for faces.

. oshiroi hake 白粉刷毛 cosmetic brush .

. beni 紅 lip color and
kurenaishi 紅師 making lip red from safflowers .



- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
8 tales about 白粉 to explore.

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Edo no bijin
- reference - Edo no bijin -


Edo no bijin ga: Kanei Kanbunki no nikuhitsu ga
Paintings of Beautiful Ladies in Edo Period
- reference : books.google.co.jp -



浮世絵美人 - 解体新書 : 安村敏信

CLICK for more books about Edo Bijin !


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

Aichi
馬の鞍が荷をつけたままひっくり返ったので馬喰が困っていると、妙齢の美人が現れた。美人は馬を河原に引き出した。ふと気づいた馬喰が針を帛紗と共に背中につけると、美人は一塊になって淵に飛び込んだ。淵の主は蛇ではないかという話がある。

- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
美人 89 to explore

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. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Hanga 版画 in the Daruma Museum .

. Ukiyo-e in the Daruma Museum .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #edobijin #bijinedo #edobeauties #ukiyoebijin - - - -
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