Showing posts with label - - - Architecture. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - Architecture. Show all posts

4/19/2015

uguisubari floor

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. Interior Design - The Japanese Home .
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uguisubari うぐいす張 / 鴬張 / 鶯張り nightingale floor


CLICK for more photos ! 二条城 Jijo-Jo Castle, Kyoto

- quote
Lit. "nightingale floor".
Floor boards which rub together when walked on to produce a pleasant and delicate sound. This type of board flooring was used in the corridors, rouka 廊下, of some shrines jinja 神社, temples tera 寺, and palaces kyuuden 宮殿.
When the floor boards are dry the sound occurs naturally. However, from the early 17c onward, techniques were developed purposely to produce this sound in order that a person's approach would not go undetected. It was one of many methods devised to prevent the possibility of insurrection.

Perhaps the most famous extant example is in the Nijoujou Ni-no-maru Goten 二条城二の丸御殿 (17c), and the Chion-in Hondou Mieidou 知恩院本堂御影堂 (1619), both in Kyoto.
- source : JAANUS


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- quote -
The corridor running along the rooms in the Ninomaru Palace has a specially constructed floor that makes a sound like that of a nightingale when you walk on it. This corridor is known as the Uguisu-bari corridor. This construction is actually an alarm system because it generates sound whenever anyone walks on the floor of the corridor, warning of the presence of an intruder even at night. The floor contains special fittings and clamps, called mekasugai that generate the sound.



There are a countless number of these clamps (about 12 cm long) located between the beams that support the floorboards of the corridor. There are two spike holes in each of the clamps and each hole has an iron spike in it. When someone walks on the corridor above a clamp, the clamp moves up and down causing the spike to rub against the clamp, producing a sound like the cry of a nightingale.
Incidentally, the Daihojo Hall at Chionin Temple, employed by the Tokugawa family for official affairs, has an Uguisu-bari corridor similar to that at the Ninomaru Palace.
- source : micro.rohm.com/en


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

うぐいす張軋ませて来る跣足かな
uguisubari fumasete kuru hadashi kana

walking along
the nightingale floor
with bare feet . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve

山崎和枝 Yamazaki Kazue



source : 散歩日記X


. WKD : hadashi 跣足 (はだし) barefeet, barefoot .
- - kigo for all summer - -

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Mount Fuji hidden
in a nightingale floor -
Joys of Japan


Gabi Greve, April 2015



At 西本願寺 Nishi Hongan-Ji temple, Kyoto

御影堂と鶯張りの廊下でつながっている阿弥陀堂は西本願寺の本堂。
- source : うさぎの会旅行記


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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .


. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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2/03/2015

chanoma living room

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chanoma, cha no ma, cha-no-ma 茶の間 private family living room


CLICK for more photos !


- quote
chanoma 茶の間 lit. tearoom
A Edo period communal living room usually containing a hearth *irori 囲炉裏 and often situated close to the earth-floored area *doma 土間. Its character and use varied according to the scale of the structure.

1 
In relatively large residences of middle ranking warriors or leading farmers and merchants, chanoma was principally used by the women of the household or by female servants as a kind of common room, where meals were taken, some food prepared and informal conversation took place around the hearth.
In the Kansai 関西 region in particular the term was often used to refer to the maidservants' room.

2 
In smaller residences chanoma was often used interchangeably with *ima 居間 or *daidokoro 台所 to refer to the principal communal living room.

3 
In north eastern Japan, along the Japan Sea coast from the prefectures of Niigata to Shimane, in Shikoku 四国 and in parts of Nagano prefecture, the term was used in traditional vernacular houses *minka 民家 to refer to a large room adjacent to, and often opened to, the earth-floored area. Usually the room contained an hearth around which the family gathered for meals. The chanoma was often open to the rafters, allowing smoke to escape through a smoke hole *kemuridashi 煙出 in the roof.
Originally the floor was exposed timber boarding without mats *tatami 畳. Also, the family's Shinto and Buddhist altars *kamidana 神棚 and *butsudan 仏壇 were often located in this room.
- source : JAANUS


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CHANO-MA, Yokohama
A café featuring a 21st century depiction of tea ceremony rooms. The café has a lounge and dining area fusing oriental and occidental essences.
Yokohama Red Brick Warehouse - 1-1-2, Shinko, Naka-ku
- source : chano-ma



ochanoma ryūgaku お茶の間留学 "study abroad from the living room"
Nova is a large eikaiwa school (private English teaching company) in Japan.
- source : wikipedia


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- quote -
Chanoma - tea - of - space -
As our lifestyles have changed, some languages have also changed. A Japanese term “cha-no-ma” is one of them.

"Cha-no-ma", literally means “the space of tea”, referrers to a place where family members get together to chat, eat and relax. That is, a living room. I am not sure about its origin of the word, but in a good old days, when family members spent time together in the same place, tea was always there. “Cha-no-ma” is a nostalgic word associated with cozy and relaxing time in a large family.

Now, the time has changed. The family is smaller, and we live in busier society, and hustle and bustle of life. Eventually, the term of "cha-no-ma" is on its way out. We call the room “ima (literally, existing room)” or “living room” nowadays.

But still, whatever the term is, whatever the size of family is, spending time together among family while having tea will make us mellow out, always.



Sazae san family sitting in their "cha-no-ma"
(One of the most popular manga among men and women of all ages)
- source : japaneseteastory.blogspot.jp


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

座敷より茶の間が好きや切山椒
zashiki yori chanoma ga suki ya kirisanshoo

better then the guest room
I like the family living room -
New Year sweets

Tr. Gabi Greve

Ikenouchi Takeshi 池内たけし (1889 - 1974)
The nephew of Takahama Kyoshi 高浜虚子.


. kirizanshoo 切山椒 sweet desert dish .
lit. "cut mountain pepper"
- - kigo for the New Year - -

CLICK for more photos

A kind of sweet made from rice flour, sugar and mountain pepper. It can be cut and served over a bowl of rice for a quick snack. It is usually served steamed, which enhances the fragrance of the pepper. It is supposed to brick luck with money affairs.

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お茶の間は女ばかりや置ごたつ
ochanoma wa onna bakari ya okigotatsu

in the living room
there are only the womenfolk -
this tabel to get warm

Tr. Gabi Greve

竹田小時 Takeda Kotoki



source : Cleanup Corporation
こたつで本を読む女性たち  Women reading books in the kotatsu
『絵本常磐草』享保15年(1730) 江戸風俗図絵 - より


. okigotatsu 置炬燵 kotatsu table to put on the floor .
- - kigo for all Winter - -


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膳立の茶の間かしまし謠初
正岡子規 Masaoka Shiki


お茶の間に二月礼者のやや長居 山田弘子
お茶の間に集りやすし庭若葉 星野立子
お茶の間の隅にころげて竹婦人 小山佳栄

茶の間と別に家の一角雛あかり 平井さち子
茶の間にて用済む仲や切山椒 大久保橙青
茶の間には笑初めともなくつゞく 皆吉爽雨
茶の間にも桃の色紙や雛の宿 高橋淡路女
茶の間まだ帰宅そろはず霙降る 亀井糸游
茶の間まで葭戸幾重を見とほしに 大島民郎

どこよりも茶の間が親し福沸 高橋真智子
なまはげのずいと茶の間に踏み込みて 高澤良一
わが雛を母の飾れる茶の間かな 下田実花
ストーブに湯気も影なす茶の間かな 藤井知子
万両の雪に明けある茶の間かな 橋本鶏二
亡き妻の茶の間の画像豆の飯 河野静雲
声まがふ茶の間の父子春の宵 亀井糸游
夕河岸の鯵を囲みて茶の間かな 星野 椿
妻の書架茶の間に小さく花曇 遠藤梧逸
寒い朝巨大空母と茶の間に居り 国 しげ彦

扇風機まはれる茶の間ぬけにけり 芝不器男
春めきて小夜の客ある茶の間かな 松尾 静子
牡蠣豆腐茶の間へ客の座を移す 及川貞 夕焼
玉子酒みんな茶の間にあつまりぬ 市村洋子
百菊もさくや茶の間の南向 嵐竹
破蓮に茶の間より掃く埃かな 比叡 野村泊月
籾摺を昨日に終えし茶の間かな 大島麦邨

行火やめて今宵の茶の間四角なり 臼田亞浪
襖しめて隣茶の間や寒夜客 阿部みどり女 笹鳴
込み入った話に茶の間30Wのジヨーク 平田栄一
電車より茶の間が見える薄暑かな 石川文子
- source : HAIKUreikuDB

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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1/25/2015

kugikakushi

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kugi 釘 nail, hook, Nagel



- quote JAANUS -
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kugi 釘 A nail made of metal, wood or bamboo and shaped according to use.
Traditionally, metal kugi are square, kakukugi 角釘. However there are a great variety of other kugi: flat nails hirakugi 平釘; double pointed bent nails aiorekugi 合折釘; double pointed nails aikugi 合釘; twice bent end nijuu orekugi 二重折釘, a thrice bent nails inazuma orekugi 稲妻折釘; and a bag hanging nails fukurokakekugi 袋掛釘.

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aikugi 合釘
Also kurekugi 呉釘, kirikugi 切釘. A straight nail with both ends pointed. It is made of wood, bamboo, iron, or bronze and used to join wooden boards. Some are round in cross section and others are square kakuaikugi 角合釘.
Note that maruaikugi 丸合釘 refers to a Western type nail, and not a round aikugi.

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aiorekugi 合折釘
Also called oreaikugi 折合釘 or mageorekugi 曲折釘. A type of double-pointed iron nail, square in section, and bent into an L-shape. Used to attach the frames of opaque paper sliding screens fusuma 襖, to a skeletal framework, hammered down so that they are not visible from the exterior. Aiorekugi typically are spaced about 21cm apart.

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asagaokugi 朝顔釘
Lit. morning glory nail. A two-pronged nail bent into a right angle for the purpose of hanging a flower vase. The nail usually is driven into the bamboo lath of a vine-laced, lattice-reed window shitajimado 下地窓, or on the lath of a small window hana-akarimado 花明窓, found at the side of the tea house alcove tokonoma 床の間. The points of this nail are bent around the bamboo lath of the window lattice after it has been pounded in. Typically, morning glories 'asagao 朝顔', are displayed in this vase hence the name, but sometimes other flowers are displayed.

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fukurokakekugi 袋掛釘 Lit. bag hanging nail.
A bamboo or iron nail inserted into the middle post nakabashira 中柱, of a tea ceremony room. It is used to hang up the tea caddy bag, shifuku 仕服. The nail is bent to form a hook with the under part being bent at a right angle and rounded to make it easy to hang up the bag gracefully. A small guard regulates how far the nail is to be hammered into the post. The nail is positioned about 11cm above the horizontal wooden piece which holds the extended sleeve wall sodekabe 袖壁, and terminated by the nakabashira. This prevents the bag from touching the floor. Example: Kohouan 孤篷庵 Daitokuji 大徳寺 (rebuilt by Matsudaira Fumai 松平不昧 flourished ca. 1800), Kyoto.

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hanakugi 花釘
A nail used to hang a flower vase in a tea ceremony room chashitsu 茶室. Some are hammered into the center of the alcove tokonoma 床の間, wall and others are hammered into the alcove pillar tokobashira 床柱. The former is also called nakakugi 中釘 and the latter hashirakugi 柱釘 or tokobashira hanakugi 床柱花釘. All are metal nails, bent up into an L- shape to form a hook.

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inazuma orekugi 稲妻折釘
Also nijuu orekugi 二重折釘. A twice bent nail that is used under the ceiling molding or under the attached lintel for hanging scrolls. They are created by first bending them 90 degrees and then a second time.
If set in a channel, musou shibuichi 無双四分一, nails of this type can also be moved to the left or right and are also used for hanging scrolls in an alcove. In this case, they are called inazuma hashirikugi 稲妻走釘 (running right angle hook). The bottom part is inserted through the opening in the web of the channel, and the prongs are bent so that they hang on the edges of the web. When a pair or set of three scrolls are hung, these special nails can be slid to the position needed.

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jikukakekugi 軸掛釘 / Also jikukugi 軸釘, kakemonokugi 掛物釘.
A hook for hanging scrolls kakemono 掛物 that is made of metal or bamboo and hammered into the upper part of the back wall, or the bottom edge of the ceiling molding of a tea ceremony alcove tokonoma 床の間. Metal jikukakekugi are bent twice to form a three-pronged, trident shape. If made of bamboo, the hook is hammered straight into the wall, or with a slight upward incline in a rustic style tea ceremony room.
Bamboo nails are 0.63cm long and are nailed 2.8cm below the ceiling molding, projecting from the wall. Around the late 16c - early 17c, in shoin 書院 style tea rooms one, three, four or eight scrolls were hung and each had a hook. When three hooks, mitsukugi 三ツ釘, were used, the right and left ones were made smaller and projected 3cm. When a set of three scrolls, sanpukutsui 三幅対, were hung, in a large shoin style room, a board 6-8mm thick, 12-30cm wide and 180cm long was nailed to the bottom edge of the ceiling molding and a groove was made so that the inserted zigzag shaped nails could be moved easily.

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kaiorekugi 貝折釘
Also written 皆折釘. A large, square, angular nail used for wooden or bamboo fences. Its head is bent at right angles but has a gable-shaped top. It varies from 8-9cm to 20-30cm long.

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musoukugi 無双釘 Musokugi
Also musou orekugi 無双折釘. A type of nail used to hang a scroll in an alcove nakakugi 中釘. A nail which is composed of two parts: a sharply pointed tip and a second part which is bent up at a right angle to form a hook. The pointed part is securely driven into the plastered wall of an alcove and the latter part can be inserted into a fixed pocket and removed at will. This type of nail prevents damage to the scroll. It may also be used to hang a flower vase.

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nakakugi 中釘
Also hanakugi 花釘, tokonakakugi 床中釘 (see orekugi 折釘).
A nail hammered into the center of the back wall of an alcove tokonoma 床の間, on which to hang a flower vase or a scroll in a tea ceremony room. The nail is bent in such a fashion that when it is driven into the wall the back of the scroll is not damaged. Most nakakugi are placed about 1 m above the surface of the straw mat tatami 畳, but this distance varies widely, usually from 90cm-150cm, depending on the height of the ceiling.

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nijuu orekugi 二重折釘
Also called kakemonokugi 掛物釘. A type of hooked nail orekugi 折釘.
A square, double-bent nail that is used to hang scrolls kakemono 掛物. The nail head forms a ' コ' shape. A nail with three bends is called sanjuu orekugi 三重折釘.

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noshigata-no-kugi 熨斗形の釘
An archaic term for taru-no-kuchi 樽の口. Also called kanimekugi 蟹目釘 or noshigashira kugi 熨斗頭釘.
A large, half-dome-shaped nail similar to a present day rivet. The WAMYOUSHOU 倭名抄 describes it as a large, high-headed nail, kashiradaka ookugi 頭高大釘. It is used to secure a gable pendant, gegyo 懸魚 or a non-penetrating tie beams, nageshi 長押.

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orekugi 折釘 A type of hooked nail made from one piece of iron.
It is bent at a right angle and is square in cross section. The name is a corruption of orikugi 折釘. Orekugi are used for both the interior and exterior of a tea ceremony house *chashitsu 茶室. There are many different sizes and most have stops or guards which determine the extent to which the nail can be inserted into a wall, post, or molding. Orekugi are named according to their placement, or purpose. There are many types of bent nails.
These include: fukurokakekugi 袋掛釘; musoukugi 無双釘; asagaokugi 朝顔釘; *tokobashirahana kugi 床柱花釘; tokonakakugi 床中釘; tokokakenaka kugi 床掛中釘; and tokootoshikake kugi 床落掛釘.




折釘に掛た所が粽哉
orekugi ni kaketa tokoro ga chimaki kana

from a hooked nail
they hang here,
these Chimaki dumplings . . .


. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .

. Chimaki 粽 dumplings for the Boy's festival, May 5 .

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sanjuu orekugi 三重折釘
A nail that is bent in three tines at a ninety degree angle.

Like the twice bent nail, nijuu orekugi 二重折釘, it is used to hang various kinds of decorative objects. Also called *inazuma orikugi 稲妻折釘.

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takekugi 竹釘 bamboo nail
Usually the nail is 7.5mm square and made from giant bamboo, madake 真竹 (also nigatake 苦竹). They have a hook on which to hang scrolls and are used in a small room or alcove, tokonoma 床の間. When pounded into a wall, the nail project 27mm with the exterior skin on the upper side. Kobori Enshuu 小堀遠州 (1579-1647) and Kanamori Souwa 金森宗和 (1584-1656) preferred nailing takekugi into a wall with the exterior skin on the under side. Hooked bamboo nails were used in a tea ceremony houses, chashitsu 茶室, kitchen, mizuya 水屋, for hanging up towels used to wipe tea implements.
Bamboo nails made from a smaller variety of bamboo that has a smooth surface with non-protruding joints are used by cabinet makers. Once shaped as nails, they are roasted in an iron pot and therefore have a brownish color.

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tokobashirahana kugi 床柱花釘 / hashirakugi 柱釘
tokonakakugi 床中釘; tokokakenaka kugi 床掛中釘; and tokootoshikake kugi 床落掛釘.
Also hanakugi 花釘. A nail on which a flower vase can be hung. It is nailed onto an alcove post tokohashira 床柱 in a tea ceremony room chashitsu 茶室. Opinion varies on its proper position which ranges from 33cm below the alcove lintel otoshigake 落掛, to 97cm above the straw mat tatami 畳 floor.

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wakugi 和釘
Also called nihonkugi 日本釘. A square nail used during and after the Tumulus period (CE 300-538/552). The nail was made of hand-wrought iron and was from 3cm-60cm long. Wakugi were classified by the shape of the nail head. The oldest nail of this type had a square head. Other heads were flat or spiral in shape. The nails were used to secure roof tiles yanegawara 屋根瓦, to eave ends, *nokisaki 軒先. Double pointed nails were used to join two wooden members to make a line like a seam, nuime 縫目. This method appeared during the Heian period (794-1185). At the Houryuuji Gojuu-no-tou 法隆寺五重塔, 27 different types of nails have been identified, ranging in length from slightly over 3.03,to over 60.9.

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yanagikugi 柳釘
Also yanagikakekugi 柳掛け釘. A nail hammered into a partially plastered post yanagibashira 柳柱 (see youjibashira 楊子柱), usually found in a 4 1/2 mat tea ceremony room chashitsu 茶室. The nail is hammered into the upper part of the post (the unplastered part) and a hanging flower vase is hung from it. According to Sen Soutan 千宗旦 (1578-1658) the nail gets its name from springs of willow draped from the nail at New Years. Examples can be seen at Yuuin 又隠 at Urasenke 裏千家, and Onigawara-no-seki 鬼瓦席 at Koudaiji 高台寺 both in Kyoto.

- source : JAANUS -
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. kasugai 鎹 / かすがい clamp, cramp, cleat, staple .

. yanefuki 屋根葺き roofer, craftsman making roofs .
using nails

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deru kugi wa utareru 出る釘は打たれる "A nail that sticks out will be hammered"
deru kui wa utareru 出る杭は打たれる "A stake that sticks out will be hammered"

. The nail that sticks out . . . .




- quote -
kui 杭 - kigui 木杭 Pile
A wooden stake or post driven into the ground.
Closely placed round wooden posts, often shaved to a point, pounded into the ground to form a base that can transfer the down bearing load from the superstructure through the footing, sills, or foundation to the ground. This system has been used from very ancient periods for foundation ground work. Pine logs were most common, but Japanese cedar, sugi 杉, and evergreen oak, kashi 樫, were also used. The stakes had to reach down below the water table, as they decayed if they dried up. In order to strengthen the tip of the kui when driving into hard ground, a protective metal band called a pile shoe, kutsukanamono 沓金物, was sometimes added.

hikaegui 控杭 pole, post
Any upright pole or post added to the inside of a castle wall for extra support. While hikaegui increased the strength of the wall, they did make it more difficult to move around close to the wall on the interior because the light was dim and people could easily fall against these protections.
- source : JAANUS -


国分尼寺守る杭打つ初仕事
Kokubun Niji mamoru kui utsu hatsu shigoto

first work of the year
to strengthen the piles
of nunnery Kokubun-ji


土屋尚 Tsuchiya Masa

. Kokubunji 国分寺 Kokubun-Ji .


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. kugi 釘 伝説 Legends about nails and curses .

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折釘に烏帽子かけたり春の宿
orekugi ni eboshi kaketari haru no yado

On a bent hook
hangs an official's cap,
the lodging house in spring.

Tr. Yuki Sawa

. Yosa Buson - Collection - 蕪村句集 Kushu .


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kugikakushi, kugi kakushi 釘隠し "hiding the nails" nail-hiding ornament

- quote
kugikakushi 釘隠
An ornament used to conceal the head of a large nail on a pressing tie rail *nageshi 長押 and on doors. Made of wood, copper, iron, or gilt bronze. From the Momoyama period techniques of cloisonne *shippou 七宝, inlay *zougan 象嵌, and openwork *sukashibori 透彫, decoration were used, and new materials such as ceramics were introduced. Pre-10c kugikakushi were hemispherical in shape and known as *bai 唄, manjuu kanamono 饅頭金物 (see *manjuugata 饅頭形) or *chichikanamono 乳金物.
From about the 10c, kugikakushi were designed using a circle of flower-petal shapes.
The most common types were the four-petalled *shiyou 四葉, six-petalled *rokuyou 六葉, and eight-petalled *hachiyou 八葉. They consisted of a central projection *taru-no-kuchi 樽の口 (cask plug), a round body *kikuza 菊座, and surrounding petal shapes *zagane 座金.
- source : JAANUS


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CLICK for more photos !


- quote -
Decorative Nail Covers
Colored in various hues, these pieces are thought to be reproductions of nail covers with inlaid cloisonné. The attributed artist Ninsei (also known as Nonomura Seiemon, d. 1694), the prominent Kyoto ware ceramicist of the latter half of the seventeenth century, was a master in the technique of overglaze enamels.



Although these small pieces have no identifiable stamp or inscription, the variegated paints of gold, silver, red, blue, and green, demonstrate the features of Ninsei's Omuro ware. Moreover, considering that these pieces came from the Marugame Kyôgoku clan, which is known for its rich collection of Ninsei works, it appears highly likely that these pieces are authentic.
- source : www.emuseum.jp/detail -


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

雛の間へ一間ごとの釘隠し
hina no ma e hitoma goto no kugi kakushi

to the room with Hina dolls
every room is decorated
with nail-hiding ornaments


Yasome Aiko 八染藍子 (1934 - )

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釘隠しまでも梅鉢あたかかし 
kugi kakushi made mo umebachi atatakashi

even the nail-hiding ornaments
like a plum-blossom
feels so warm  


Gotoo Yahan 後藤夜半 Goto Yahan (1895 - 1976)




umebachi was the family crest of the Maeda clan.
Kaga-umebachi kamon
Umebachi kamon in the shape of an ume blossom is the family crest of the Maedas of Daishoji clan (a branch family of Kaga clan) who originated Kutaniyaki Porcelain. An ume, together with a chrysanthemum, bamboo and an orchid was one of four flowers likened to wise man in old China, and the crest has deep relation with Tenjin faith.
The design is classified roughly into two patterns -realistic pattern and geometric pattern in the shape of ume blossom with five single petals. The Maedas used design to be called Kaga-umebachi that intended particular distinction from other similar family crests in shape of ume blossom.
source : kutanimus-volunteers.com


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啓蟄の日がとどきたり釘隠
小室善弘

春荒れのひと夜や鶴の釘隠し
長崎玲子

水亭は釘隠さへかきつばた
飴山實

行く春や緑青をふく釘隠し
渡部義雄

釘隠良夜の釘を隠しをり
真鍋呉夫

黴の戸の栄枯高きに釘隠
古舘曹人


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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .


. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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- - - - - #kugi #nailkugi #takekugi #kugikakushi #kui - - - - -
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12/18/2014

kasugai clamp cleat

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kasugai 鎹 / かすがい clamp, cramp, cleat, staple

. Japanese Architecture 日本建築 technical terms .
- Introduction -




. My collection in facebook .


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- quote
kasugai - cleat
A strip of metal or wood driven into two members to hold them together securely. A metal cleat that is bent at each end has sharp points.


a) watari 渡り b) tsume 爪

Each end of the cleat is pounded into one part of the two members to be joined. The bent parts, that function like nails, are called tsume 爪 and the center is called watari 渡り meaning cross over.
- source : JAANUS

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- from our kasugai discussion on facebook -

forged iron staple for a blacksmith

"cramp" in carpentry
and joinery usually refers to a mechanical "clamp" used to hold parts of an assemblage together while they are in process of construction.

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Children are Staples (ko wa kasugai)
There is a Japanese saying to the effect that "Children are Staples," ("ko wa kasugai" 子はカスガイ・鎹).


In Japanese culture, the love between men and women is seen as being beautiful and natural, but like most things in nature, not particularly permanent. Love, between women and men does not last forever. There is no bridge across forever, no soulmate, no happy end. Japanese love stories tend, or tended, to end in double suicide: the most romantic outcome that one can hope for, at least far more so than domestic bliss.

The love or at least the relationship between parents and children, between ancestors and their descendants is however seen as being eternal. Parents and offspring are considered to be indivisible. No one is born again. This goes for the relationship between children and both mothers and fathers.

So when a couple have a child, while their own emotions for each other may wax and wane, they will be irretrievable linked forever in the flesh of their flesh, their child.

Hence, just as a staple can be used to join two pieces of wood together, so a children are considered to be like staples that join their parents together forever.


Related there are :
Children are the shackles of this world and the next
ko wa sankai no kubikase 子は三界の首枷
which refers to pretty much the same thing.
- source : ww.burogu.com/2010


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かすがい【鎹】
① -- 二本の材木をつなぎとめるための両端の曲がった大釘。

② -- 二つのものをつなぎとめる役をするもの。 「子は-」

③ -- 戸締まりに用いる金具。かけがね。 「 -もとざしもあらばこそ/催馬楽」
- source : 世界大百科事典

1 - a metal clamp to hold wood together
2 - to hold something together, a bond (e.g. a child)
3 - kakegane, a kind of metal door lock

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かすがい clamp cramp
丸鋼、角形鋼、平鋼などの鉄棒の両端を折り曲げ、先端を爪(つめ)状にとがらせた建築金物で、二つの部材をつなぎ合わせるために金槌(かなづち)などで打ち込む。丸かすがい、角かすがい、平かすがいの名称がある。折り曲げた部分を爪、中央部を渡りといい、木材や石材を相互に緊結させるために用いる。建具や家具に使用する長さ3センチメートル程度のものから、建物の軸組を緊結する長さ18センチメートル程度のものまで各種あり、さらに、先端の爪が互いに直角になるような手違いかすがい、一方を短冊状にしてこれに釘(くぎ)穴をつけた目かすがいがある。前者は桁(けた)と垂木(たるき)に、後者は縁甲板と根太(ねだ)の取り付けなどに用いる。また両爪の長いものは輪かすがいといわれ、形状、名称など使用場所によっても異なる。古くは加須可比とも書き、建具などをつなぎ止めるために用いられた金物で、掛金、繋金(かきがね)を意味した。
「子は(夫妻の)かすがい」なども、つなぎ止める意味からのことばといえる。
[坂田種男]
- source : 日本大百科全書

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Kasugai shi 春日井市 Kasugai town
is a city located in Aichi Prefecture, north of the Nagoya metropolis..

As of February 2012, the city has an estimated population of 306,573 and a population density of 3,310 persons per km². The total area is 92.71 km².
Former Nagoya Airport, is located between Kasugai and neighboring Komaki.
- - History
During the Meiji period, the area was organized into villages under Higashikasugai District, with the town of Kachigawa established on July 25, 1900. On June 1, 1943, Kachigawa was merged with neighboring villages of Toriimatsu and Shinogi to form the city of Kasugai. In 1958, Kasugai annexed the neighboring towns of Sakashita and Kozoji. Kasugai gained Special city status on April 1, 2001.
- source : wikipedia


- - - - - The mascots of Kasugai
Haruyo - Nichimaru and Inosuke




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Kasugai town, Sumirezuka in Autumn


When walking up the path from the garden of Utsutsu Shrine to "Sumirezuka", you will see an array of stone monuments.
These monuments carry "Haiku" poems dedicated to Matsuo Basho an ancient "Haiku"poet.

- - - - - -more interesting English links to Kasugai Town
Kasugai City Tofu Memorial Museum - Ono no Tōfū 小野道風 (894-966)
Festivals . . . etc
- source : www.city.kasugai.lg.jp


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Kasugai Snack Foods 春日井 製菓 Kasugai Seika
a Japanese snack company that exports to the United States and United Kingdom. It mainly exports candy, but also Japanese snacks.


The company was founded in 1923 by Rai Winsuto in Kasugai, Aichi. It began as a small shop selling dried snacks such as nuts, peas, and fruit. However, since then they have become a company that produces many different snack products that they export to other countries.
- source : wikipedia


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -


あばらやの戸のかすがいよなめくじり
abaraya no to no kasugai yo namekujiri

the clamp on the door
of my tumbledown home -
a slug


. Nozawa Boncho 野沢凡兆 . (1640 - 1714)




. namekujiri なめくじり slug .
namekuji 蛞蝓 (なめくじ) slug / namekujira なめくじら
- - kigo for all summer -


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日の盛鎹打たる仁王の脛
hi no sakari kasugai uchitaru nioo no sune

the sun at its best -
hitting a clamp
in the shin of Nio


Takazawa Ryooichi 高澤良一 Takazawa Ryoichi




. Nioo 仁王 Nio, Deva Kings .



. hizakari 日盛 (ひざかり) "the sun at its best" .
..... hi no sakari 日の盛(ひのさかり
the strong heat of the day
- - kigo for late summer - -

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白玉や鎹の子も十七に
shiratama ya kasugai no ko mo juushichi ni

white dumplings -
our child, our bond
now already seventeen

Tr. Gabi Greve

Suzuku Shigeo 鈴木しげを

. shiratama 白玉 (しらたま) Shiratama Dango .
"white treasure, white pearls"
- - kigo for all summer - -


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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .



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12/12/2014

zashiki guest room

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zashiki 座敷 guest room, drawing room, sitting room

. Interior Design - The Japanese Home .
- Introduction -


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A generic term for a room covered with straw mats *tatami 畳.

In the Heian period when aristocratic dwellings *shinden-zukuri 寝殿造, were floored with wooden planks, woven straw or rush mats, some with bound edging, and thick mats agedatami 上畳 that raised the person a little above floor level were used for seating.
Eventually, from the late 12c, the word zashiki applied to rooms completely covered with straw mats and was used for guests. Thus, it became a reception room or guest room. This custom was later emulated in the folk dwellings *minka 民家 of lower ranking people in the Edo period.


Nagatomi 永富 house (Hyogo)

Both *sukiya 数寄屋 and *shoin 書院, later came to use not only tatami but also incorporated alcoves (both *tokonoma 床の間 and *wakidana 脇棚) in the zashiki.


- - - - - okuzashiki 奥座敷



1 
A general term for the final or innermost room of a *shoin 書院 style reception suite.

2 
In vernacular houses *minka 民家 of the Edo period in parts of Touhoku 東北 and the Kantou 関東, Toyama, Ishikawa, and Kagawa prefectures, and Kyoto district, the room furthest from the earthfloored area *doma 土間 in the rear part of a *hirairi 平入, house. It was a formal reception room equipped with a decorative alcove *tokonoma 床の間. Alternatively called *oku 奥, oku-no-ma 奥の間, oku-no-dei 奥の出居.

3 
In vernacular townhouses *machiya 町家 of the Edo period in Kyoto and Nara, a room at the rear of the house overlooking the garden. Equipped with a tokonoma, it served as a formal reception room and often as a sleeping room shinshitsu 寝室 for elderly dependents. Also called *oku 奥.

4 
A formal reception room to the rear of the shop, *mise 店 in machiya in the vincinity of Kanazawa 金沢 in Ishikawa prefecture..


- - - - - kura zashiki 蔵座敷 living room in a storehouse
Also *zashikigura 座敷蔵.
A fireproof structure *dozou-zukuri 土蔵造 used as a reception suite *zashiki 座敷. The roof is tiled *kawarabuki 瓦葺, or boarded *itabuki 板葺.
Where the kurazashiki is attached to or incorporated into the core area of a house, it is called uchigura zashiki 内蔵座敷. Usually two storeys high, the lower floor is always used as a reception room, whilst the upper floor is either a storeroom or a second reception room.



The most luxurious kurazashiki reception rooms were fitted with a decorative alcove *tokonoma 床の間, staggered shelves *chigaidana 違い棚, and a built-in table tsukeshoin 付書院, and other decorative features. The kurazashiki was used for important ceremonies such as weddings, as well as to accommodate guests. First seen in town houses in the Kansai 関西 region, the kurazashiki spread to Edo.
Today, the largest numbers of surviving examples can be seen in Yamagata and Fukushima prefectures. Also used as high-class guest house accommodation.
- source : JAANUS

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. Zashiki Hakkei 座敷八景 Eight Parlor Views .
by Suzuki Harunobu 鈴木春信
and
more about the Hakkei 八景 Eight Views of Edo

under construction
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karakuri ningyō (からくり人形)  mechanized puppets

zashiki karakuri (座敷からくり, tatami room karakuri) were small and used in homes.

They influenced the Noh, Kabuki and Bunraku theatre.

zashiki karakuri

The most common example today of a zashiki karakuri mechanism is a tea-serving robot, which starts moving forward when a cup of tea is placed on the plate in its hands. It was used in a situation when a host wanted to treat a guest in a recreational way at a tea ceremony. It moves in a straight line for a set distance, moving its feet as if walking, and then bows its head.
This signals that the tea is for drinking, and the doll stops when the cup is removed.
When it is replaced, the robot raises its head, turns around and returns to where it came from. It is typically powered by a wound spring made of whalebone, and the actions are controlled by a set of cams and levers.
source : Wikipedia


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zashiki warashi 座敷童子 / ざしきわらし girl spooks
in Iwate, Tono, Tohoku / 岩手県に伝えられる精霊的な存在


CLICK for more photos !

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Translated from Mizuki Shigeru’s Tono Monogatari

Zashiki warashi are a yokai from the Tohoku region of Japan. They live in the rafters of ceilings or in old storehouses. One of the mysteries of zashiki warashi is that they always take the appearance of small children, and never of adults.

In Iwate prefecture, zashiki warashi are said to appear in many of the local Elementary schools, and play with the children. At nine o’ clock, dressed in a white kimono, the zashiki warashi slip through cracks in the door and play around between the desks and chairs, having a great time. Of course, only the children can see the zashiki warashi as they romp around the classroom.

Also, about a hundred years ago in Tokyo, zashiki warashi were said to live in the storehouse of a man named Umehara Sotoku. Whenever any human went into the storehouse they would suddenly be overcome by the need to urinate and would have to flee running from the storehouse. It was said that this was due to the presence of the zashiki warashi. Also, sometimes at night the sound of something striking a metal pole could be heard.

One year, there was a fire near that house and the flames rapidly spread. The family was busy bringing the furniture out of the house when a child that no one knew was seen running out of the storehouse and helped carry the furniture into the cellar for safekeeping. Even though they tried, no one got a good look at his face. When all of the goods and people were safely in the cellar, the door was shut tight but the small boy was no were to be seen.

That old storehouse was nothing special, the kind that could be found anywhere. But high up on the shelf that was used to store charcoal there was a box about 15 by 16 centimeters that no one ever touched. Most likely that was the home of the zashiki warashi.

The old storehouse did eventually burn down in a fire in the middle of the Meiji period, and from then on the zashiki warashi was never seen or heard from again. I wonder where it went?



There is what is called the Three Great Stories of Tono. Of these, the legend of the zashiki-warashi is by far the most famous. Let’s touch on these legends a bit.

Zashiki-warashi (“zashiki” meaning the tatami room of traditional Japanese houses, and “warashi” meaning a kid or small child) are often seen as a kind of omen in the houses of once-great families on the verge of decline. The disappearance of the zashiki-warashi from the house was a sign that the family’s fortunes had waned. Looking into this, you can find many families who have used zashiki-warashi to account for the withering away of their wealth and status. The disappearance of zashiki-warashi was also an easy way to explain away a neighbor’s misfortunes to children who were too young to understand. Many a parent has relied on this convenient excuse to circumvent uncomfortable questions.

But there are other thoughts on the zashiki-warashi. In the 42nd year of Meiji, Yanagita wrote in his diary that on the journey from Hanamaki to Tono he saw only three places that showed any sign of human habitation. On these rough plateaus between the surrounding mountains it was said there were a hardscrabble people making their living off the land called Yamabito. These people of the mountains were said to be of substantial build and were described as having eyes differently colored from normal Japanese. The villages of the Tono area were terrified of Yamabito, who were said to sometimes raid the villages and either ravage or kidnap the local women. Due to this fear of outsiders, as well as due to the special geographical features of the mountain basin in which they lived, the people of Tono were solitary and exclusionary. Their houses held many secrets.

Old families of rank and reputation sometimes found their daughters ravaged and impregnated by these Yamabito attacks, and any child born of such a union was hidden away in the depths of the family mansion and never allowed to see the daylight. Other families of lesser fortunes sometimes gave birth to more children than they could afford, so it was said that some children were culled, their bodies buried under the dirt floors or under the kitchen instead of a proper grave. An eyewitness to both of these ancient customs sites these practices as the origin of the zashiki-warashi legends.

There are of course other origins that have nothing to do with bad parents hiding or killing their own children. Some say that zashiki-warashi are merely spirits of the house, no different than any other kami.

Regardless of their origins, they are a vivid and ancient legend. One official account, published in 1910 (the 43rd year of Meiji), tells of an elementary school in Tsuchibuchi where a first grade student claimed to see a zashiki-warashi right in front of him, although his teachers and classmates were unable to see the spirit
- source : hyakumonogatari.com


. Tōno monogatari 遠野物語 Tono Monogatari .
Legends of Tono


. makuragaeshi 枕返し pillow flipper and Zashiki Warashi legends .


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

. WKD - kigo for all summer .

sitting room in summer, parlor in summer
natsu zashiki 夏座敷


Click for more photos of a ZASHIKI !

Zashiki 座敷, a room covered with tatami straw mats and a decoration alcove (tokonoma 床の間), used to entertain visitors, a kind of reception room.
Ths SUMMER sitting room is the same room as used in winter when entertaining visitors during the day. But with the summer decoration of bamboo blinds and light seating mats, the summer preparations would make you feel cool in summer. The doors could be kept open to let the fresh air from the garden into the room.
This is of course talking about the Edo period, without air conditioning or electric fans to bring some refreshment.
A wind chime hung in the eves would also enhance the feeling of coolness.
elegant blinds for the living room, ozashiki sudare 御座敷すだれ

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. WKD - kigo for all winter .

sitting room in winter, fuyu zashiki 冬座敷




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- - - - - oku zashiki, okuzashiki 奥座敷

はつ雪や医師に酒出す奥座敷
hatsu yuki ya isha ni sake dasu okuzashiki

first snow !
we serve sake to the doctor
in the innermost room


. Tan Taigi 炭太祇 .
(1709 -1771 or ?1738-1791)


- - - and there it is ! a sake 酒 rice wine called Okuzashiki


- source : sakesakesakesakesake.blogspot.jp

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山茶花や青空見ゆる奥座敷
sazanka ya aozora miyuru okuzashiki

winter camellia -
from the reception room in the back
I look at the blue sky


Oomine Akira 大峯あきら Omine Akira




. sasanka 山茶花 Camellia Sasanqua .
- - kigo for Winter - -


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- - - - - kura zashiki, kurazashiki 蔵座敷 living room in a storehouse



source : www.jin.ne.jp/araebisu

蔵座敷五尺時計の音涼し
kurazashiki goshakudikei no oto suzushi

our storehouse living room -
the sound of the large clock
is so cool


Hakutaku Yoshiko 白澤よし子

go shaku 五尺 is about 150 cm.


. tokei 時計 clock .

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source : www.tif.ne.jp/jp/ati

喜多方や旅の朝寝の蔵座敷
Kitakata ya tabi no asane no kurazashiki

Kitakata -
sleeping late on a trip
in a storehouse guest room


Hasegawa Teruko 長谷川耿子

Kitakata is a town in Fukushima, famous for its many kura.
. kura 蔵 storehouse, warehouse .


also famous for its good ramen soup.
. Kitakata Ramen 喜多方ラーメン .

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獅子舞に戸をあけ放つ蔵座敷
shishimai ni to o akehanatsu kurazashiki

opening the door
of the storehouse living room
for the Lion Dancers


Yoshida Futaba 吉田二葉



- source and more photos : 得さんのページ

. shishimai,  獅子舞 lion dance .
- - kigo for the New Year - -

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .


. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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12/06/2014

irori sunken hearth

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irori 囲炉裏 / 居炉裏 / いろり open sunken hearth

- part of the entry about
. Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. daidokoro 台所 the Japanese kitchen .
- Introduction -


source : kodairanoyama.wordpress.com

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- quote
irori 囲炉裏 - also written 居炉裏.
Also called ro 炉. An open hearth set in the floor of various rooms in Japanese buildings. Believed by some to have referred originally to the periphery of the hearth, the term was generally used for the hearth itself. It provided heat, light and in many cases a place for cooking suiji 炊事.

For cooking purposes, pots or kettles were either placed upon tripods, or suspended from the beams above the heat using an adjustable hook *jizaikagi 自在鈎 which might be decorative.

Irori size varied from around 45x45cm (in teahouses) to 2mx1m, with 90x90cm being the average. The irori was usually square.
There were two main types. The simplest was a pit excavated directly in the surface of the ground, partially backfilled with sand and ash and edged with stones or timber. This kind of irori was common in the poorer vernacular houses *minka 民家, of the Edo period, which had a low floor of rice husks and reed matting *doza 土座 instead of a raised floor. This type resembles the hearths unearthed in excavations of prehistoric pit dwellings *tateana juukyo 竪穴住居.

The second type of irori was constructed into the raised timber floor, takayuka 高床, and edged with timber or occasionally stone. A mound of stones and earth brought up to the level of the underside of the floor formed the base. A hollow fire pit, usually lined with plaster *shikkui 漆喰, was then made in the center of this base.

The irori was already in use in the upper class residences of the Heian period, where it was termed *jihiro 地火炉. It was also found in shoin style residences *shoin-zukuri 書院造, especially in service rooms such as the kitchens *daidokoro 台所, *kiyodokoro 清所, and in style rooms *sukiya 数寄屋, and tea houses *chashitsu 茶室. In minka it was found not only in the kitchen, but also in the center of the main living room *hiroma 広間, *oue 御上 (o-ue), where it was a focus of everyday life around which meals were eaten and informal visitors entertained.

The sitting arrangement around the irori in minka was fixed: the seat at the upper end *kamite 上手, overlooked the earthfloored area *doma 土間, called the *yokoza 横座, was for the master of the house. The seat opposite him, called variously *kijiri 木尻, hijiri 火尻, or *shimoza 下座, was the lowest in rank and was used by junior family members, dependents and servants, or for fuel storage. The seat toward the rear of the house, closest to the kitchen area, was the wife's seat *nyoubouza 女房座 (nyoobooza), ubaza うば座, kakaza かか座, tanamoto 棚もと. The seat opposite her (nearest to the entry in *hirairi 平入 houses) was used by visitors or by the eldest son and was called *kyakuza 客座, mukouza 向座, or otokoza 男座.

All of these seats have a wide variety of local names. The irori was a feature of minka in almost all parts of the country, and in Touhoku 東北 region, it was quite common for houses to have two. An exception was the Kinki 近畿 region around Nara, Kyoto and Osaka, where, from the mid-Edo period, the irori virtually ceased to be used in the vicinity of major urban areas. Irori has a wide range of regional names and pronunciation variants, of which the main ones are yururi ゆるり, yurui ゆるい, irui いるい, yuri ゆり, iri いり, ennaka えんなか, hinata ひなた, hitakijiro 火焚き地炉, hijiro 火地炉.
- source : JAANUS



CLICK for more photos !


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jizaikagi 自在鉤 pot hook, Kesselhaken 
to hang a pot above the open fire of a hearth (irori 囲炉裏).

f
from my collection

- quote
jizaikagi 自在鈎 pothook.
A device that enables a pot nabe 鍋 or tea kettle tetsubin 鉄瓶 to be suspended over a sunken hearth * irori 囲炉裏. It was called jizaikagi (free hook) because the pothook was adjustable, allowing a pot to be lowered or raised away from the fire as required. The most basic type consisted of a piece of rope from which the pot was suspended, tied to one end of a freely suspended wooden or metal element called *saru 猿.

The loose end was passed over a beam, and then threaded through a hole in the other end of the saru, and knotted to the hook kagi 鈎 which supported the pot. The drag tension on the rope as it passed through the saru kept the pot at the desired height; the height could be adjusted and the tension could be relaxed by changing the angle of the saru. The saru became a readily recognizable part of domestic architecture as it was often decoratively designed in the form of a fan or a fish, or the mallet of the god *Daikokuten 大黒天, which was believed to bring prosperity.

More sophisticated jizaikagi used two bamboo or metal poles takesao 竹棹 but they also relied upon the principal of drag tension and the use of the saru. It is not known when the jizaikagi was invented but it was already in use in the Muromachi period. It was used in service buildings, vernacular houses *minka 民家 and tea houses *chashitsu 茶室. It is said to have been introduced into tea houses by Takeno Jouou 武野紹鴎 (1502-55), inspired by one he had seen in a rural house.
Often abbreviated to jizai 自在, it also had a variety of local names including kagidoko 鈎どこ, Nagano prefecture; tsurikagi 吊り鈎, Ishikawa prefecture; kagizuru 鈎づる, Gifu prefecture; and oansama おあん様, Chiba prefecture.
- source : JAANUS



source : facebook

with Fuji San"-shaped saru counterweight

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

open Japanese hearth, irori 囲炉裏
Click for more photos!

ro 炉 hearth
irori 囲炉裏 sunken hearth
robi 炉火 fire in the hearth
danboo 暖房 / 煖房 fireplace
ro akari 炉明 light from the hearth

. WKD - ro 炉 hearth .
- - kigo for all winter

..... uzumibi 埋火, うずみび

Ryokan warming himself at a small fire (uzumibi) 埋火(うずみび)


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五つ六つ茶の子にならぶ囲炉裏哉
itsutsu mutsu cha no ko ni narabu irori kana

Irori and tea cakes with
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


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source : dream326.blog.fc2.com

仏師逝き火なき囲炉裏を残したる
busshi naki hi naki irori o nokoshitaru

the Buddhist sculptor is dead
and left the sunken hearth
without a fire . . .


Makino Shunku 牧野春駒


. Buddhist Sculptors Gallery .


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自在鉤に荒彫りの鯉ビール酌む
jizaikagi ni arabori no koi biiru kumu

as a pot hook
a roughly carved carp -
pouring beer


Ishikawa Keiroo 石川桂郎 Ishikawa Keiro (1909 - 1975)


. biiru ビール .. 麦酒 beer, Japanisches Bier .
- - kigo for all Summer - -

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source : www7b.biglobe.ne.jp/~studio-takao
Yasome Aiko 八染藍子

炉開きや鯉まろまろと自在鉤
robiraki ya koi marumaru to jizaikagi

opening the hearth -
a well-rounded carp
as our pot hook


Yasome Aiko 八染藍子 (1934 - )


. Robiraki 炉開き"Opening the hearth" .
irori hiraki 囲炉裏開く(いろりひらく)"opening the open hearth"
- - kigo for November - Tea Ceremony - -




CLICK for more photos !



- - - - -  how to install the pot hook carp
- source : store.shopping.yahoo.co.j

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. My collection in facebook .


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