Showing posts with label - - - BUSON - Yosa Buson -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - BUSON - Yosa Buson -. Show all posts

12/27/2017

Persons, People

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Persons and People of Edo - Personen


source : www.heritage-images.com
People of Yedo, Japan


. Edokko 江戸っ子, lit. "child of Edo" .
a person born and raised in Edo

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Abe Masahiro 阿部 正弘 (1819 – 1857) 老中 Roju in the Bakufu Government
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. Adams, William Adams "Anjin" 按針 .

. Amakusa Shirō 天草四郎 Amakusa Shiro .
(1621? – April 12, 1638) Nagasaki


Aoki Shukuya 青木夙夜 - nanga painter
literati (bunjin 文人)

. Asahi Shigeaki 朝日重章 . - (1674 - 1718) Samurai and diary writer

. Atsuhime, Atsu-Hime 篤姫 Princess Atsu
Tenshooin 天璋院 Tensho-In .
- (1836 - 1883)



Baba Bunkoo, Baba Bunkō 馬場文耕 Baba Bunko - (1718 - 1759) political writer

. Baisaoo, Baisaō 売茶翁 Baisao, "Old Tea Seller" Zen master .
賣茶翁 (ばいさおう) / 高遊外 Ko Yugai. - (1675 – 1763)

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. - - Bakumatsu  幕末 foreigners in Japan - - .
Aime, Humbert Aime エメ アンベール (1819-1900)
William John Alt - (1840-1905) ウィリアム・オールト
Bird, Isabella Bird, Isabella Lucy Bird イザベラ・バード (1831-1904)
Richard Henry Brunton - (1841 – 1901) - "Father of Japanese lighthouses"
Ranald MacDonald - (1824 – 1894) - first English teacher
- - Kenneth Ross MacKenzie
- - James Mitchell
Laurence Oliphant - (1829 – 1888)
Wirgman, Charles Wirgman チャールズ・ワーグマン(1832 - 1891)
Ernest Satow - Sir Ernest Mason Satow (1843 - 1929) アーネスト・サトウ
Schliemann, Johannes Heinrich Schliemann ハインリヒ・ユリウス・シュリーマン (1822 - 1890)
Scidmore, Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore エリザ・ルアマー・シドモア (1856 - 1928)
Suenson, Edouard Suenson エドゥアルド・スエンソン (1842 - 1921)

- - - - - Jack Seward (1924 – November 2010)

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. Banzuin Chobei 幡随院長兵衛 Chobei of Bandzuin . - (1622–1657)

. Benkei Kozaemon 棟梁弁慶小左衛門 master carpenter .

. Buson, 与謝蕪村 Yosa Buson in Edo .
(1715-1783) - Haiku poet


. bugyoo, bugyō 奉行 Bugyo officials in the Edo government .


. busshi 仏師 Buddhist sculptors and Buddha statues .


. Chaya Shiroojiroo, Chaya Shirōjirō 茶屋四郎次郎 Chaya Shirojiro merchant family .
Chaya Shirōjirō Kiyonobu 茶屋四郎次郎清信 (1545-1596)
Chaya Shirōjirō Kiyotada  茶屋清忠 (1584-1603)
Chaya Shirōjirō Kiyotsugu  茶屋清次 (1584-1622)


. Daidôzan Bungorô 大童山文五郎 Daidozan Bungoro .
(1788 - 1822) - "Great Child Mountain" Sumo wrestler



. dokufu 毒婦 "poisonous woman" .
Hanai O-Ume 花井お梅
Harada O-Kinu 原田お絹 / Yoarashi O-Kinu 夜嵐お絹
O-Miyo no Kata お美代の方 Senkoin 専行院 
Shirakoya O-Kuma 白子屋お熊
Takahashi O-Den 高橋お伝
Torioi O-Matsu 鳥追お松
Yaoya o-Shichi 八百屋お七


. dooshin, dōshin  同心 Doshin, police officers .
onmitsu dooshin 隠密同心 secret police officers
yoriki 与力 police sergant
meakashi 目明し -okappiki 岡引  semi-official detectives


. Edo Taroo Shigenaga 江戸太郎重長 Edo Taro Shigenaga   .
- The Edo Clan of the Musashi Taira 武蔵江戸氏 Musashi Edo-Shi


. Egawa Tarozaemon 江川太郎左衛門 . - (1801-1855) - Scholar - Hidetatsu Egawa

. Enku 円空 Master Carver .
(1632?~1695)


. Fujiokaya Yoshizoo 藤岡屋由蔵 Fujiokaya Yoshizo . - (1739 - )
- Sudoo Yoshizoo 須藤由蔵 Sudo Yoshizo - Honyoshi 本由


. Fukagawa Hachiroemon 深川八郎右衛門 . - active around 1596. Headman of Fukagawa

Fukami Jikyu - samurai Edokko
source : www.myjapanesehanga.com

Furuyama Moromasa 古山師政 Ukiyoe painter, Edo

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gesakusha 戯作者 writers of light fiction in Edo
author of popular stories -
Kibyooshi 黄表紙 Kibyoshi "Yellow cover" magazines and kokkeibon 滑稽本 comic writing

.
Jippensha Ikku 十返舎一九 (1765 - 1831) .

Santoo Kyooden 山東京伝 Santo Kyoden (1761 - 1816)
Tamenaga Shunsui 為永春水 (1790 - 1843)

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. Glover, Thomas Blake Glover トーマス グラバー (1838 - 1911) .
Merchant in Nagasaki


. Go Saga Tenno, Gosaga Tenno 後嵯峨天皇 "Saga the Second". - (1220 - 1272)

. Gotoo Nuinosuke 後藤縫之助 / 後藤縫殿助 Goto Nuinosuke . - Kimono dealer



. Habu Genseki Habu 土生玄碩 (1762 - 1848) . - Medical doctor

. Hanabusa Itchoo, Itchō 英一蝶 Hanabusa Itcho . (1652 – 1724) - painter

. Hasegawa Heizoo, Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 Hasegawwa Heizo / Onihei  . (1719 - 1773)

. hatamoto 旗本 samurai class .

. Hayashi Razan 林羅山 . - (1583 - 1657) - Neo-Confucian philosopher

. Hidari Jingoroo 左甚五郎 Hidari Jingoro . - left-handed carpenter - legends

. Hiki Ikkan 飛来一閑 . (1578年?~明暦3年(1657年)
papier-machee style lacquerer

. Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内 . (1728 - 80)


. Hijiri ひじり【聖】”holy men", mendicant monks .

. Hiroshige - 安藤広重 Ando Hiroshige, 歌川広重 Utagawa Hiroshige .
One Hundred Famous Views of Edo - Meisho Yedo Hiakkei 名所江戸百景
- - - - - source : www.hiroshige.org.uk


. Hoshina Masayuki 保科 正之 . (1611 - 1673). Founder of the Matsudaira clan of Aizu.



. Ichiroo 一路 Ichiro "One Road" - 小野寺一路 Onodera Ichiro .

. Iba Hachiroo 伊庭八郎 Iba Hachiro . - (1844 - 1869) Samurai and diary writer

. Ii Naosuke 井伊直弼 -- Hikone 彦根 and Sakuradamon . - (1815 - 1860)

. Ina Hanzaemon Tadanobu 伊奈半左衛門忠順 . (? - 1712)

Inoo Tadataka, Inō 伊能忠敬 Ino Tadataka, Inoh Tadataka
(1745 - 1818) cartographer

Issa - . Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .
- Haiku Poet

. Isshin Tasuke 一心太助 fictional fishmonger in Edo .

Iwahashi Zenbei 岩橋善兵衛 (1756–1811) observed the sky -
heitengi 平天儀 to measure celestial bodies
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. Iwasaki Yataroo 岩崎弥太郎 Iwasaki Yataro (1834 - 1885) . Founder of Mitsubishi 三菱

. Izawa Yasobei 井沢弥惣兵衛 (1654 - 1738) and the waterworks at Minuma 見沼  .

. Izu no Choohachi 伊豆の長八 Izu no Chohachi - Irie Choohachi 入江長八 Irie Chohachi .
(1815 - 1889) wall plasterer artist


. Jan Joosten van Lodensteyn - (1557 - 1623) .
ヤン・ヨーステン ファン・ローデンスタイン / 耶揚子
Yayosugashi district 八代洲河岸 / Yaesu 八重洲 named after him

. Jizooboo Shoogen 地蔵坊正元 Jizobo Shogen . - Priest around 1708

. Jiun Onkoo 慈雲飲光 Priest Jiun Onko . (1718 – 1804/1805)


. Kamada Matahachi (Kamata Matahachi) 鎌田又八 . (? 1657) loyal retainer, strong man

. Kasuga no Tsubone 春日局 Lady Kasuga. - (1579 – 1643)

. Katoo Tamikichi 加藤民吉 Kato Tamikichi .
(1772 - 1824) - the "father of porcelain" it Seto, Aichi.

. Keian 慶庵 / 桂庵 Keian matchmaker .
- - - - - doctor Yamato Keian 大和慶庵 (around 1653)

Kin Noo 金農 Kin-Nou, Kin No (1687 - 1764) painter
literati (bunjin 文人)

. Komusoo 虚無僧 Komuso monks and Shakuhachi flute players .

Koo Fuyoo 高芙蓉 Ko Fuyo (1722 - 1784) painter
literati (bunjin 文人)

. kyookaku 侠客 Kyokaku, "chivalrous Yakuza" .
Banzuiin Chōbei 幡随院長兵衛 Banzuin Chobei . (1622–1657)
Kunisada Chuuji 国定忠治 Kunisada Chuji . (1810-1851)
Shimizu no Jirocho 清水次郎長 . (1820-1893)
Shinmon Tatsugoro 新門辰五郎 . (?1792 / ?1800 - 1875)



Matsudaira shi 松平氏 Matsudaira clan
Matsudaira Motoyasu changed his name to Tokugawa Ieyasu . . .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Matsudaira Naonori 松平直矩 . - (1642 - 1695) Samurai and diary writer

. Matsudaira Nobutsuna 松平信綱 (1596 – 1662) .


. Matsui Gensui 松井源水 spinning top juggler family . - Asakusa, Edo

. Matsuo Basho in Edo 松尾芭蕉 .
(1644 - 1694) - Haiku Poet

Meisho - Empress Meishō (1623–96)
and Cultural Pursuits at the Japanese Imperial Court"
by Elizabeth Lillehoj, DePaul University
- source : facebook -

. Mito Koomon 水戸黄門 Mito Komon .
Tokugawa Mitsukuni 徳川 光圀
July 11, 1628 - January 14, 1701

. Mizuno Heikuroo 水野兵九郎 Mizuno Heikuro - Setomonoya.

Mizuno Tadakuni 水野忠邦 (1794 – 1851) - Sōshaban (Master of Ceremonies)
Mizuno Tadamasa (水野忠政) and other MIZUNO officials in the Edo Bakufu

. Mokujiki 木食上人観正 Saint Mokujiki Shonin Kansho / 木食観正上人 . - around 1780

. Moriyama Takamori 森山孝盛 . - (1738 - 1815) Samurai and diary writer


. Nakae Tooju 中江藤樹 Nakae Tōju (1608 – 1648) .
Confucian philosopher - "the sage of Ōmi" 近江聖人

. Nami no Ihachi 波の伊八 "Ihachi the carver of waves" .
(1751-1824)

. Nichoosai, Nichōsai 耳鳥斎 Nichosai, Nicho-sai . - (?1751 - 1802/03) Painter from Osaka

. Nezumi Kozō ねずみ小僧 / 鼠小僧 Nezumi Kozo, a famous thief .

. Ninmiya Sontoku 二宮尊徳 . - (1787-1856)- studying food

. Nitta Yoshioki 新田義興 . (? - 1358) and
矢口渡 Yaguchi no Watashi



. Oguri Tadamasa 小栗 忠順 - Oguri Kozukenosuke 小栗上野介 . - (1827 - 1868) - Statesman

. Oni-Azami Seikichi 鬼あざみ清吉 - famous thief, bandit . *

. Onogawa Kisaburō 小野川喜三郎 Onogawa Kisaburo . - (1758 - 1806) Sumo wrestler

Ookubu Shibutsu 大窪詩佛 Okubo Shibutsu (1767 - 1837) Poet
literati (bunjin 文人)

. Ooka Echizen, 大岡越前 Oka Echizen, .
Ōoka Tadasuke (大岡 忠相) (1677 - 1752) - Governor of Edo (machi bugyoo 町奉行)


. Ookubo Hikozaemon 大久保彦左衛門 - Okubo Tadataka 大久保 忠教 . (1560 - 1639)

. Oota Dookan 太田道灌 Ota Dokan .
(1432-1486) Builder of Edo Castle

. Oota Nanpo 大田南畝 Ota Nanpo, Ota Nampo - 蜀山人 Shokusanjin . (1749 - 1823)



Rai Sanyoo 頼山陽 Rai Sanyo (1781- 1832)poet
literati (bunjin 文人)

. Ryuutatsu 隆達 Ryutatsu - 高三隆達 Takasabu Ryutatsu .
(1527 - 1611)
- - - - - and a monk named Roosai 弄斎 Rosai.



. Saito Gesshin 斉藤月岑 (1804 - 1878) .
----- . 斎藤月岑 Saito Gesshin . - (1674 - 1718) Samurai and diary writer

. Sakai Banshiroo 酒井伴四郎 Sakai Banshiro . - (1833 - ?) Samurai and diary writer

. Sakai Tadakatsu 酒井忠勝 (1587 - 1662) . - Daimoy, Roju

. Sakamoto Ryooma (Ryuuma) 坂本竜馬 Sakamoto Ryoma (1836 - 1867) .

. Sanada Yukimura and the Sanada clan 真田幸村 . - (1567 -1615) Sanadamaru 真田丸

. Sengai Gibon 仙厓義梵 (1751–1837) .

. sendoo sendō 船頭 boatsman, ferryman, chief fisherman .

. shakan, sakan 左官 plasterer, stucco master .

. Shibata Zeshin 柴田是真 (1807 - 1891) and laquer ware .

. Shibukawa Shunkai 渋川春海 Shibukawa Harumi .
- (1639 - 1715) astronomer and go player


. Shinsengumi 新選組 Group of Samurai to protect Shogun Tokugawa Iemochi .

. shokunin  職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .
- - - - - takumi 匠 master craftsman

Siebold, Philipp Franz von Siebold (1796 - 1866)
German physician, botanist, and traveler. Stayed in Dejima, Nagasaki.


. Sukeroku 助六 - Hero of Edo .

. Sumitomo family 住友家, Osaka .

. Suruga Dainagon 駿河大納言 ー Tokugawa Tadanaga 徳川忠長 . - (1606 – 1634)

. Suuden, Konchi-In Suuden 金地院崇伝 Priest Konchin Suden - Ishin Suuden 以心崇伝 .


. Suzuki Shigenari 鈴木重成 .
(1588 - 1653)


. Tachibana Sakon no Shogen 立花左近将監 from Fukuoka / Asakusa .

. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – March 25, 940) .

. Takadaya Kahei 高田屋嘉兵衛 .
(1769 - 1827) Merchant from Awajishima 淡路島, Shikoku

. 高松喜六 Takamatsu Kiroku (? - 1713) . and 内藤新宿 Naito Shinjuku

. Takano Chooei, Takano Chōei 高野長英 Takano Choei . - (1804 - 1850) . Doctor

. Takatsu Ihee, Ihei 高津伊兵衛 (1679 - ) .
Iseya 伊勢屋 Iseya Store and Iseya Ihee 伊勢屋伊兵衛

. Tani Bunchō, Tani Bunchoo 谷 文晁 Tani Buncho . (1763 - 1841)
literati (bunjin 文人) painter and poet.

. Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次 (1719 - 1788) Edo councillor .

. Tanzenburo Katsuyama Tanzen Buro Katsuyama 丹前風呂勝山 . - lady of pleasure

. Tokiwazu Moji Tayuu 常磐津 文字太夫 Tokiwazu Mojitayu . - (1709 - 1781)
and the Joruri Tokiwazu-bushi 常磐津節

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- Tokugawa Shogun 将軍徳川家

Tokugawa Hidetada 徳川秀忠 (1579 - 1632) - Second Shogun
He died from a worm infection of マンソン孤虫 Schistosoma mansoni.

. Tokugawa Iemitsu 徳川家光 Third Shogun . - (1604 – 1651)
and his reimuzoo 霊夢像 Reimuzo, Oracle Dream Images of Ieyasu

. Tokugawwa Ieyasu 徳川家康 First Shogun . - (1543 - 1616)

. Tokugawa Muneharu 徳川宗春 . - (1696 - 1764) - Nagoya

. Tokugawa Yoshimune 徳川吉宗 . (1684 - 1751)

. Tokugawa Yoshinobu 徳川慶喜 . - (1873 - 1913) The Last Shogun

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. Tomokuroo 鬘師の友九郎 Kabuki wig maker Tomokuro .


. Tooyama 遠山景元 Toyama Saemon no Jo Kagemoto .
(1793 – 1855) - Tōyama no Kin-san (遠山の金さん)

. Tsuchiya Goroemon 土屋五郎右衛門 . - and Konyachō 神田紺屋町 Konya-Cho Indigo dyeing

. Tsuruya Kiemon 鶴屋喜右衛門 Publisher 仙鶴堂 Senkakudo .

Tsuruya Nanboku 鶴屋南北 Tsuruya Namboku IV
Ebiya Genzō, Dai Namboku (1755 - 1892) playwright of macaber and supernatural stories.
Married to the daughter of Tsuruya Nanboku, the Kabuki actor.

. Tsutaya Jūzaburō 蔦屋重三郎 Tsutaya Jusaburo . (1750 - 1797) Publisher



Ukita Kookichi - Ukita Kōkichi - Ukita Kokichi 浮田 幸吉, 1757 - 1847
aviation pioneer from Okayama
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. Uzawa Shoogetsu 鵜沢松月 Uzawa Shogetsu (1853 - 1923) and laquer ware .


. Yagyu clan and legends 柳生一族と伝説 .
Yagyū "Sekishūsai" Munetoshi 柳生 石舟斎 宗厳 (1529 - 1606)
- His son,
Yagyū Munenori 柳生宗矩 (1571 – 1646)
- Munenori's sons,
Yagyū Jūbei Mitsuyoshi 柳生 十兵衞 三厳 (Yagyu Jubei) (1607 - 1650) -- and Yagyū Munefuyu 柳生宗冬 (1613 - 1675)


Yanagawa Kooran 梁川紅蘭 Yanagawa Koran (1804 - 1879) Poet
literati (bunjin 文人)

. Yanagisawa Nobutoki 柳沢信鴻 . - (1724 - 1792) Samurai and diary writer

. Yoshimune, 8th Shogun, Tokugawa Yoshimune 徳川吉宗 . (1684 - 1751)


. zatoo 座頭 blind people, often playing the biwa .

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. Daruma Pilgrims .


All people mentioned in the Darumapedia :
. PERSONS - index - PERSONEN .


to be updated
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10/12/2016

Buson hatsumono first things

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. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .
(1715-1783)

. hatsumono, hatsu-mono 初物 first things - Introduction .

The townspeople of Edo loved their "first things" and spent a lot of money on them!

There are many New and First activities and things throughout the year.

There are 386 kigo starting with 初..., and
119 of them do not relate to the New Year.

There are 93 kigo that end with ...初 and
7 of them do not relate to the New Year.






Some translations are from the friends at this facebook forum:
. Formal Haiku - The Art of 5-7-5 .

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初秋や余所の灯見ゆる宵のほど
hatsuaki ya yoso no hi miyuru yoi no hodo

Early autumn--
Lights of houses are on
Even in a young evening.
Tr. Shoji Kumano


The start of autumn!
Evening is at the point where
other's lights are seen.


All the more expensive hard cover anthologies of the famous haiku writers will include prose versions of the haiku that include everything that the haiku hints at. Kumano's translation is a rendering of the prose piece accompanying this haiku in the Buson anthology I have. I think that writing everything in just kills the poetry in the original.
By making the evening the subject, Buson is able to give us a scene that accurately depicts the falling darkness through time so we can stand and watch the house lights in the houses he looks down upon come on. It catches the mood of the time of year when evening falls earlier and earlier.
Tr. and comment : James Karkoski - facebook


Lights of houses on
even in a young evening—
early autumn’s start

Tr. Bill Dennis - facebook


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初冬や日和になりし京はずれ
hatsufuyu ya hiyori ni narishi kyoo hazure

Winter comes
And with it the weather
Outside of the capital.
Tr. Thomas McAuley



初冬や訪はんと思ふ人来ます
hatsufuyu ya towan to omou hito kimasu

The first of winter--
One I've wanted to visit
Called on me.
Tr. Nelson and Saito

Early winter--
I thought I was going visiting
but the person has come here.
Tr. Sawa and Shiffert


Winter has begun!
The one I was hoping of
visiting does come.


When winter comes people tend to hunker down and stay at home, which can lead into a desire for the company of others. Buson hasn't been able to rouse himself to go visit a person that he wants to see, but now that person has come to visit him.
With an interesting twist, Buson has turned the negative connotations that usually follow the coming of the winter into a positive emotion.
Tr. and comment : James Karkoski - facebook


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初氷何こぼしけん石の間
hatsugoori nani koboshiken ishi no ai

The first ice--
What was spilled
Between the stones?
Tr. Nelson and Saito


The first skim of ice,
there's something that's been spilled on
the shrine's slab walkways.


'Ishi no ma' are the slabs of stones that are laid in as a walkway in the open air courtyard that connects the main hall and the worship hall on the grounds of a large shrine. The courtyard has been iced over, but something has been spread on the smooth walkway slabs to turn the ice on it into slush so people will be able to come and go on it. By wondering about why the walkway is slush, Buson is able to draw a contrast between it and the rest of the courtyard that is still skimmed by a smooth pristine layer of ice.
Tr. Jim Wilson, comment James Karkoski - facebook

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. yamadera no suzuri ni hayashi hatsugoori .
山寺の硯に早し初氷 

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初霜や吹き返しある葛の葉に
hatsushimo ya fukikaeshi aru kuzu no ha ni

The year's first frost--
On the kudzu leaves
Flipped over by the wind before.
Tr. Nelson and Saito


First frost of the year!
On the kudzu leaves that are
blown upside over.


The broad kudzu leaves attached to the vine are easily blown around by the wind and Japanese poets have been writing about them for centuries. Bashō wrote a haiku about noticing the frost on the front of the leaves and Buson is noticing it on the leaves that have been turned upside by the wind.
Another example of the different positional kind of perception that Buson was able to look at the world with.
Tr. and comment James Karkoski - facebook


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初霜やわづらふ鶴を遠く見る
hatsushimo ya wazurau tsuru o tooku miru

The year's first frost--
An ailing crane
In the distance seen.
Tr. Nelson and Saito

winter's first frost--
visible in the distance
an ailing crane
Tr. Ueda

the first frost;
seeing a suffering crane
in the distance
Tr. Michael Haldane


The first frost has fallen!
Worn suffering cranes
will be seen from afar.


Cranes are migratory birds that come into Japan from Korea and China at the start of winter. The first frost means the coming of winter, and Buson expects that the weary cranes ending their migration won't be far behind. The Japanese often just use the dictionary form of verbs as the future tense and I think it is clear that Buson is indicating a future action here. It could also be argued here that he might be talking about a habitual action, and so the present tense 'are seen' can be read too. But I think the probability of the cranes always showing up on the first day of frost is an improbable argument.
Tr. and comment : James Karkoski - facebook

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初潮に追はれてのぼる小魚かな
hatsushio ni owarete noboru shoogyo kana

By the first full tide
Pursued Upstream
swim the fries.
Tr. Nelson and Saito

By the high tide
swept away so they swim upstream,
the tiny fish!
Tr. Sawa and Shiffert


Being pursued
by a strong autumn moon tide....
the small fish climb upstream!

Pressed by the strong
autumn moon tide to rise up;
the small fish of the sea!


Hatsushio is the tide that is caused by the full moon that occurs on the 15th day of the 8th month of the lunar calendar.
By the solar calendar it now occurs in September. Since the moon affects the tides, this very bright moon is considered to cause the strongest tides of the year.
In Japanese, the verb is always at the end of the phrase, and since they also place them together to make compiled verbs, and place them as modifiers in front of nouns, the three verbs Buson stacked together in this haiku make it able to have a double reading.
In the first version, the strong tide that the 15th night moon makes has moved up so far up river that it is forcing the small fish there to flee from it.
The second reading implies that the fish are in the ocean and the tide is making them rise up with it.
I prefer the first reading, my in-laws house is on a quite a distance up a small stream that runs into the sea, so I've experienced how much, and how far, the coming of the tides can affect fresh water levels and water quality.
Tr. and comment : James Karkoski - facebook

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. hatsu yuki no soko o tatakeba take no tsuki .
初雪の底をたたけば竹の月

The first snow
Emptying itself to its last flake--
The moon above bamboo.
Tr. Nelson and Saito

when the first snow
strikes the lowest culms
bamboo moonlight
Tr. Addis

A bamboo moon
Is caressing the round
Of early snow
Tr. ?

The season's first snow,
A few flakes slowly falling --
Bamboo and moonlight.

Tr. Jim Wilson - facebook


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- hatsushigure 初時雨 first winter shower

秋のあはれわすれんとすれば初時雨
aki no aware wasuren to sureba hatsushigure

Autumnal sadness
Just about to forget as I was--
The first winter shower.
Tr. Nelson and Saito


Just when I'd thought
I had forgotten autumn's pathos;
the first rain of winter.


The haiku is pretty explicit and needs no explanation.
It catches the state of mind that happens when the soft thin beginning rains of winter start to wet the brown and desolate landscape that the end of autumn brings. Buson used 19 morae to express sentiment.
Tr. James Karkoski - facebook

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みのむしの得たりかしこし初時雨
minomushi no etari kashikoshi hatsushigure

A bagworm--
Complacent and proud
The first shower in winters.
Tr. Nelson and Saito


Straw raincoat bugs
without any hesitation,
the first rain of winter.

The straw raincoat bugs
have done well for themselves:
the first rain of winter.


Bagworms in Japanese are called 'minomushi' (literally straw raincoat bugs) because they will often camouflage themselves with twigs and leaves that make them look similar to the old style made from straw 'mino' raincoats that were in use before the modernization of Japan.
They are a fall 'kigo' because the males in autumn will seek out the females who never leave their protective 'bags' (or coats) to mate. The female dies and the eggs ride out the winter until hatching in the spring.
The phrase 'etari kashikoshi' (literally 'having obtained wisely') is translated in Japanese to English dictionaries as 'readily, very eagerly, without a moment's hesitation,' but in Japanese dictionaries it is explained as 'when things go the way you thought and and proceed well to satisfaction.'
I like the first version better because I think it brings out the connection between the seeking of the female and the winter rain with a bit more humor. (I have added a syllable in the 2nd line of the first translation, 'a' instead of 'any' just doesn't sound right to me)
Tr. James Karkoski - facebook

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- hatsune 初音 first call of the bush warbler

うぐいすの 枝ふみはずす 初音かな
uguisu no eda fumihazusu hatsune kana

A warbler
Missing its footing on a twig--
Its first song in spring.
Tr. Nelson and Saito


A bush warbler loses
its footing on a branch:
its first sound I hear!!


I live at the foot of a mountain so I often hear the bush warblers when they are around in spring. As the video link below shows, their warbling does have a slippery slope quality to it, which Buson humorously relates to loosing balance while singing. The verb here can also be read as indicating the future, but in this case I don't think it does.
- reference :youtu.be/FhXfQrKvokU -
Tr. James Karkoski - facebook

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うぐひすの 麁相がましき初音哉
uguisu no sosoo ga mashiki hatsune kana

The warbler's
inexperienced simplicity is better
year's first song
Tr. Crowley


The warbler's rough
inattentiveness has increased:
the first songs it sings!


The young warblers initially have trouble making the sounds that has made them the favorite songbirds in Japan. The pitch of the fledglings can be quite wild until they hear enough of the smoother older birds who they start copying.
In Buson's day, the practice of keeping caged warblers in the house was popular and it is most likely that he is writing about a young warbler that he is keeping as a pet. Perhaps, the lack of being around other birds is what is keeping this one from singing sweetly? Having had the experience of hearing a caged warbler sing, I can attest to how much of a force of sound they can generate in an enclosed space.
A young one who is in the stage of practicing must be quite jarring indeed!
Tr. James Karkoski - facebook



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To join BUSON on Facebook, click the image!


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. hatsumono, hatsu-mono 初物 first things - Introduction .

. WKD : Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 - Introduction .

. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .

. BUSON - Cultural Keywords and ABC-List .


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#busonhatsumono #hatsumonobuson #firstthingsbuson
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10/28/2013

yoroi - armour

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yoroi 鎧 armour, armor of a samurai
gusoku 具足 armour
..... kogusoku 小具足 smapp pieces of armour equipment (like facemask, forearm sleeves, thigh guards, shin guards, bear-fur boots
kachuu 甲冑 katchu, armor and helmet


- quote
The ō-yoroi, oo-yoroi (大鎧) is a prominent example of early Japanese armor worn by the samurai class of feudal Japan. The term ō-yoroi means "great armor."


by Yoshitoshi

Ō-yoroi first started to appear in the 10th century during the middle and late Heian period, and came into widespread use in the Genpei War around the 12th century when the call for armor was at its peak. Significant aspects of this armor were designed for cavalry archers. The box shaped ō-yoroi was heavy and did not allow as much movement or flexibility as its counterpart the dō-maru, so the armor fell out of favor in the fifteenth century when samurai shifted to mostly infantry tactics.

Components
The basic components of the ō-yoroi and other samurai armor are known collectively as the “hei-no-rokugu” or simply “rokugu 六具,” which means six articles of arms.
The six major components are the  胴 (chest armour), kabuto (helmet), mengu 面具 (facial armour), kote 籠手 (armoured sleeves), sune-ate 脛当 (shin armour), and the hai-date 脛楯 (thigh armour).
The ō-yoroi combines plate and scales (kozane) laced together (lamellar). One specific advance over earlier armors is that the kozane of ō-yoroi are first laced together and then covered with lacquer, which enhances resistance to corrosion. The dō of the ō-yoroi is unique from later models because it is composed of two separate parts instead of one piece with an opening on the side or back of the dō to allow the samurai to put on the armor.

Clan Identification
The color, design, and material of the lacing identified the clan of the warrior. The clans were also identified by the designs painted on the armor. Many of the clans used symbols as a crest, such as cherry blossoms or depictions of deities. The color and design of lacing the plates together, odoshi, was a system used for identification on the field. There were many different color combinations that identified warriors from a distance.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Onoda Teruhiko 小野田光彦 armor maker, Showa period
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


yoroishi, yoroi shi 鎧師 craftsman producing armour
- - - - - gusokushi, gusoku shi 具足師
- - - - - katchuushi 甲冑師

There are different schools in Nara, Kishu (Wakayama), Kyoto and other regions.

kabutoshi, kabuto shi 兜師 helmet maker



. Edo Katchu 江戸甲冑 Warrior Armor from Edo .
and armor decorations with Fudo Myo-o 不動明王


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Samurai families used to decorate a yoroi in the tokonoma alcove  and place the mochi in front of them.



. yoroi mochi 鎧餅 "armor rice cake" .
a New Year decoration
gusoku mochi 具足餅 armor-plate rice cake

Gusokubiraki, gusoku biraki 具足開 "opening the armour"
gusoku kagamimochi 具足鏡餅
gusoku kagami wari 具足鏡割
gusoku iwai 具足祝 celebrating armour
busoku kagamibiraki 武具鏡開

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ise-ebi ise ebi いせえび (伊勢海老/伊勢蝦) lobster, spiny lobster
The samurai of Kamakura saw an auspicious connection with their armour (yoroi) and the back shell of the lobster.

. Seafood for Autumn .


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Tango no sekku 端午の節句 "Boy's Festival"
a traditional Japanese event observed on May 5th as a celebration for boys' talisman and health. Families including boys observe it, displaying yoroi kabuto (an armor), gogatsu ningyoo (dolls for the Boys' Festival), or koinobori (carp-shaped streamers). Although this tradition has continued to this day, after World War May 5th started to be called "children's day". It is observed as a holiday recognizing children's (boys and girls) happiness.

. WKD : Seasonal festival in the fifth lunar month .




source : matsugan.co.jp/may_doll

Matsuyama no yoroi ningyoo 松山の 鎧人形 dolls wearing armour, made in Matsuyama

. musha ningyoo 武者人形 Samurai Dolls .
kabuto ningyoo かぶと人形 "helmet decorations"
ayame ningyoo あやめ人形 iris dolls
kabuto 兜 samurai helmet


under construction
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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -


薫風やもよぎ匂ひの鎧ぬぐ
kunpuu ya moyogi nioi no yoroi nugu

fragrant breeze -
I take off my armour
smelling of leek


. moyogi, moegi 萌葱 a kind of leek .

. WKD : kunpuu 薫風、kaze kaoru 風薫 scented breeze .
kigo for summer


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借具足我になじまぬ寒さ哉
kari yoroi ware ni najimaru samusa kana

this coldness
like a borrowed armour
not fit for my body

Tr. Gabi Greve

The cut marker KANA is at the end of line 3. I reversed the word order for more natural English.

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夕雲雀鎧の袖をかざしかな
yuuhibari yoroi no sode o kazashi kana

a skylark in the evening
adds a decoration to the sleeve
of the armour plate . . .


The cut marker KANA is at the end of line 3.

. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .

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山の桜にひしと鎧ひけり
尾崎紅葉

枯葉を鎧う女泉を抱き眠る
八木三日女

山車統べて鎧皇后立ち給ふ
山口誓子


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. Japanese Architecture - cultural keywords used in haiku .


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10/23/2013

BUSON - harusame spring rain

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. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .
(1715-1783)

. WKD : harusame 春雨 spring rain .

- Yosa Buson and haru 春 spring

under construction
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霖雨(ながあめ)に生かへりたる若和布
harusame ni ikikaeritaru wakame kana
naga-ame ni ikikaeritaru wakame kana
(1769)

in spring rain / in the long rain of spring
they come back to live,
these wakame kelp . . .


. WKD : wakame, 若布, 和布 kelp .
kigo for spirng


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春雨にぬれつつ屋根の手毬かな
. harusame ni nuretsutsu yane no temari kana .
(1769)

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春雨の中を流るる大河かな   
harusame no naka o nagaruru taiga kana
(1782)

in the middle
of spring rain there flows
a large river . . .


The cut marker KANA is at the end of line 3.


. Buson and kawa 川 river, rivers .


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はるさめや綱が袂に小提灯 
harusame ya ami ga tamoto ni kochoochin

spring rain -
the prostitute carries a small lantern
near her sleeve


ami 綱, lit. "a net", is a prostitute on Modoribashi, Kyoto 京都戻橋.


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春雨や同車の君がさざめ言
harusame ya doosha no kimi ga sasamegoto

spring rain -
in the carriage next to me
your loving murmurings



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春雨や人住みて煙壁を洩る
harusame ya hito sumite kemuri kabe o moru

spring rain -
people live here and smoke
seeps through the wall


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春雨やいざよふ月の海半ば
harusame ya izayou tsuki no umi nakaba




春雨や蛙の腹はまだぬれず
. harusame ya kawazu no hara wa mada nurezu .
(1782)


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はるさめや暮なんとしてけふもあり 
春雨や暮れなんとして今日も有
harusame ya kurenamu to shite kyoo mo ari
(1782)

this spring rain -
it is getting darker
but today lingers on



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春雨や小磯の小貝濡るほど
harusame ya koiso no kogai nururu hodo
(1769)

spring rain -
just enough to wet the small shells
on the small beach




source :youtisyodoukan


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春雨や身にふる頭巾着たりけり
harusame ya mi ni furu zukin kitarikeri


. WKD : zukin 頭巾 hood .

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春雨やものかたりゆく蓑と笠
harusame ya mono katariyuku mino to kasa - monogatari yuku

spring rain -
a mino-raincoat and a rain-hat
talk to each other


. Personification, gijinka 擬人化 .


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春雨やもの書ぬ身のあはれなる
harusame ya mono kakanu mi no aware naru
(1777)

spring rain -
I can not write a thing
and feel so sad


The word aware used in the hokku by Basho (and Buson) is difficult to translate and has a slightly different nuance in each poem.
. aware 哀れ and Matsuo Basho .


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春雨や菜飯にさます蝶の夢 
harusame ya nameshi ni samasu choo no yume

the dream of a butterfly

. choochoo 蝶 and Chuang Tzu .


. WKD : nameshi 菜飯 "cooked rice with leaves" .
kigo for spring


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春雨やゆるい下駄かす奈良の宿
harusame ya yurui geta kasu nara no yado
(1780)

spring rain -
they lend me loose woooden sandals
at the inn in Nara





. WKD : geta 下駄 wooden sandals .
If the thong of the sandals is too loose, it is hard to walk in them.

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haru usu no kokoro ochitsuku ochiba kana

harmonizing
with the springtime mortar -
falling leaves

Tr. Addiss

The cut marker KANA is at the end of line 3.


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- - - - - haru no ame 春の雨 rain in spring - - - - -


柴漬(ふしづけ)の沈みもやらで春の雨 - shibazuke
fujizuke no


雛見世の灯を引くころや春の雨 
- 雛店に客が減り、灯を消して閉店するころ。春の雨が降っている。


池と川ひとつになりぬ春の雨

物種の袋ぬらしつ春の雨 

ぬなは生ふ池の水かさや春の雨


滝口に灯を呼ぶ声や春の雨
. takiguchi ni too o yobu koe ya haru no ame .
at the Takiguchi samurai quarters at the Imperial Palace, Kyoto




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To join BUSON on Facebook, click the image!


:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. WKD : Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 - Introduction .

. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .

. BUSON - Cultural Keywords and ABC-List .


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10/22/2013

BUSON - haru spring

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. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .
(1715-1783)


. WKD : haru 春 spring .


under construction
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. Buson : harusame 春雨 spring rain .

Buson : haru no ame 春の雨  rain in spring

yuku haru 行春 at the end of this entry

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今日のみの春を歩いて仕舞けり
kyoo nomi no haru o aruite shimaikeri

only today left
to walk in spring
and then it's over . . .


The cut marker KERI is at the end of line 3.


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. furudera ya hooroku suteru seri no naka .
(spring) dropwort. old temple. throwing horoku plates


. haru no kure ieji ni toki hito bakari .
(spring) spring dusk. homeward road. people wandering


. haru no umi hinemosu notari notari kana .
(spring) sea in spring. onomatopoetic - notarinotari


. haru no yo ni tootoki gosho o moru mi kana .
(spring) spring night. Imperial Palace in Kyoto


. haru no yo ya tarai o hirou machi hazure .
(spring) spring night. I pick up a washing tub outside of town


. imo ga kakine shamisengusa nohana sakinu .
(spring) sheperd's purse. my lover in the hedge



. nanohana ya tsuki wa higashi ni hi wa nishi ni .
(spring) rapeseed flowers. moon in the east, sun in the west
- - - - -   菜の花や昼(ひる)ひとしきり海の音


. shiraume ni akuru yo bakari to nari ni keri - - - shira-ume 白梅 .
(spring) white plum blossoms. - death poem of Buson

. shiraume ya taga mukashi yori kaki no soto .
(spring) white plum blossoms. old days. outside the fence

. shunsui ya Shijoo Gojoo no hashi no shita .
(spring) water of spring. bridges of Shijo and Gojo in Kyoto

. sujikai ni futon shikitari yoi no haru .
(spring) night in spring. futon bedding.


. ume ochikochi minami subeku kita subeku .
(spring) plum blossoms. everywhere. go south? go north?


. yamabuki ya Ide o nagaruru kannakuzu .
(spring) yellow mountain rose. Ide, river in Kyoto, famous for yellow mountain roses (Kerria japonica )


. yuku haru ya omotaki biwa no daki kokoro .
(spring) spring is leaving. carrying a heavy biwa lute. I think about


. yuku haru ya Yokawa e nobori imo no kami .
(spring) spring is leaving. The Deity of Smallpox moves up the Yokawa river (in Kyoto)


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柴漬の沈みもやらで春の雨 - shibazuke pickles
fushizuke no - haru no ame


橋なくて日暮れんとする春の水 - haru no mizu
hashi nakute

畠うつや鳥さへ啼(なか)ぬ山蔭に - yamakage
hata utsu ya


骨拾ふ人に親しき菫 かな - sumire
hone hirou hito ni


陽炎や名も知らぬ虫の白き飛ぶ - mushi no shiroki tobu
kageroo ya


閣に座して遠き蛙をきく夜哉 - kawazu o kiku
kaku ni zashite


片町に更紗(さらさ)染めるや春の風 - sarasa
katamachi


これきりに径(こみち)尽きたり芹の中 - seri no naka
kore kiri ni


女倶して内裏拝まん朧月
onna gushite dairi ogaman oborozuki


遅き日のつもりて遠き昔かな
osoki hi no tsumorite tooki mukashi kana



人間に鶯鳴くや山桜
ningen ni uguisu naku ya yamazakura

鶯 の鳴くやちいさき口開けて
uguisu no naku ya

うぐひすや家内揃(そろ)ふて飯時分
uguisu ya

鶯のあちこちとするや小家(こいえ)がち
uguisu no achi kochi to suru

鶯の声遠き日も暮れにけり
uguisu no koe



海手より日は照つけて山桜
umite yori hi wa teritsukete yamazakura


誰が為の低き枕ぞ春の暮 - makura
tagatame no hikuki makura zo haru no kure

よもすがら音なき雨や種俵 - tawara
yomo sugara oto naki ame no tanedawara


行く春や白き花見ゆ垣の隙
yuku haru ya shiroki hana miyu kaki no suki - see above shiraume ya taga mukashi yori kaki no soto

行く春や逡巡として遅桜
yuku haru ya shunjun toshite osozakura



歩行歩行(ありきありき)もの思ふ春の行衛(ゆくえ)かな
まだ長うなる日に春の限りかな
花に寝て我(わが)家遠き野道かな

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from the collection of

萩原朔太郎 - 郷愁の詩人 与謝蕪村 -
Hagiwara Sakutaro - Buson, the nostalgic poet
- source : www.aozora.gr.jp/cards




- - - - - 春 - SPRING - - - - -

. Yosa Buson - Spring Poems Collection .


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(translations are at terebess)


yuku haru no izuchi ikikemu kakaribune
(1769)

yuku haru no shiribeta harau rakka kana

yuku haru ya bijin onore ni somuku kana


yuku haru ya doosha no kimi no sasame goto
In the Heian period (794~1192) nobility used an ox-drawn carriage as a meansof transportation. 'Dosha no kimi' is a lady riding together with a court noble on the same ox-drawn carriage.
. harusame ya doosha no kimi ga sasamegoto .



yuku haru ya kogu to mo mienu takigibune


行春や眼に合はぬめがね失ひぬ
. yuku haru ya me ni awanu megane ushinainu .
(spring) spring is leaving. my glasses that do not fit are lost



yuku haru ya mizu mo yanagi no ito ni yoru


ゆく春やむらさきさむる筑波山
. yuku haru ya murasaki samuru Tsukuba yama .

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ゆく春や撰者をうらむ歌の主
yuku haru ya senja o uramu uta no nushi
(1769)

spring is passing -
he blames the judges,
this poet


He had taken part in a poetry meeting but his poem had not been elected by the judge or judges. uta no nushi - the owner of the poem, is a humourous take on himself.
senja 撰者 "selector", one who elects a poem or runs a competition, an editor of a magazine.


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. WKD : Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 - Introduction .

. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .

. BUSON - Cultural Keywords and ABC-List .


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10/18/2013

kaki, kakine - hedge, fence

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kakine 垣根 hedge, fence
kakoi 囲い, saku さく. hei 塀


The main word is KAKI, read ..GAKI in compound words.


ishigaki 石垣 stone wall, stone fence
ikegaki 生け垣 "living fence", hedge
shooen, shirogaki 城垣 castle "hedge", castle wall

. kamigaki 神垣 fence of a shrine .
"Fence of the Gods"
igaki 斎垣 / tamagaki 玉垣 / mizugaki 瑞垣





- quote
kaki 垣
Also read en; also called kakine 垣根.
A generic term for a fence, garden precinct wall, or partition. Some varieties of bamboo take 竹, Japanese bush clover hagi 萩, brush kanboku 潅木, or azalea tsutsuji 躑躅 are used for hedges *ikegaki 生垣. If the fencing material is cut and dried it is referred to as dead material shinigaki 死垣, and can include such things as embedded bamboo posts hottate-no-take 掘立の竹, posts with bark, or bamboo stake and bamboo reeds takeho 竹穂, as for example at Katsura Rikyuu 桂離宮 in Kyoto, specifically known as katsuragaki 桂垣.
Long fences are known as *oogaki 大垣 and short fences as *sodegaki 袖垣.
Light fences used to divide a garden are called shikirigaki 仕切垣.


ikegaki 生垣
Lit. living fence.

A type of hedge made of trees, bamboo or other living plants planted in a row and trimmed so as to form a fence. Ikegaki (called ikekigaki 生木垣 or living tree fence in Edo period) are different than itagaki 板垣 (board fences), *ishigaki 石垣 (stone fences), *takegaki 竹垣 (bamboo fences) and other types of shinigaki 死垣 (dead fences). When composed of thorn bushes they are called ibaragaki 茨垣, when made of bamboo, sasagaki 笹垣, and when created with several kinds of tree, called *mazegaki 交垣.
A large clipped hedge or ookarikomi 大刈込 may be used to block out unwanted views *dankei 断景. Ikegaki around houses often serve as windbreaks, while their use between different people's land serves as a property marker.
Because of the ancient belief that a god kami 神, resided in evergreen plants himorogi 神籬, ikegaki were often used in shrines and temples to divide space. Evergreens such as Japanese cypress hinoki 桧, Chinese black pine maki 槇 and sakaki 榊 are most frequently employed, although deciduous trees may be used.
For protective hedges, thorn bushes are effective, while the dense leaves of Japanese azaleas, satsuki さつき and tsutsuji 躑躅 make them effective when used to block unwanted views.


sodegaki 袖垣
Lit. sleeve fence.

A narrow fence which may serve to screen off some garden element or may be completely ornamental. Commonly found in tea gardens *roji 露路, sodegaki are attached at right angle to the edge of a building. They are generally about two meters high and a meter across. The fence is named for its proportions which resemble those of a kimono 着物 sleeve.
Varieties of sodegaki include *chasengaki 茶筅垣, *ensouhishi sodegaki 円窓菱袖垣, *teppoogaki 鉄砲垣, *nozokigaki 覗垣 and *yaegaki 八重垣 as well as yoroigaki 鎧垣 (armor-pattern fence), *uguisugaki 鶯垣, to name just a few of the many variations.
Sodegaki are contrasted with functional continuous fences, *oogaki 大垣.
- source : JAANUS


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- - - - - We have some kigo with fences and hedges:

kigo in spring

kaki tsukurou 垣繕う (かきつくろう) repairing the hedge
..... kaki teire 垣手入れ(かきていれ)

yukigaki toku 雪垣解く(ゆきがきとく)
taking down the snow guard hedges


konome gaki 木の芽垣(このめがき)
fence of budding trees



ukogigaki 五加垣(うこぎがき)hedge of aralia trees
the leaves can be picked and prepared for tea


kakidooshi 垣通 Glechoma hederacea subsp. grandis
a creeper plant of the mint family


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kigo in summer

bara no hanagaki 茨の花垣(ばらのはながき)
hedge of wild roses



kakoi bune 囲い船 (かこいぶね) fencing ships


unohana gaki 卯の花垣(うのはながき) hedge of deutzia blossoms


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kigo in autumn

shishigaki 鹿垣 (ししがき) fence against wild boars
and other animals


inagaki 稲垣(いながき)fence to protect the rice plants


mukuge gaki 木槿垣(むくげがき)
fence with the rose of Sharon



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kigo in winter


CLICK for more photos
ishigaki ichigo 石垣苺(いしがきいちご)
strawberries grown on stone walls

They are grown in hot houses, to provide strawberries for the Japanese christmas cake.



kazegaki 風垣(かざがき) wind-protecting hedges
yukigaki 雪垣(ゆきがき)snow-protecting hedge


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topics

beech tree hedge

Robin-run-the-hedge / Galium aparine


. Katsuragaki かつらがき【桂垣】Katsura-Hedge
"takehoogaki" 竹穂垣, hoogaki 穂垣
made from the leaves of living bamboo.


. ukogi うこぎ / 五加木 kind of aralia tree .
The leaves have been used as food in the Yonezawa area since the Edo period, when the daimyo Naoe Kanetsugu 直江 兼続(なおえ かねつぐ 1560 - 1619) made them plant this trees for fences around the homes and have some food in times of need.




nerihei 練り塀 mud and tile wall or fence, topped with tiles
Stone-wall ("NERIHEI"), nerihei-wall, stonel-mud wall/fence

It helps protect the property from fire and is used in small fishing villages, especially in Iwaishima island in Yamaguchi.





紫陽花や練り塀長き国分寺
ajisai ya nerihei nagaki Kokubunji

hydrangeas -
the long stone-mud-wall
of temple Kokubunji


anonymous
source : slownet

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. - Temple fences and walls - 塀   


. . Japanese Haiku with KAKINE hedge . .

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yaraigaki矢来垣, ootsugaki 大津垣 Otsugaki, Lit. Ootsu fence



- quote -
chousengaki 朝鮮垣, and chousen yarai 朝鮮矢来 (chosen yarai, Korean fence).
A type of simple wooden fence. In 1711 a Korean mission traveling from Ootsu 大津 to Edo attracted so much attention that the government ordered people to erect fences along the road on which the Koreans passed. These fences were made with pieces of uncut bamboo tied on intersecting diagonals between two or three cross bars of split bamboo. Often the projecting bamboo at the top is cut to create a sharp edge.
- source : JAANUS -

. Yaraicho 矢来町 - "Palisade quarter" in Edo .


More Types of hedges in Japan
建仁寺垣 / 光悦寺垣・竜安寺垣 / 網代垣 / ななこ垣
四つ目垣・金閣寺垣・鉄砲垣・篠垣・清水垣
御簾垣 . 沼津垣 / 蓑垣・鎧垣 桂垣
竹穂垣・時雨垣・長穂垣・大徳寺垣
茶筅垣・清水鉄砲・萩鉄砲・松明垣
http://homepage3.nifty.com/fuj-takeya/takegaki.htm

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. WKD : Fences and Hedges in Kenya .


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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

- - - - - Matsuo Basho - - - - -

蝶の羽のいくたび越ゆる塀の屋根
choo no ha no ikutabi koyuru hei no yane

butterfly's wings -
how many times do they flit
over the roofed wall?

Tr. Ueda

Written in 1690 元禄3年春. Basho stayed with his disciple from Iga, Saboku 乍木. The wall between the homes of Saboku and his neighbour might have been quite tall.

. - choo, chō 蝶 butterfly - and Basho .
butterfly - kigo for spring



桐の木に鶉鳴くなる塀の内 
. kiri no ki ni uzura naku naru hei no uchi .
quails inside the garden wall


. yoku mireba nazuna hana saku kakine kana .
(New Year) sheperd's purse. looking closely. hedge



. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


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- - - - - Yosa Buson - - - - -

冬鴬むかし王維が垣根哉
. fuyu uguisu mukashi Oi ga kakine kana .
the hedge of the Chinese Oi. - Wang Wei 王維 -(699 - 759)


白梅や誰が昔より垣の外 
. shiraume ya taga mukashi yori kaki no soto .
outside the fence

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妹が垣ね三味線草の花咲ぬ
imo ga kakine shamisengusa nohana sakinu

- quote
In the hedge of his girl's
He sees
Shepherd's purses in bloom.


'Kinshin o motte bijin ni idomu': 琴心挑美人
The prefatory note derives from a historical event in old China. In the Haiku the Poet replaces a 'koto' with a 'samisen'.

Prof. Tsutomu Ogata comments that 'he' may have walked by her house very often, hoping to see her; but probably in vain . Anyway, so much time has passed and shepherds' purses are now blooming in the hedge of her house. Little as they are, they look so fresh and vivid. For so much waste of dear time, the white flowers may give him a new hope and he will surely regain strength and try his best to win her heart.
Mr. Takahashi says that we associate a white little flower with a pretty beloved girl. 'He' in the Haiku is not necessarily the Poet himself. Here is clearly read a man's strong devoted love for the girl in his heart.
- source : Shoji Kumano -

- James Karkoski wrote:

Kinshin chō bijin 琴心挑美人
The mind to challenge a beautiful women with a stringed instrument

The women a hedge,
certainly the shepherd's purse flowers
have come in bloom!


This haiku is difficult to translate because the common name for shepherd's purse in Japanese is 'shamisen grass' which alludes to the three stringed instrument that is still popular in Japan today.
This ties in with the maegaki (forward) Kinshin chō bijin 琴心挑美人
that alludes to an episode in the life of the Chinese poet Sima Xiangru that is recorded 'Shiki' (Records of the Grand Historian), a book that has biographies of famous people during the Han Dynasty in China. Xiangru was introduced to the beautiful daughter of a wealthy family who was recently widowed, and he when played a song on a zither in admiration of her beautiful she fell in love with him and they later eloped against her father's wishes.
The reason why it is called 'shamisen grass' is because the way the way the stems of the flowers shake resembles the sound that a shamisen makes, and traditionally children will break off the flowery part of the plant and placing it in one hand will play shamisen by moving it like a plectrum. Commentators note that is recorded that Buson was remembering a lost love around the time he wrote this haiku.
The opening phrase 'Imo ga kakine' is very vague and I have kept to the literal translation of it, although you could play around with the articles if you want. Commentators tend to read it as meaning that the women is at the hedge, and that is plausible as well depending on how you want to read what verb is being implied here.
I think that the allusion to Xiangru's triumph naturally reads the haiku into being about Buson's childish attempts to win this women's heart.
There is another forward that is also attributed to this haiku that translates as 'First folded pocket paper' which no doubt is about Buson passing love poetry on his love, and, hopefully, he didn't use shepherd's purse as the central image to express his affections for this women.This counts as 18.
- source : James Karkoski facebook -


. shamisengusa 三味線草 "Shamisen plant" - sheperd's purse .
kigo for all spring

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垣越しにものうちかたる接木かな
kakigoshi ni mono uchikataru tsugiki kana
(1770)

over the hedge
they exchange stories
while grafting trees . . .


The cut marker KANA is at the end of line 3.

. WKD : tsugiki, tsugi-ki 接木 (つぎき / 接ぎ木) grafting .
kigo for mid-spring


筍や柑子をゝしむ垣の外
takenoko ya kooji o oshimu kaki no soto
(1775)

these bamboo shoots -
outside the hedge that guards
the sweet tangerines



. WKD : take no ko 筍 bamboo shoots .
kigo for summer

. WKD :
yabukooji 藪柑子 (やぶこうじ) Ardisia japonica .



. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .


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- - - - - Kobayashi Issa - - - - -

笹鳴も手持ぶさたの垣根哉
. sasa naki mo temochi-busata no kakine kana .


来る蝶に鼻を明するかきね哉
kuru choo ni hana o akasuru kakine kana

a fence shows
an amazed butterfly
something very special

Tr. Chris Drake

This spring hokku was written toward the end of the 2nd month (late March or early April) of 1820, when Issa was in and around his hometown. The hokku seems to be about a bamboo (probably lattice) fence or a hedge used as a fence that is being visited by a butterfly (or butterflies) and how the fence wows or "knocks out" the visitor with its unexpected attractions for butterflies. The idiom in the second line is used mainly when a person who is normally in a weak position manages to outperform or beat or grab the attention of someone who is in a stronger position. I take this to mean that Issa is reversing common sense in this hokku and looking at the world from the fence's point of view.

During the winter and early spring the fence wasn't much to look at, and it had no flowers in bloom, but suddenly, at the end of March, the flowers that twine around the bamboo fence posts begin to unfold with attractive flowers and sweet nectar. If it is a hedge, then the hedge has suddenly put out its own flowers. Until now butterflies have been simply flying over the nondescript fence, ignoring it as if it didn't exist, but today a butterfly finally notices the flowers and can't help but stop and drink for a while. No doubt there will be more visitors from now on. Issa may be sharing in the joy he imagines the ignored fence must somehow be feeling at finally being able to impress and attract a beautiful butterfly. The hokku may also be about how humans, like butterflies, tend to overlook plain-looking things until suddenly something happens to stun them into recognition of how important these almost invisible things actually are.

Chris Drake


. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .


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source : fuuknaag.exblog.jp

露葎より城垣の反り上がる
tsuyu muguro yori shirogaki no soriagaru

from dewy weeds
the castle wall curves
and rises

Tr. Gabi Greve

Kashiwabara Min-u 柏原眠雨


花木槿弓師が垣根夕日さす
内藤鳴雪

桃折れば牛の面出す垣根かな
梅本塵山

洪水名残り照らす垣根の螢かな
金尾梅の門


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. WKD : Fences and Hedges in Kenya .


. Japanese Architecture - cultural keywords used in haiku .


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