Showing posts with label - - - Craftsman Artisan. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - Craftsman Artisan. Show all posts

7/06/2016

inro pillbox

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. Edo shokunin 江戸の職人 Craftsmen of Edo .
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inroo, inrō 印籠 / 印篭 / いんろう Inro, pillbox, pill box, Pillenschachtel

A case for holding small objects, suspended from the belt. The Inro usually contained medicine. It was fixed on the belt with the help of a small figure on a strip, called

. Netsuke 根付 .
- Introduction -


source : tukubaskecth.tsukuba.ch

The famous inro of Mito Komon occupied by manekineko !

- quote
The term inrō derives from the Sino-Japanese roots in (from Middle Chinese 'jin 印 "printed") and rō ( 籠 "cage"). Because traditional Japanese robes lacked pockets, objects were often carried by hanging them from the obi, or sash, in containers known as sagemono (a Japanese generic term for a hanging object attached to a sash). Most sagemono were created for specialized contents, such as tobacco, pipes, writing brush and ink, but the type known as inrō was suitable for carrying anything small.

Consisting of a stack of tiny, nested boxes, inrō were most commonly used to carry identity seals and medicine. The stack of boxes is held together by a cord that is laced through cord runners down one side, under the bottom, and up the opposite side. The ends of the cord are secured to a netsuke, a kind of toggle that is passed between the sash and pants and then hooked over the top of the sash to suspend the inrō. An ojime, or bead, is provided on the cords between the inrō and netsuke to hold the boxes together. This bead is slid down the two suspension cords to the top of the inrō to hold the stack together while the inrō is worn, and slid up to the netsuke when the boxes need to be unstacked to access their contents. Inrō were made of a variety of materials, including wood, ivory, bone, and lacquer. Lacquer was also used to decorate inro made of other materials.



Inrō, like the ojime and netsuke they were associated with, evolved over time from strictly utilitarian articles into objects of high art and immense craftsmanship.
- source : MORE in the wikipedia


. zooge 象牙 ivory, Elfenbein .

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source : v


- quote -
The Edo samurai knew how to look sharp
‘The World of Edo Dandyism: From Swords to Inro”

at the Nezu Museum is a splendid collection of Edo Period (1603-1868) swords and sword accessories that includes blades, scabbards and metal fittings, as well as decorative sets of inrō (pill boxes) and netsuke (carved toggles). The exhibition looks back to a fascinating period of Edo history when prosperous samurai and merchants sought out the most stylish outfits and accessories that would establish them as refined men.
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The exhibition provides a glimpse of these unique characteristics of the Edo gentleman’s wardrobe. Visitors are first met with a dazzling display of swords, which is specially lit to allow close viewing of the blades’ fine metalwork, engraving and patterning.
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Another highlight of the exhibition is the collection of tsuba (sword guards), the metal fittings attached between hilts and sword blades to prevent the grip from slipping onto the blades.
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Perhaps the most famous accoutrements of the Edo gentleman, aside from his sword, were the inrō and netsuke. The inrō, a lacquered pill box small enough to fit into the palm of the hand, would be paired with a decorative netsuke toggle. On display at the exhibition is a beautiful 18th-century inrō stand that demands attention. A dizzying assortment of inrō hang from it, replicating how it would have originally looked in the gentleman’s home. Clearly the owner of this stand must have enjoyed displaying his prized inrō collection.
The spectacular inrō in this exhibition
include one by Shibata Zeshin (1807-1891) that depicts the Chinese tale of “Zhong Kui the Demon Queller,” who, according to legend, was so powerful that he was able to capture a demon. The inrō, which has Zhong Kui standing victorious on one side and the demon on its reverse, is enclosed in a case the shape of a cage. The bamboo bars of the cage are made of mother of pearl and the rest of it is lacquered to have the appearance of rusted iron. When inside the case, the demon on the inrō is seen trapped behind bars. The artist’s playful spirit, skill of execution and ability to illustrate the narrative in such a clever manner make this a remarkable piece. ...
- source : japantimes.co.jp/culture - Yoko Haruhara -


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- quote -
Turtle-shell "Inro" pocket watch
Late Edo Period. Japanese-version of a portable compact watch in a casing resembling a pillbox.



The dial rotates to keep time. The case is made entirely of turtle shell and covered completely in lacquer. This splendid clock has a sundial and compass in the lid.
According to writing on the box, the clock belonged to Nariaki Tokugawa (whose posthumous name is Rekko) of the Mito domain.
(Machine height: 5.3 cm; width: 4.5 cm; thickness: 2.5 cm)
- source : jcwa.or.jp/en wadokei -

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inrooshi, inroo shi 印籠師 Inro maker


- reference : japanese-inro.jyuluck-do.com -

Inro were first used to store the
. inkan 印鑑 seal .
For medicine there were at least three different boxes to store different kinds of pills and drugs. To keep out moisture the aikuchi 合口 opening between two boxes had to be especially tight. This was one part of an Inro where the craftsman had to show his skill. The form of these boxes changed with time from simple containers to refined pieces of accessories for the rich.

Techniques used to decorate an Inro

chinkin 沈金 gold or silver inlay in scratch marks of laquer

. makie, maki-e 蒔絵 "sprinkled picture" .

nashiji, nashi ji 梨地 - Nashiji, also called Aventurine ...
The name nashiji is thought to have originated in the resemblance that the lacquer bears to the skin of a Japanese pear, 梨 nashi. ...
- source : global.britannica.com-


. raden 螺鈿 mother-of-pearl - inlay .


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source : torinakukoesu.cocolog-nifty.com


. Tôshûsai Sharaku 東洲斎写楽 (active 1794 - 1795).

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- - - long list of books about Inro and Netsuke
- source : www5d.biglobe.ne.jp/~mystudy -

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

ころもがへ印籠買ひに所化(しょげ)二人
koromogae inroo kai ni shoge futari
koromogae inroo kai ni shoke futari

For the new wardrobe
To buy a seal-case
Two monks have come!

Tr.Thomas McAuley

. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .

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阿波踊腰の印籠地を擦れり
awa odori koshi no inro ji o kesuru

Awa Dance !
the pill box on his belt
rubs on the ground

Tr. Gabi Greve

Saitoo Inao 伊藤伊那男 Saito Inao (1949 - )



. WKD : 阿波踊り Awa odori dance .
- - kigo for autumn -
This is a special dance that originated in Tokushima (Shikoku) more than 400 years ago.
It is performed during the days of the Bon Festival (o-bon) in many parts of Japan nowadays. The Inro of many dancers have an extra-long string.

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印籠の蒔絵の金や夏羽織
inro no makie no kin ya natsubaori

gold decoration
on the lacquer of this Inro -
light summer robe


Nomura Kishuu 野村喜舟 Nomura Kishu (1886 - 1983)

. WKD : natsubaori 夏羽織 light summer coat.


CLICK for more Inro with Maki-e decoration !

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. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #inro #inroo #pillbox #medicinebox - - - -
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6/30/2016

kagami mirror

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Edo shokunin 江戸の職人 Craftsmen of Edo .
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kagami 鏡 mirror, Spiegel

. WKD : kigo related to the mirror .
kyoodai 鏡台 mirror stand
kyoodai iwai 鏡台祝 celebrating the mirror stand
hatsu kagami 初鏡 "first (ue of the) mirror"
In Samurai Families, on the 20 of January, the mirrors were opened for the first time, some kagami mochi offered and then ritually eaten by the womanfolk.
sanmenkyoo 三面鏡 three-mirrored dresser

- also introduced are
wakyou, wakyoo 和鏡 Wakyo
Japanese style mirrors / History of mirrors in Japan
Mirror with auspicious symbols of winter

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ekagami, e-kagami 柄鏡 mirror with a handle


ekagami, e-kagami 柄鏡 mirror with a handle

. . . A mirror with one's family crest may signify the self assertion of the family or individual who used such a mirror. A mirror with a scenic motif, such as Mount Fuji and the pine grove of Miho or the eight views of Omi, may express one's desire to see these famous sights or to travel.



By the Edo period handles, often bound in rattan, were added to Japanese brass or bronze mirrors. The mirror discs also became larger to accommodate the increased size of ladies' hair arrangements. These types of mirror were known as e-kagami.
Perhaps it can be said that the motifs on handled mirrors truly reflected the heart of the Edoite!
- source : www.kyohaku.go.jp

- History of mirrors in Japan -
- reference -


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Mirrors were first introduced for religious rituals, but had been used by the aristocracy for combing and make-up since the Heian period.
In the Edo period, they became widely used by all people.

kagamishi 鏡師 mirror maker


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kagami migaki 鏡磨き / kagami togi 鏡研ぎmirror polisher in Edo

Since the mirrors of the Edo period lost their shine very soon, it was necessary to polish them regularly.


source :cleanup.jp/life/edo/17

The bronze mirrors of the ladies of Edo had to be polished at least once a year. A good business time for the wayside craftsmen was in winter, toward the New Year.
They sat by the roadside, putting the mirror in front of them whilst polishing it. So they could see their own face all the time.

They were often the subject of senryu.

わが面で試みをする鏡とぎ
waga men de kokoromi o suru kagamitogi

using my own face
as a trial object
to polish this mirror



磨ぎたての鏡びっくり下女気絶
togitate no kagami bikkuri gejo kizetsu

looking into
the newly polished mirror
the servant faints


Maybe now she realized the great difference in her own "beauty" and that of here lovely lady.

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togishi 研ぎ師 研師 polisher of mirrors, swords and blades
kenma 研磨 sword polishing

- quote -
Kenma - Japanese Sword Polishing
The basic 2 stages of Kenma ( Polishing ) are the Shitaji-Kenma ( Foundation polish ) and Shiage-Kenma ( Final polish ). The 3rd stage is the final, touch-up polish. Normally, the 9 Japanese polishing stones are used to complete the Kenma. .....
- - - - - Kenma procedures
1. Mine Kenma
2. Shinogi-ji Kenma
3. Hira-ji Kenma ( Flat area polish )
4. Yokote-suji-kiri ( Side line formation )
- - - - - Minor Polish
The minor polish can be done to the sword with scuff markings or the sword with Hike ( Scratch ).
- source : sfswordsociety -

- reference -


. Saeki Yataroo 佐柄木弥太郎 Saeki Yataro .
The official togimonoshi 砥物師 of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
He lived in a district named after him,
Kanda Saekichoo 神田佐柄木町 Kanda Saeki-cho, Kanda Saekicho

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- quote
Japan in the Edo Period - An Ecologically-Conscious Society
There were many other kinds of specialized craftsmen to repair broken items, including paper lanterns and locks, replenish vermilion inkpads, and refurbish old Japanese wooden footwear, mills and mirrors, to name a few. They supported a society where nothing was thrown away but everything was carefully repaired, and used until it could truly be used no more.
- source : Eisuke Ishikawa / JFS



. kagami ema 鏡絵馬 votive tablet as a mirror .
You can paint the part of your face that should improve its beauty.

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合わせ鏡のおひさ / Takashimaya no O-Hisa 高島屋おひさ


source : kanazawabunko.com



The rebus picture (hanji-e 判じ絵) :
田圃(た)TA、鹿島(かしま)KASHIMA 踊り手の尾(お)O に火(ひ)HI がつき、徳利と盃で酒(さ)SA で、
「たかしまおひさ」- Takashima Ohisa

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kagami o miru geisha 鏡を見る芸者


source : allposters.co.jp

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猫が鏡を覗いている cat peeking in the mirror


source : bumblebees.at.webry.info

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CLICK for many more photos !

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. Join the Ukiyo-E friends on facebook ! .



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. shinkyoo 神鏡 Shinkyo - "mirror of the kami", divine mirror .

The Imperial Regalia of Japan (三種の神器, Sanshu no Jingi / Mikusa no Kandakara), also known as the Three Sacred Treasures of Japan, consist of

the sword Kusanagi (草薙劍, Kusanagi no Tsurugi)),
the mirror Yata no Kagami (八咫鏡), and
the jewel Yasakani no Magatama (八尺瓊曲玉).


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- quote -
Mirrors in history and mirror superstitions
... There is a Buddhist belief that negative spirits will enter houses through the door if they have triangular-shaped roofs. Hanging a small circular mirror in front of the door will prevent the bad spirits from entering.
In Japan, bronze mirrors (imported from China c.300AD) were associated with Amaterasu, sun goddess and imperial ancestor — who, at the dawn of time, ordered her grandson to descend from heaven to rule over Japan and gave him a sacred mirror providing him and his successors perpetual access to the divine sun.
Throughtout medieval Japan, mirrors were considered sacred objects—used not only in rarefied imperial ritual and display but also to ward off evil spirts and, when placed in Shinto shrines, to speak with the gods.
- source : japanesemythology.wordpress.com -


makyoo 魔鏡 Makyo, magic mirror
- quote -
..... In Japan, bronze mirrors are known as magic mirrors, or makkyo (魔鏡). One side is brightly polished, while an embossed design decorates the reverse side. Remarkably, when light is directed onto the face of the mirror, and reflected to a flat surface, an image magically appears (usually the one featured on its back). While the metal is completely solid, the reflected image gives the impression that it must be in some way translucent. For many centuries, the ‘magic’ of these mirrors baffled both laymen and scientists.
The currently accepted explanation for this phenomenon is that during its construction the mirror’s surface is scraped, scratched, and polished, then coated with an amalgram of mercury, thereby causing stresses and “preferential buckling” into convexities of a scale too small to be observed by the naked eye, but matching the pattern on the back of the mirror.



Kyoto Journal sat down with the man rumored to be the last remaining makkyo maker in the world — Yamamoto Akihisa — and his friend, Yoshida Hisashi. Mr. Akihisa is descended from a family of mirror makers based in Kyoto.
.....
My grandfather received a commission — from Kyoto University, if I recall correctly — to make a makkyo mirror. People wanted to know if it was possible to make makkyo in present times. My grandfather had been actively involved in crafting mirrors for Shinto shrines since even before the Meiji Restoration (1868), and he had a sample makkyo, so he was already familiar with the method, although he hadn’t attempted to reproduce one himself until then.
.....
- Read the rest of the interview here :
- source : kyotojournal.org/renewa -

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jigokudayuu jisu wa edi 「地獄太夫実ハ壊泥」the famous Geisha turned hell monster
IRON MAIDEN アイアン・メイデン


source : mag.japaaan.com/archives


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

磨なをす鏡も清し 雪の花
togi-naosu kagami mo kiyoshi yuki no hana

Polished anew
the holy mirror too is clear–
blossoms of snow

Tr. Shirane

Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉

. WKD : kagami 鏡 mirror .


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

磨なをす鏡も清し 雪の花
togi-naosu kagami mo kiyoshi yuki no hana

Polished anew
the holy mirror too is clear–
blossoms of snow

Tr. Shirane

Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉

. WKD : kagami 鏡 mirror .


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- - - To join me on facebook, click the image !

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. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #kagami #mirrormaking #kagamishi #mirror #togishi - - - -
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11/24/2015

Edo Yuzen Dyeing

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .
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Edo Yuuzen 江戸友禅 Edo Yuzen

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yuuzenzome 友禅染  "Yuzen-style Kimono dyeing."
A form of paste-resist dyeing with beautiful colors and pictorial designs. Itis named after the Kyoto fan painter 宮崎友禅 Miyazaki Yuzen, who is credited with perfecting the technique around 1700.
. yuuzenzome 友禅染 - "Yuzen-style dyeing" .
- Introduction -




- quote
Tokyo Tegaki Yuzen 東京手描き友禅 友禅

Main Areas of Manufacture
Shinjuku Ward, Nerima Ward, Arakawa Ward

Traditional Technologies and Techniques
-- For Tokyo Tegaki Yuzen (hand-painted kimono), preliminary designs are sketched on textiles using an extract from spiderwort (青花 aobana, Asian dayflower), etc.
-- Resist dyeing is done by applying either dye-resistant pastes to textiles or by covering areas with wax.
-- Various types of brush are used for coloring and the painting of designs.
-- Crests are applied either by brush or by using paper cut-out stencils.
-- Embroidery is undertaken by hand.
1- 下絵は、青花等を用いて描く。
2- 防染は、糸目糊、白付け糊、堰(せき)出し糊、伏せ糊、又はろう(原文は「ろう」は漢字)描きによる。
3- 挿し及び描き染めは筆又は刷毛(はけ)を用いる。
4- 紋章上絵(もんしょううわえ)は、毛描き又は紋章彫刻をした型紙を用いる刷り込みによる。
5- 刺繍(ししゅう)は、手刺繍による。

Traditionally Used Raw Materials
Woven silk textiles - 絹織物




History and Characteristics
The origins of yuzen dyeing are said to lay in the Edo Period's Jokyo Era (1684-1687) during which there was an artist in Kyoto whose real name was Hioki Kiyochika 日置清親 (1650-1736). This person nevertheless used Miyazaki Yuzensai 宮崎友禅斎 as his professional name.

In 好色一代男 "The Life of an Amorous Man," a well-known work of fiction of the Edo Period by Ihara Saikaku (1642-1693), there is a woodblock print called "The Twenty Dyed Fan Yuzen," this title hints at the fact that Miyazaki Yuzensai was also known to be a painter of fans. One day, due to a request received from a drapery, Miyazaki painted a design that featured a pattern of family crests, and it subsequently became wildly popular. The pattern represented a departure from dyed goods up until then, with its popularity said to have stemmed from its use of color. Ogata Korin 尾形光琳 (1658-1716), one of the most well-known artists in Japanese history also tried his hand at yuzen techniques, and examples of his work remain with us today.

When Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) established the Edo Shogunate (1603-1868), many dyers and artists employed by daimyo (feudal lords) relocated from Kyoto to Edo. Various technologies and techniques were patronized, and this resulted in the creation of a wide variety of both woven textiles and dyed goods. That water was an integral part of dyeing processes also proved a very important factor. Thus, many dyers ended up living along the banks of the Kanda River.

A drapery called "Echigoya" 越後屋呉服店 opened in Nihonbashi (now known as the Mitsukoshi Department Store) in the first year of the Enpo Era (1673). It established a dye works further up the Kanda River around Tokyo Yamanote (close to modern Takadanobaba in Shinjuku Ward). Even today, the largest number of dye works in Tokyo is found in Shinjuku. Concerning Tokyo Tegaki Yuzen (hand-painted kimono), from development of conceptualizations, the sketching of preliminary designs, and until project completion, craftspeople carry out tasks as a continuous operation, each working individually. A feature of such kimono is that even within garments of a single color, there is a sense of beauty and elegance.

Tokyo Kogei Senshoku Cooperative Association
- source : sangyo-rodo.metro.tokyo.jp

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yuuzenzomeshi 友禅染師 artisan dyeing Yuzen cloths

Since the very expensive Kimonos made of stiching patterns with gold and silver thread and other kinds of high-class patterns were eventually forbidden in Edo, the craftsmen had to think of other methods to bring some "color" in the daily life of the citizens.

The process of Yusen-dyeing is quite complicated and soon specialists for each process came together in a workshop to share the work.
From painting the images, applying paste, adding color, steaming, drying,
washing in a river (yuuzen nagashi 友禅流し Yuzen nagashi
 . . . , drying again . . .



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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

. Kaga Yuzen 加賀友禅 from Ishikawa .

加賀友禅えがく百花や冬灯
Kaga yuuzen egaku hyakka ya fuyu tomoshi

Kaga Yuzen
painted with so many flowers -
winter lights

Tr. Gabi Greve

楠久子 Kusu Hisako



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行く秋や加賀友禅の小風呂敷
yuku aki ya Kaga yuuzen no koburoshiki

autumn has come to an end -
this small Furoshiki wrapper
from Kaga Yuzen

Tr. Gabi Greve

新田美智子 Nitta Michiko


CLICK for more Yuzen Furoshiki !

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加賀友禅筆より草の花生まる 野崎ゆり香

しぐるるや加賀友禅の鏡掛 中橋文子
人とその影加賀友禅を晒しをり 石原八束
冬ざれの赤を散りばめ加賀友禅 中山純子
冬川をたぐり寄せては布放つ(加賀友禅) 飴山實

春雨の加賀友禅の街にあり 岩崎すゞ
短日や加賀友禅の先ぼかし 新井佳津子
赤多き加賀友禅にしぐれ来る 綾子

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. densetsu 伝説 Japanese Legends - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #edoyuzen #yuzen #yuuzen - - - -
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11/02/2015

seihonshi book binder

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. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .
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seihonshi 製本師 bookbinder - Buchbinder
seihonya 製本屋 - seihon gyoosha 製本業者

seihon ginooshi 製本技能士



- quote
Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is then bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. For protection, the bound stack is either wrapped in a flexible cover or attached to stiff boards. Finally, an attractive cover is adhered to the boards and a label with identifying information is attached to the covers along with additional decoration. Book artists or specialists in book decoration can greatly expand the previous explanation to include book like objects of visual art with high value and artistic merit of exceptional quality in addition to the book's content of text and illustrations.
Bookbinding is a specialized trade
that relies on basic operations of measuring, cutting, and gluing.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- - - - - some keywords

. akahon 赤本 red book .
- and more about ezooshi 絵草子 Ezoshi, illustrated book or magazine



chitsu 帙 wrap-around box, cloth-covered stiff box


detchō, detchoosoo 粘葉装 Detchoso, paste-leaf book
(see kochōsō butterfly binding below)
pasted paper leaf book


fukuro-toji, fukurotoji 袋綴 pouch-binding
- quote -
Also read fukurotsuzuri. Also called karatoji 唐綴 and fukurozoushi 袋草子 (fukurozooshi). Lit. pouch-binding.

The most common type of book-binding in Japan, made of thin sheets of paper which are inscribed or printed on only one side, folded in half, text-side out, and stacked together. Covers are added to the front and back, and the book is stitched along the spine (the edges opposite the folds) so that each double-leaved page forms a pouch, fukuro 袋, which is open at the top and bottom. Although variations exist, typically four tiny holes are made at equidistant lengths along the spine edge and the sheets and covers are then bound together tightly with thread. The fukurotoji was introduced from China and began to replace most other binding styles after the 14c.
One of the earliest examples is the Anthology of Regent Ichijou ICHIJOU SESSHOUSHUU 一条摂政集 (mid-12c). Double-leaved pages are pasted together indicating the initial stage of pouch-binding.
- source : JAANUS -


hanshitagaki 版下書き copyist


. horishi 彫り師 block carver .


kansusoo, kansusō 巻子装 Kansuso, scroll binding  copyist
a binding style of a horizontally long sized scroll of paper

. kibyooshi 黄表紙 Kibyoshi, "yellow book covers" .

kikai-zuri 機械刷り machine printing


kochōsō, koochoosoo 胡蝶装 “butterfly binding”
- quote -
Lit. butterfly book.
A type of book-binding, which, according to some, is the same as *detchousou (detchoosoo, detchōsō 粘葉装 (paste-leaf book). Others maintain that it is the same as *retchousou 列帖装 (a multisection book). The finished book opens so that each pair of leaves joined with paste stand out at an angle like the wings of a butterfly.
The term kochousou (Ch: hudiezhuang) was used for this type of paste binding in China.


retchōsō, retchoosoo 列帖装 Retchoso
Also tetsuyousou (tetsuyoosoo) 綴葉装 or retsuyousou (retsuyoosoo) 列葉装 retsuyoso.
A multisection book. A type of Japanese book-binding. The first three to five sheets of paper are piled up and folded in half to make a set. Then several sets of folded sheets are arranged in a neat pile with the folded edges forming the spine. The binding is made by sewing the sections together using a complex and time-consuming procedure. The finished book, therefore, can be opened perfectly flat.
Retchousou originated in Japan in the 12c, and was widly used for works of native literature, including narrative stories, *nou 能 texts, and anthologies of Japanese poetry (waka 和歌). It was not used for Chinese or Buddhist texts. Confusingly, the terms *kochousou 胡蝶装 (butterfly book) and *yamatotoji 大和綴 are sometimes used to refer to multisection books, and during the late Edo period even the term *detchousou 粘葉装 became confused with retchousou.
- source : JAANUS -


seihon 製本 bookbinding -
seihonjo 製本所 bookbinding factory, bookbindery, Buchbinderei


. surishi 摺り師 printer .


techōsō (see Yamato toji)
tetsuyoosoo, tetsuyōsō 綴葉装 “multisection” binding



wasoobon, wasoohon 和装本 Japanese book making
wahon 和本 Japanese Book


yamato-toji 大和綴 Yamato binding technique
- quote -
Also musubitoji 結び綴じ, lit. knot-binding.

The simplest style of book-binding and usually a type of pouch-binding fukurotoji 袋綴. The process of making yamatotoji involves punching four (or sometimes two) horizontal slits in the book near the spine and threading a flat cord (or sometimes a strip of paper) through each pair of slits. The cord ends are brought to the front, and each cord is secured tightly with a square knot.
Yamatotoji also uses long corner pieces added to strengthen the otherwise unsupported corners. Extant examples, dating from the 12c, are decorative books, often waka 和歌 anthologies, in which colorfully designed cords and front and back covers are used. This binding style, is sometimes called kochousou 胡蝶装 (kochoso), although this generally refers to a different type of book-binding.
- source : JAANUS -


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the Book in Japan:
A Cultural History from the Beginnings to the Nineteenth Century
by Peter F. Kornicki (Author)

This monograph covers every major aspect of the book in traditional Japan: its place in Japanese history; books as material objects; manuscript cultures; printing; the Edo period book trade; authors and readers; and importation and exportation."
- at amazon com and google books -

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- quote -
Japanese Bookbinding
Here is a brief sketch of the development of the Japanese book binding trade from its early development to its commercial beginnings and eventual industrialization written by Dana Gee.
The word in Japanese for bookbinding is seihon.

Papermaking was developed in China during the Han dynasty in the second century AD; the earliest recorded reference to papermaking in Japan was around 610 AD. The earliest “books” were calligraphed paper rolls. Beginning during the Tang dynasty period in China (618-907), Buddhist texts were folded accordion style, making the texts easier to handle, less fragile. The folded edges form the edges of the pages. This is called 折本 orihon (concertina or accordion-style binding) in Japan, common up until the nineteenth century, and is still used. In addition to Buddhist sutras, this form was used for maps, calendars and some types of reference books.

Also developed during the Chinese Tang period, the “butterfly binding” (detchō or kochōsō in Japan) came into use, mostly for printed books. Each piece of paper was folded in half and laid on top of its predecessor; a cover was glued to the folded edges. When opened, each pair of pages “tends to stand up with an effect resembling the wings of a butterfly.”i

From the late Heian period (794-1185) onwards, another technique, yamato-toji (or techōsō) was used, mostly for manuscripts of Japanese literary works. Folded pages were placed one inside the other forming a booklet or fascicle, and thread was used to sew them together along the fold, and several of these would be joined together to make one volume.ii

By the time the book trade in Japan became established, in the Tokugawa or Edo period (1603-1867), the form known as fukuro-toji was the most common type of Japanese binding. Practised in China early as the Tang period, widespread by the Ming dynasty period (1368-1644), and transmitted to Japan in the Muromachi period (1392-1573), by end of which, in the late 16th century, it had become the standard form for printed books. Each page had printed or handwritten text on one side only, folded with the text on the outside, and placed on top of its predecessor; assembled pages are sewn together, the stitches passing through the blank margins next to the loose edges, so the sewn edges form the spine and folds form the edges of pages. This stringbound style continued through the Meiji period.

Books were handmade and calligraphed until the advent of block printing, originating in China, with the earliest known East Asian examples produced in Japan and Korea in the eighth century. Texts produced for the reading public were not introduced until much later in the Heian period, in the eleventh century. In the Kamakura period the temples of Kyoto began printing; it was the center of printing for the next 500 years. By the Tokugawa period, most books were produced in three cities: Edo, Kyoto and Osaka. It was during this period that the rapid growth of the publishing industry created the publishing houses, guilds and book trade professions. Printing shifted from private printing under patronage to mostly commercial printing by the mid 17th century. Movable type was introduced in the mid 16th century, but woodblock printing was dominant until the 1880s.

During the Tokugawa period, the process for producing a book was a collaboration of artists and craftsmen and women. First the text would be given to the copyist, or hanshitagaki (the copy was called the hanshita). The copied text would be given to the block carver, horishi. The carved block would be passed to the printer – surishi – and after printing to another worker for page alignment. The maker of covers was the hyoshiya. Book covers would be paper with thick backing; from about the 17th century onward, design became an important part of commercialization and marketing.

By early Meiji the covers were stiffer, made of cardboard. The printed pages and covers would be passed to a binder who sewed them together (seihongyousha or seihonya – the first word refers more to the individual, although it can refer to the business; the second word refers more to the shop – it is a question of emphasis).iii The word shitateya was generally used for a person who finished off sewing jobs and the word shitate was sometimes used for the final stages of production of books including covers and sewing.iv A book having soft covers would have a chitsu, or wrap-around box, made of stiff cardboard covered in cloth. Then the completed work (with printed protective paper wrappers, beginning in the second half of Tokugawa) would be sent to the bookseller.v

In the Tokugawa period, book covers began to evolve from simple undecorated colored paper to more artistic design work. Sometimes the color of the cover would be based on content. In Edo in the 18th century it was common for lighter genres of fiction to have different color covers, the genre names derived from the color: akahon “red books” and kibyoshi “yellow covers.”vi In the seventeenth century, literary works began to regularly include illustrations; artists were named in colophons. Book cover designs became more elaborate, with embossed or burnished paper designs, and later color woodblock prints from popular ukiyo-e artists. In the 19th century, lavish color woodblock covers were made for the elaborately designed illustrated popular fiction books called gōkan.vii

With larger firms, all the book trade craftspeople would work together in-house – “but smaller-scale publishers contracted some parts of the process out to sub-contracting specialists like block-carvers and binders, and cover-makers ran their own separate firms from the early seventeenth century onwards.”viii Bookbinders did not get credit like publishers/booksellers, artists or designers. Sometimes copyists and block carvers were named in colophon, but rarely binders.

Women worked as binders during the Tokugawa period.
Peter Kornicki, in The book in Japan: a cultural history from the beginnings to the nineteenth century, says: “… although the whole process of production and distribution of books is commonly presented as if it were exclusively male, this picture needs some correction … it seems that bookbinding was often undertaken, at least in 19th century, by women in the publisher’s household, and there is a record in a book published in 1716 to the effect that copyist responsible for the clean copy or hanshita was a woman. … a few women were active as publishers and booksellers, having inherited the family firms when there were no male heirs available.”ix Other binders transitioned to different roles; Honda Ichijirō, head of the publishing house Unkindō, came from a bookbinding family.x

The transition from all hand work to kikai zuri , or machine printing, didn’t start in earnest until the 1880s; books transitioned from monotypes to hybrids with woodblock, or collotype under-images with woodblock printing on top, to fully machine printed materials, perfect bound Western style. Traditional binding is still practiced.
Here are some illustrations of different styles of book covers:


1929: TSUDA SEIFŪ, designer. (a page from) SŌTEI ZUAN-SHŪ Dai-Ishū.

- snip -
- source : bookbindersmuseum.org -


gajoosoo, gajoo jitate 画帖仕立て album binding

orijoo, orijō 折帖, folded binding,
accordion-style binding with thicker paper

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- quote -
Printing and Publishing
Pre-Modern Printing
- - - - - Tokugawa Period
..... Roughly 300 titles were produced in the 1590s-1630s using moveable type, .....
- snip -
The earliest publishing houses emerged in Kyoto around 1600; simply called hon'ya (bookstores) they engaged in both printing/publishing and retail, and numbered over a hundred by the 1630s.
- snip -
Over the course of the entire Edo period, an estimated 3,757 publishing/bookstore operations were established in Japan, 1,530 of which went out of business before the end of the period.
- - - - - Process
Publishers would often initiate projects, deciding on themes and hiring illustrators or print designers. The illustrators would then submit their designs to the publisher, who would then take over much of the remainder of the process.
- hangiya (板木屋, block-carver)
- copyist or hanshitagaki (版下書)
- nishiki-e and surimono
- the verb 上梓 (jôshi), meaning "to print" or "to publish."
- woodblocks, known as zôhan (蔵版)
- - - - - Paper
- hemp (mashi 麻紙) - kôzo (楮) - Bamboo paper (tôshi 唐紙 or gasenshi 画箋紙)
- - - - - Pigments
- hide-glue called nikawa
Sumi - the same black ink used for painting and calligraphy was used for printing blacks and greys.
White pigments made from seashell (gofun) or lead oxide (enpaku)
Dayflower blue (tsuyukusa) - a light blue hue which reacts easily to moisture, turning yellow.
Prussian blue - the first chemical/artificial pigment developed in the world (i.e. deriving directly from neither vegetable or mineral sources); first used in Japan in 1829; a deep, rich blue that does not fade or discolor.
Beni (safflower red), used to produce various shades of red, pink, orange, and yellow.
Purples obtained by mixing dayflower blue with safflower red, or by other means.

- reference source : wiki.samurai-archives.com/index -
(very extensive reference !)

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The World of the Japanese Illustrated Book
The Pulverer Collection, acquired in its entirety by the Freer Gallery of Art in 2007, includes numerous rare and pristine examples of Japanese illustrated books produced in the Edo period and beyond.
..... This online catalogue offers three ways of searching, and provides a set of annotation and comparison tools to use while researching the collection.
- source : pulverer.si.edu -


. Join the Ukiyo-E friends on facebook ! .




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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

暖房や糊の香甘き製本場
danboo ya nori no ka amaki seihonba

heating -
the sweet smell of glue
at the bookbindery


高井北杜 Takai Hokuto

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樹木形ランプや春の製本所
jumokugata ranpu ya haru no seihonjo

this lamp
like a tree - spring
at the bookbindery


. Miyasaka Shizuo 宮坂静生 .



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. shuppansha 出版社 publishing company, book publisher .
ABC - Introduction


. kashihonya, kashihon'ya 貸本屋 booklender, booklender
furuhonya, furu-honya 古本屋 selling old books .


. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. densetsu 伝説 Japanese Legends - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #seihonshi #bookbinderedo - - - -
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10/22/2015

shokunin craftsmen ABC list

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .
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- - - - - ABC List of Edo craftsmen 江戸の職人 - - - - -

A craftsman making tools and things was often called ...shi 師,
while the vendor of his products was called ...ya 屋.

takumi 匠 master craftsman, master artisan



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. Food-related craftsmen and business in Edo .
tabemono 食べ物 - shokuhin 食品

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. bugushi 武具師 making armor and weapons .
- - - - - tooken kaji 刀剣鍛冶 sword smith etc.
mostly swords, bows and arrows.

. bunshinshi, bunshin shi 文身師 making tatoos (bunshin) .
irezumi 刺青 tatoo

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. choochinshi, chōchin-shi 提灯師 making Chochin paper lanterns .

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. daiku 大工 carpenter . - tooryoo 棟梁 Toryo, master carpenter
- - - funadaiku 船大工 "shipbuilder carpenter"
- - - miyadaiku 宮大工 "shrine carpenter"


- - - . Hida no takumi 飛騨の匠 Master Builders from Hida .

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. fudeya 筆屋 making writing brushes .

. fukuromonoshi 袋物師 / 嚢物師 making bags and pouches .
fukuromonoya 袋物屋 shop for bags and pouches
fukuromono tonya 袋物問屋 pouches wholesaler

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. gangueshi, gangu eshi 玩具絵師 painter of toys .
and more about Edo toys

. garasu ku 硝子工 glass blowers .
biidoroya, biidoro-ya 硝子屋 craftsman making glass ware

. getaya 下駄屋 making Geta wooden clogs .

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. hakeshi 刷毛師 making brushes .

. hanabishi 花火師 firework makers .
hanabi uri 花火売り street vendors of small firework
Ryogoku no hanabi 両国の花火 famous firework in Edo

. hashishi, hashi shi 箸師 / hashiya 箸屋 making chopsticks .

. harikoshi, hariko shi 張子師 artisan making papermachee dolls .
- - - - - harikoya, hariko ya 張子屋 shop selling Hariko dolls

. himonoshi 檜物師 "artisan making things from Hinoki cypress wood" .
magemonoshi 曲物師 craftsmen of bentwood products
The vendors of their products were called himonoya 檜物屋.

. hinaningyoshii, hina ningyoo shi 雛人形師 making Hina dolls .
Edobina, Edo-bina 江戸雛

. hookishi, hooki shi 箒師 making brooms, Besenmacher .
hookiya 箒屋 vendor of brooms, 「hooki uri ほうき売り」and「hooki kai ほうき買い」

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. idohorishi, idohori shi 井戸堀師 digging a well - ido .
mizuya 水屋 water salesmen
mizubugyoo, mizu bugyō 水奉行 waterworks administrator

. inrooshi, inroo shi 印籠師 Inro maker - 印籠 / 印篭 / いんろう .

. ishi ku, ishiku, sekkoo 石工 stone mason .

. itamae, ita mae 板前 chef cook .

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. jigyooshi 地形師 "ground-preparing" worker, ground leveling worker .

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. kagamishi 鏡師 mirror maker .

. kagoshi 籠師 basket maker .
..... mushikago 虫かご / 虫籠 basket, cage for keeping insects
..... seiokago, seoi-kago 背負いかご / 背負い籠 backpack basket
..... yurikago ゆりかご / 揺り籃 cradle
..... zaru ざる / 笊 bamboo basket

. kago 篭 / 駕籠 / かご, kagoshi 篭師 palanquin maker .

. kajiya 鍛冶屋 blacksmith .
fuigo matsuri 鞴祭 bellows festival

. kamadoshi, kamado-shi かまど師 / 竈師 making the earthen hearth .
- - - - - kamabutashi kamabuta-shi 釜蓋師 making a lid for the iron pot
- - - - - Kamafuta Jinja 釜蓋神社 "Kamafuta Shrine", Kagoshima

. kamisukishi、kamisuki shi 紙漉き師 making paper, paper making artisan .
kamiya, kami-ya 紙屋 paper maker

. kamiyuishi 髪結師 Kamiyui hairdo master, hairdresser .
- - - - - motoyui 元結い / mageyui 髷結い

. kappaya, kappa-ya 合羽屋 Kappa raincoat maker .

. kasashi, kasa-shi 傘師 making paper umbrellas .
kasa hari 傘張り gluing paper to umbrellas

. katatsukeshi, kata-tsuke shi 型付師 pattern maker for dyeing patterns .
katahori shokunin 型堀職人 pattern carver

. katchuushi 甲冑師 / busokushi 具足師 making Yoroi suit of armor .
yoroizaiku 鎧細工

. katsurashi, katsura shi 鬘師 wig maker / kamojiya 髪文字屋 / 髢屋 .


. kijishi 木地師 maker of wooden items, wood turner .
kijiya 木地屋 dealer, vendor of wooden items

. kiseruya, kiseru-ya 煙管屋 making long tobacco pipes .


. komashi, koma shi 独楽師 making spinning tops .
Edo koma, Edo-koma 江戸独楽 spinning top from Edo
tsurigoma 釣り独楽 "fishing spinning tops" // or teguruma, te-guruma 手車 "hand wheel"
teguruma uri 手車売り vendor of a "hand wheel" toy

. konya 紺屋 making "blue" things, cloth dyer .
- aizomeya 藍染め屋, aizome shokunin 染物職人 artisan dyeing with indigo
- 土屋五郎右衛門 Tsuchiya Goroemon


. kumihimoshi 組紐師 making Kumihimo ribbons .
- - - - - itokumi 糸くみ

. kurenaishi, kurenai shi 紅師 making lip red from safflowers .
beni no hana 紅の花、紅花, 紅藍花 Benibana, safflower
They also used the color to dye cloth.

. kushishi, kushi shi 櫛師 comb maker .
kushi, tsugegushi 柘植櫛 combs in Edo
The Art of Japanese Hair Comb Patterns
wakare no kushi 別れの櫛 comb of separation

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. masushi, masu shi 枡師 making square Masu measuring cups .
tsurukake masu 弦掛枡 / kijimasu 木地枡
Kyoomasu 京枡 Kyo-masu, Kyoto-Masu / Edo masu 江戸枡
Kyoto 枡座 Masu-Za - 福井作左衛門 Fukui Sakuzaemon
Edo 枡座 Masu-Za - 樽屋藤左衛門 / 樽屋与左衛門 Taruya Yozaemon

. makieshi, maki-e shi 蒔絵師 making sprinkled lacquer items .

. monuwaeshi, mon uwa eshi 紋上絵師 painting family crests .
- kamon 家紋 family crest

. mushikagozukuri 虫かごづくり / 虫籠づくり making basket for keeping insects .
mushiya 虫家, mushi-uri 虫売り dealer for insects
mushiko uri 虫籠売り vendor of insect baskets and cages

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. niwashi 庭師, uekiya 植木屋 gardener .
伊兵衛三之烝 Ihei Sannojo in Somei 染井

. nuibarishi 縫針師 making sewing needles .
maigiri 舞錐 "dancing drill" (mawashigiri 回し錐).

. nuihakushi 縫箔師 / nuimonoshi 縫物師 making embroidered goods .
- Edo Shishu 江戸刺繍 Embroidery from Edo

. nurishi, nuri-shi 塗師 lacquer master .
nushichoo 塗師町 laquer workers district / urushi 漆 laquer
kijishi 生地師(きぢし)prepared the vessels
nurishi 塗師 applied the lacquer base
makie-shi 蒔絵師(まきえし)applied the inlay images

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. okeya 桶屋 bucket makers .
living in 桶町 Okecho, Okemachi, "Bucket district"

. oshieshi, oshi-e shi 押絵師 making raised cloth pictures .
oshi-e 押し絵 / 押絵 raised or padded cloth picture, fabirc picture, lit. pressed picture

. oshiroishi, o-shiroi shi 白粉師 making white face powder .

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. radenzaikushi, raden zaiku shi 螺鈿細工師 craftsman making Raden items .
raden - mother-of-pearl

. roosokushi 蠟燭師 making candles .
roosokuya 蠟燭屋 Rosoku-ya
roosoku no nagare kai ロウソクの流れ買い buying candle wax drippings
Kanda, Roosokuchoo 蠟燭町 Rosoku district in Edo
roosoku 蝋燭, waroosoku 和蝋燭 Japanese candle

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. sashimonoya 指物屋 furniture maker .
- Edo Sashimono 江戸指物 Wood Joinery
...................................................
. seihonshi 製本師 bookbinder - Buchbinder .
...................................................
. shakan, sakan 左官 plasterer, stucco master .
kote-e 鏝絵 "painting with plaster", relief painting
often as decorations on the storehouse of rich merchants.
- and
shikkuishi 漆喰師 making lime plaster walls

. shamisenshi 三味線師 Shamisen maker .

. shiborizomeshi, shibori some shi 絞染師 dyeing with Shibori technique .
- aizome 藍染 dyeing with indigo

. shitateya 仕立屋 making robes (seamstress, tailor) .
- omonoshi 御物師, shinmyoo 針妙 Shinmyo

. shoogishi 将棋師 making Shogi tiles and boards .
shoogi, shōgi 将棋 Shogi generals' chess, Japanese chess
.......................................................................
. suzurishi 硯師 making stones to rub ink .
suzuri 翡翠硯(すずり)硯 inkstone

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. tabiya, tabi-ya 足袋屋 making split-toe Tabi socks .
足袋店 shop selling Tabi

. tansuya 箪笥屋 Tansu maker, craftsman making chest of drawers . .

. tatamiya 畳屋 Tatami mat maker .

. tateguya 建具屋 making doors and sliding doors .
fusuma 襖 , shooji 障子 sliding doors and wooden decorations

. temarizukuri 手まり、手毬づくり making Temari balls .

. tenuguiya, tenugui-ya 手ぬぐい屋 / 手拭屋 making hand towels .

. teppoo kaji 鉄砲鍛冶 gunsmith producing Teppo matchlocks .

. tobishoku, tobi-shoku 鳶職 construction workers .
鳶 tobi、鳶口 tobiguchi、鳶の者

. togishi 研ぎ師 polisher of mirrors, swords and blades .
- kenma 研磨 sword polishing

. tookooshi 陶工師 suetsukuri 陶工 Tokoshi, potter .

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tookoo 刀工 blacksmith, making a sword
sword craftsmen


photo wikipedia

. katana 日本刀 the Japanese sword .

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. tsuchiningyooshi, tsuchi ningyoo shi 土人形師 making clay dolls .

. tsukegishi, tsukegi shi 付木師 making Tsukegi "matches" .

. tsumamizaikushiつまみ細工師 making ornaments with tsumami (pinching) techniques .
Edo Tsumami-Kanzashi 江戸つまみ簪 Ornamental Hairpins

. tsurizaoshi 釣竿師 making fishing rods .
wazao 和竿 "Japanese fishing rod" - Edo Wazao 江戸和竿 Edo Bamboo Fishing Rods

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. uchiwashi, uchiwa shi 団扇師 making handfans .

. uekiya 植木屋 / niwashi 庭師 gardener .
伊兵衛三之烝 Ihei Sannojo in Somei 染井

. ukiyo-e shi 浮世絵師 Ukiyo-e producer .
ukiyo-e, lit. pictures of the floating world. Paintings and woodblock prints.
- planned by the publisher hanmoto 版元 and produced in collaboration with the painter/designer eshi 絵師, carver horishi 彫師 and printer surishi 摺師.

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. yaneya 屋根屋 roof maker, roofer - kawaraya 瓦屋/ 瓦師 roof tile maker .

. yanebuki 屋根葺 roofing with thatch .
. . . . . Fukiyachoo 葺屋町 Fukiyacho District of roof thatchers

- - - - - . hafu 破風 gables and roofs .
- - - - - . kokerabukishi, kokerabuki-shi 柿葺師 craftsman roofing with wooden shingles .

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. yuuzenzomeshi 友禅染師 dyeing Yuzen cloths .

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. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .
- Introduction -

. Construction work for a Japanese Home .
- with more specialized craftsmen

. Japanese Architecture - cultural keywords used in haiku .

. Traditional Crafts of Edo - Tokyo .


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