Showing posts with label - - - Edo Bakufu -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - Edo Bakufu -. Show all posts

3/20/2017

Keian Uprising

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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Keian jiken 慶安事件 The Keian uprising in 1651
Keian no hen 慶安の変


The Keian period, from April 1, 1649 till 1652



- quote -
.. a failed coup d'état attempt carried out against the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1651, by a number of rōnin. Though it failed, the event is historically significant as an indication of a wider problem of disgruntled ronin throughout the country at the time. Masterminded by Yui Shōsetsu and Marubashi Chūya, the uprising is named after the Keian era in which it took place.

According to strategist Yui's plan, Marubashi would take Edo Castle, the headquarters of the shogunate, using barrels of gunpowder to begin a fire which would rage through Edo, the capital. In the confusion, with the authorities distracted by firefighting efforts, the ronin would storm the castle and kill key high officials.

At the same time, Yui would lead a second group and seize the Tokugawa stronghold in Sunpu (modern-day city of Shizuoka). Further action was planned for Osaka Castle and Kyoto. They timed their rebellion to take advantage of the death of Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu, as his successor, Ietsuna, was still a child. The conspirators aimed to force the shogunate to relax its policies of seizing hans and dispossessing daimyōs, which under Iemitsu had deprived tens of thousands of samurai of position and income, adding them to the ranks of ronin.

Ultimately, however, the uprising failed when the conspirators' plan was discovered. Marubashi Chūya fell ill, and, talking through his fever dreams, revealed secrets which made their way to the authorities by the time the rebels were ready to move. Marubashi was arrested and executed in Edo; Yui Shōsetsu escaped that fate by committing seppuku, in Sunpu, upon finding himself surrounded by police. Several of the rebels committed suicide alongside him. The families of the conspirators as well were then tortured and killed by the authorities, as was usual at the time; several were crucified.

In the aftermath of the suppression of the uprising, the Shogunal Elders (Rōjū) met to discuss the origins of the uprising, and how to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Originally, most of the Elders sought to take severe measures, including expelling all ronin from the city, but they were eventually convinced by Abe Tadaaki to take a more rational tack. He suggested reducing the number of ronin opposed to the shogunate, not through expulsion, but by introducing more favorable policies. In particular, he convinced the council that the shogunate ought to do away with the law of escheatment, and to work to help ronin settle into proper jobs. Forcefully expelling a great number of people from the city, he argued, would only serve to create more opposition to the government.

Far from being an isolated incident, the Keian Uprising was followed by an event the following year involving several hundred ronin, and another soon afterwards in Sado. Granted, these were not directly related, that is, none of the persons involved were the same, nor did they follow a single leader or organized ideology. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, it is significant to note how widespread the distaste for the shogunate was at this time, and the degree of the "problem" of the ronin throughout the country.



The tale was then retold in a novel, Keian Taiheiki (慶安太平記), and in a number of Kabuki plays, the most famous of which, also called Keian Taiheiki, was written by renowned playwright Kawatake Mokuami.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Yui Shoosetsu - Shōsetsu 由井正雪 Yui Shosetsu (1605 - 1651)

- quote -
a military strategist, and leader of the unsuccessful 1651 Keian Uprising. Though a commoner, and thus not officially of the samurai class, Yui was known as one of the "Three Great Ronin" along with Kumazawa Banzan and Yamaga Sokō.

Born in Sunpu to humble origins, Yui is said to have been a talented youth; he was taken in by a number of rōnin from the area, who taught him recent history, and likely swordsmanship and military strategy as well.



As an adult, he found employment as an instructor at a samurai academy, teaching swordsmanship and related disciplines. But these academies, which could be found throughout the country, served not only the pure function of schools of martial arts; certainly, discipline, ethics, and related arts were taught as well. But the schools also served as social and intellectual spaces, in which political ideas were discussed, and grievances aired in a familiar environment where comrades and friends met. Students were almost exclusively members of the samurai class, but running the full gamut of rankings, from daimyo to ronin. As regulations were made stricter at this time, and many ronin expelled from their domains, the number of students grew dramatically.



He later opened a school of military strategy and martial arts in the Renjaku-chō neighborhood of Kanda in Edo, as well as an armorer's shop and ironworks. Here he continued to gain contacts, friends, and prestige among the ronin and others; one of them was Marubashi Chūya, a samurai and fellow instructor of martial disciplines and strategy, with whom he would plan the Keian Uprising some years later.

Beginning in 1645, Yui plotted a coup against the Tokugawa shogunate along with Marubashi, a small group of rōnin, and a number of their students. It was to take place in 1651, shortly after the death of Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu, and would later come to be known as the Keian Uprising. Unfortunately for Yui and his comrades, the plot was discovered before it truly began. Yui was in Sunpu, preparing to execute a secondary series of attacks when Marubashi was arrested in Edo; surrounded by shogunate officials, he committed seppuku rather than be captured.


由井正雪の乱 Yui Shosetsu no ran

Following his death, the officials performed a variety of obscenities upon his body, and then proceeded to subject his parents and other close relatives to crucifixion. Yui Shōsetsu, though ultimately unsuccessful in his political plots, is a notable figure as representative of the growing political unrest in the early Edo period, as a result of strict laws put forth, and enforced, by the shogunate. He and his conspirators were only one of many groups throughout the country meeting in samurai academies and other venues, discussing politics and current events. Most, of course, did not act upon their beliefs as Yui and Marubashi did, but that discussion existed among a great number of people, despite, or perhaps because of the shogunate's strict enforcement of its laws, is significant.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


There is even a line of Sake rice wine named after Yui Shosetsu.




正雪 無量寿(むりょうじゅ)大吟醸 Shosetsu Muryoju brand

- 由比正雪にちなんだ酒銘 -
- reference source : tajima-ya.com/shousetsu. -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Shizuoka 静岡県

Shoosetsu mushi 正雪虫 / Shoosetsu tonbo 正雪トンボ The Shosetsu Dragonfly
This animal begun to appear in Shizuoka after the violent death of Yui Shosetsu. They say his soul reincarnated to haunt the place of his birth and death.
It is also called カトンボ Chikara tonbo and begins to fly in early summer. It is only seen in Shizuoka!
This animal, a kind of kawatonbo 川とんぼ river dragonfly, is now extinct.


source : okab.exblog.jp/9934655


. tonbo (tombo, tonboo) 蜻蛉 dragonfly .
and
蜉蝣 kagero 正雪蜻蛉 紋蜉蝣 /白腹蜻蛉 /斑蜻蛉
Ephemeroptera
- kigo for early autumn -



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Marubashi Chuuya - Chūya 丸橋忠弥 Marubashi Chuya (? - 1651)
Yari no Chuya 槍の忠弥 Chuya with the long spear



(Ichikawa Sadanji as Chuya) 初代市川左團次の丸橋忠弥

- quote -
Chūya was a ronin (masterless samurai) from Yamagata, and instructor in martial arts and military strategy, most famous for his involvement in the 1651 Keian Uprising which sought to overthrow Japan's Tokugawa shogunate. He is said to have been a man of great strength and good birth whose distaste for the shogunate stemmed primarily from a desire for revenge for the death of his father, killed by the shogunal army at the 1615 siege of Osaka. The identity of his father is not clear, but may have been Chōsokabe Motochika.
... his weapon of choice became the Jūmonji Yari 十文字槍 a cross-shaped spear. The martial art of wielding the yari is called sōjutsu. ,
... Marubashi met Yui Shōsetsu, ...
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


(Ichikawa Sadanji) 初代市川左團次の丸橋忠弥

Chuya's grave at the temple
. 神霊山 Shinreizan  金乗院 Konjo-In  慈眼寺 Jigen-Ji .
豊島区高田2-12-39 / 2 Chome-12-39 Takada, Toshima ward





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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #keian #keianuprising #yuishosetsu #marubashichuya - - - -
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2/22/2017

torimono and jitte

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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torimono 捕物 police arrest - Glossary

. hanzai 犯罪 crime and punishment - Glossary .



十手・捕縄事典 - 江戸町奉行所の装備と逮捕術
名和弓雄 Nawa Yumio (1912 - 2006)
Dictionary of Jitte and Torinawa
Edo machibugyosho no sobi to taihojutsu


- reference source : melkdo.jp/item -

第1編 捕物捕具編

一 捕物道具と捕縛術
中国大陸から伝来
吉宗が改革した「十手捕縄扱い様」

二 打物捕具について
鼻捻の発生
鼻捻が捕者道具に転用された理由
現代の警棒にも活用
鼻捻の使い方
鼻捻の変遷
イギリスの警棒と同型

三 痿し(萎えし)の効果
痿し(萎えし)の発想
尖端部分の突起を強化
痿し(萎えし)の使い方
手貫紐の効用と握柄
「連れ返し」の技法

四 「十手」の出現と呼称の変遷 Jitte
「十手」に対する様々な名称
十手を「骨斧」と称した流派
「一角流」では「手棒」と呼称
「鐵簡」「卦算」の由来
「鐵挺」「銀棒」「鐵尺」の異名

五 各流古文書に遺された「十手」異称への考察
明大刑事博物館の「申渡覚」
實手、術手、十挺、十當、賢手、轉木
名称と文字由来への考察
木製鉄鈎十手
木製十手の鈎のつけ方

六 異形な十手への工夫と俗称
型稽古用木十手
鍛鉄製十手
鉄製十手の長短と各俗称
太刀もぎの鈎

七 鉄製・真鍮製十手も鈎のつけ方
棒身から鍵を鍛造の際に打ち出す法
棒身に角穴をあけ鈎の脚をかすめる十手の鈎のつけ方
蒲鉾形鉄環に鍵を鍛接し、棒身にとおす法
太鼓胴鈎
鈎鍔
割り開きかしめ
牛角鈎、三つ鈎、四つ鈎
通し焼きはめ鈎
サーベル形鈎

八 特殊な太刀もぎ鈎のつけ方
美しい形をした「刃鈎」
鈎幅をかえる様式
手錠十手の鈎
鈎の横手に火口があり火蓋のついた鈎
支柱を入れて補強した鈎
鈎の内側に鋸歯
鈎の角に小穴や小鈎
菊座の効用

九 十手の握柄と棒身
十手の握柄
握り柄の辷り止めの工夫
下級捕吏用の「藤皮巻」
「こより巻き」「牛の生皮」「牛なめし皮巻き」
「緋羅紗包み」と「鮫皮巻き」
不動明王の破邪降魔剣の五鈷杵を模した柄
与力・同心「銀流し十手」の握柄
十手の棒身と漆懸け
「銀流し」の手法と「銀張り」
「牛皮包み」「なめし皮包み十手」
鞘に入った十手三種
「十手棒身」に象眼あるものは贋物
銀流し与力・同心十手は疑物という説
十手棒身の先端について

十 「十手紐付環」と「房紐」
水平回轉環
紐付環の形状
朱銅について
十手の房紐について
与力・同心の十手の房紐の巻き方

十一 十手の握り方とその理由
十手の握り方
十手で打ち萎やす四打法
十手を巻いて打つ打法
手首二回転打法

十二 十手の分類と見分け方
十一種に分けられる十手
江戸町方与力の十手
江戸町方同心の十手
捕者出役の長十手
奉行所備え付けの「定寸十手」(坊主十手)
目明しの十手
火付盗賊改め方の十手
関東八州取締り出役代官手代・手付き十手
八州番太の十手
八州目明しの十手

十三 関西(京都・奈良・大坂)の与力十手の様式
関西の十手の特殊性
関西の与力十手と同心十手の見分け方
関西与力時射てと同心十手の長さの違い
関西、与力・同心十手の房紐について
大坂の捕方の十手房紐について

十四 十手の携行方法について
十手袋と袱紗
十手携行が公認される場合
八州取締り出役の代官手代・代官手付
八州の番太・楠流十手
八州の目明し(道案内)の十手
大坂の捕方の十手の携行法

十五 十手の製作者について
十手師と書き遺された専門職人
白銀師(錺り職人)
刀鍛冶
鎌鍛冶

十六 「十手捕縄術」の系譜について
「江戸町方十手捕縄扱い様」の系譜及び名和宗家に伝承の由来
「十手蒐集と研究」との出会い
「十手術」の魅力

十七 鉄刀と鉄鞭及び「鉄人流十手」について
鉄刀
鉄鞭
鉄人流十手

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十八 捕縛禁固具について
捕縄 - Torinawa - "capture-rope" - arresting cord
捕縄の長さ
早縄と本縄
捕縄の持ち方、巻き方、解き方
鈎縄
手鎖
早手錠
鍛鉄製早手錠

十九 警報用具について
呼子笛
太鼓、拍子木、板木

二十 握物捕具について
角手
南蛮鈎
手の内
まろほし

二十一 投物捕具について
目潰し具

二十二 鎖物捕具について
鉄鎖のつくり方
棍飛
万力鎖
鎖棒
龍吨(熊手)

二十三 捕物用照明具について
龕燈提灯
松明
籠火(毬火)
火串
御用提灯

二十四 防禦具について
着込
鉢鉄(額當)
鉄笠と鉄楯

二十五 長柄仕寄具について
鉄棒
寄棒
打込
袖搦
刺又
突棒
鎖奪い
刀奪い
南蛮棒

二十六 明治末期以後の捕具
実用新案特許の十手の出現
能海式手錠十手
台湾警察で開発された特殊警防具
マイティ・スティック(警棒型警戒用具)
分銅付き捕縄内臓手錠付きステッキ

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jitte, jittei 十手 / 實手 metal truncheon of an Edo policeman

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第2編 江戸時代の捕方と逮捕術

一 捕方の服装
町方与力の服装
町方同心の服装
関東八州取締り出役の服装
八州取締り出役の任免について
アメリカ西部保安官に似た八州番太

二 「江戸町方十手扱い様」の制定
「扱い様」制定の時期と理由
「破邪顯正の型」の四つの動き
十手を構える場合の手と脚の動き
「十手の構え」五型について
「双角の構え」四型について

三 「江戸町方十手捕縄扱い様」の十二型
型開始前の間合、礼法、抜刀、破邪顯正の型、構えについて
十手 一の型「四方拂い」
十手 二の型「柄とり」
十手 三の型「巻きおとし」
十手 四の型「左入身」
十手 五の型「右入身」
十手 六の型「連れがえし」
十手 七の型「座捕り」
十手 八の型「上段受け」
十手 九の型「閂捕り」
十手 十の型「柄返し」
十手 十一の型「咽喉輪捕り」
十手 十二の型「送り足拂い」

四 「江戸町方十手双角」の十八型
「双角の型」とは
「順手双角」一の型
「順手双角」二の型
「順手双角」三の型
「順手双角」四の型
「順手双角」五の型
「順手双角」六の型
「卍双角」七の型
「卍双角」八の型
「卍双角」九の型
「卍双角」十の型
「逆手双角」十一の型
「逆手双角」十二の型
「逆手双角」十三の型
「放鷹双角」十四の型
「放鷹双角」十五の型
「放鷹双角」十六の型
「放鷹双角」十七の型
「放鷹双角」十八の型

五 伝承・江戸時代の逮捕術と捕方
与力・同心・小者の出役振り
逮捕術の構えと捌き方
つかみ方・足の掛け方
組み伏せ方

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- quote -
A jitte (十手, literally "ten hands")
is a specialized weapon that was used by police in Edo period Japan. It is also spelled jutte.
History
In feudal Japan, it was a crime punishable by death to bring a sword into the shogun's palace. This law applied to almost everyone, including the palace guards. Due to this prohibition, several kinds of non-bladed weapons were carried by palace guards. The jitte proved particularly effective and evolved to become the symbol of a palace guard's exalted position.
In Edo period Japan
the jitte was a substitute for a badge, and it represented someone on official business. It was carried by all levels of police officers, including high-ranking samurai police officials and low-rank samurai law enforcement officers (called okappiki or doshin). Other high-ranking samurai officials carried a jitte as a badge of office, including hotel, rice and grain inspectors (aratame). The jitte is the subject of the Japanese martial art of jittejutsu.

Description and technique
Jitte may have a small pointed tip or blade attached to the tsuka and hidden in the boshin. Jitte could be highly decorated with all manner of inlays and designs or very plain and basic depending on the status of the owner and the jitte's intended use. Jitte could range in length from around 12 inches to over 24 inches. The modern jitte is about 45 cm (18 inches) long with no cutting edge and a one-pronged tine, called kagi, about 5 cm long starting just above the hilt and pointing toward the tip sentan.
A popular misconception is that the kagi is used to catch a sword. It could possibly be used for this purpose, but the hook's proximity to the hand would make it rather dangerous. When faced with a swordsman, a more likely use for the hook would be to capture and arrest the blade after blocking it with the boshin. The kagi's more common use is to hook into clothing or parts of the body like the nose or mouth, or to push into joints or other weak points on the body. It also could be used to hook the thumb while holding the weapon backwards, to allow different techniques such as punches and blocks, very similarly to a sai. The jitte can also be used in much the same manner as other short sticks or batons, to strike large muscle groups and aid in joint manipulation.



- - - - - Parts of the jitte
Boshin, the main shaft of the jitte which could be smooth or multi sided. The boshin of most jitte were usually iron but some were made from wood.
Sentan, the tip or point of the jitte.
Kagi, the hook or guard protruding from the side of the jitte. Jutte may have more than one kagi with some jitte having two or three kagi.
Kikuza (chrysanthemum seat), if the kagi is attached to the boshin through a hole in the boshin, the protrusion on the opposite side is called a kikuza.
Tsuka, the handle of the jitte which could be left plain, it could also be wrapped or covered with various materials.
Tsukamaki, the wrapping on the handle (tsuka). Materials such as ray skin same', leather, and cord were used for tsukamaki on jittes.
Kan, the ring or loop at the pommel of the tsuka. A cord or tassel could be tied to the kan.
Tsuba, a hand guard present on some types of jitte.
Koshirae. Jitte can occasionally be found housed in a sword type case hiding the jitte from view entirely, this type of jitte can have the same parts and fittings as a sword including:seppa, tsuba, menuki, koiguchi, kojiri, nakago, mekugi-ana and mei.

Other jitte types and similar weapons
Karakuri jitte
Marohoshi
Naeshi or nayashi jitte have no hook or kagi.
Tekkan
Hachiwara

- source : wikipedia -

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torinawa 捕縄 - "capture-rope" - arresting cord



- quote -
Edo Machikata Jitte Torinawa Atsukaiyo
the iron truncheon and arresting cord art practiced by the feudal Edo police, is one of the arts transmitted within Masaki-ryu Nakajima-ha. The art is broadly comprised of Ikkaku (forms practiced with a single jitte) and Sokaku (forms practiced with a jitte in one hand and a hananeji/naeshi in the other). The Sokaku forms are comprised of Namite Sokaku (Jujiken), Sakate Sokaku (Hachijiken), Manji Sokaku (Manjiken) and Hoyo Sokaku.

Namite Sokaku and Sakate Sokaku are mainly used to restrain a violent swordsman, and Hoyo Sokaku include special tactics such as throwing the jitte. Manji Sokaku is mainly comprised of techniques against polearms and chain weapons.

Edo Machikata Jitte Torinawa Atsukaiyo, the iron truncheon and arresting cord art practiced by the feudal Edo police, is one of the arts transmitted within Masaki-ryu Nakajima-ha. The art is broadly comprised of Ikkaku (forms practiced with a single jitte) and Sokaku (forms practiced with a jitte in one hand and a hananeji/naeshi in the other). The Sokaku forms are comprised of Namite Sokaku (Jujiken), Sakate Sokaku (Hachijiken), Manji Sokaku (Manjiken) and Hoyo Sokaku.

Namite Sokaku and Sakate Sokaku are mainly used to restrain a violent swordsman, and Hoyo Sokaku include special tactics such as throwing the jitte. Manji Sokaku is mainly comprised of techniques against polearms and chain weapons.
- source : masakiryu-nakajimaha.org -


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. hanzai 犯罪 crime and punishment - Glossary .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #hanzai #edocrime #edopolice #torimono - - - -
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2/20/2017

ninsoku yoseba Hasegawa Heizo

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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ninsoku yoseba 人足寄場 rehabilitation facility for criminals
Hasegawa Heizoo, Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 Hasegawwa Heizo / 鬼平 Onihei 




Yoseba bugyoo 寄場奉行 - Yoseba Bugyo Magistrate for the Yoseba
. bugyoo, bugyō 奉行 Bugyo officials in the Edo government .

The first Yoseba was constructed at Ishikawajima 石川島 Ishikawa Island in 1790.



- quote
PUNISHMENT — BOTH CRUEL AND ENLIGHTENED
What was the prevailing attitude regarding the purpose of punishment during the Edo period?
According to the noted legal historian Ishii Ryôsuke, “The penal philosophy of the Edo shogunate was unquestionably preventive. At the beginning, the philosophy of general prevention dominated, but after the adoption of the Osadame-gaki, it was increasingly concerned with particular prevention.”

This focus on particular prevention was especially apparent in the ninsoku yoseba, a special facility for criminals regarded as capable of rehabilitation. The ninsoku yoseba was opened in 1790 at the recommendation of hitsuke tôzoku aratemekata chief Hasegawa Heizô — who was also its first director — and the approval of rôjû Matsudaira Sadanobu. Its inmates were those convicted of minor crimes, as well as mushuku, people whose names had been removed from the family register and were excluded from lawful social activities (including people who had been banished for earlier crimes).
At the ninsoku yoseba, these people received lessons in ethics and vocational training of various types. Moreover, the inmates were actually paid for the products of their labors, a practice virtually unheard of at the time.
- - - - - more about
Law Enforcement in the Edo Period
- source : japanecho.com/sum/2004



According to their performance, inmates were allowed to wear robes with less and less white dots, as they reached the time limit to go free.
They were helped to find work in the line they had been trained at the Yoseba.


石川島人足寄場

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石川島灯台(人足寄場跡)
The Ishikawa Lighthouse memorial at the remains of the Yoseba, now in 佃公園 Tsukuda Park.

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Hasegawa Heizoo, Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 Hasegawwa Heizo / 鬼平 Onihei 
長谷川 宣以 Hasegawa Nobutame (1745 - 1795) )
Childhood names: 銕三郎 Tetsusaburo, 銕次郎 Tetsujiro - Tettchan
Hitsuke Toosoku Aratameyaku 火付盗賊改役 chef of the police force for arson and theft




長谷川平蔵 ― その生涯と人足寄場
江戸の中間管理職 長谷川平蔵―働きざかりに贈る
滝川政次郎

- reference : books about Hasegawa Heizo -

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- quote -
Onihei Hankachō 鬼平犯科帳 Onihei Hankacho
is a popular series of stories and television jidaigeki in Japan. It has been based on a novel by 池波正太郎 Shōtarō Ikenami which started in the December 1967 issue of the light novel magazine "All Yomimono (ja)" published by Bungei Shunjū which published the first hard cover the following year. Onihei Hankachō developed into a series, and adaptations into TV programs, a film and theater followed.
A TV anime adaption aired in 2017.
The title character is Hasegawa Heizō, who started as a chartered libertine before succeeding his father as an heir and was appointed the head of the special police who had jurisdiction over arson-robberies in Edo. Nicknamed by the villain "Onihei," meaning "Heizō the demon," he led a band of samurai police and cultivated reformed criminals as informants to solve difficult crimes. Later, he was titled "Hitsuke tōzoku aratamekata" (police force for arson and theft), and opened an office at his official resident.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !



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- reference : edo ninsoku yoseba -

Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era:
Another institution in Edo connected with the maintenance of public order was a group of workhouses (ninsoku yoseba)

Men of Uncertainty: The Social Organization of Day Laborers in Edo:
The Ninsoku Yoseba of 1790

Punishment and Power in the Making of Modern Japan:
Hiramatsu Yoshiro, “Ninsoku yoseba no Seiritsu"


Rōya-bugyō 牢屋奉行 – Commissioners of the shogunal prison
- reference : wikipedia -

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:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #ninsoku #yoseba #ninsokuyoseba #hasegawaheizo #onihei - - - -
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2/18/2017

hanzai crime glossary

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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hanzai 犯罪 crime and punishment - Glossary



江戸の犯罪白書 十手・捕縄・御用提燈-百万都市の罪と罰
重松一義

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- - - - - Alphabetical Index of Keywords - - - - -

- AAA - / - BBB - / - CCC - / - DDD - / - EEE -

- FFF - / - GGG - / - HHH - / - I I I - / - JJJ -

- KK KK - / - LLL - / - MMM - / - NNN - / - OOO -

- PPP - / - QQQ - / - RRR - / - SSS - / - TTT -

- UUU - / - VVV - / - WWW - / - XXX - / - YYY - / - ZZZ -


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. Hasegawa Heizoo, Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 Hasegawwa Heizo .
Onihei Hankachō 鬼平犯科帳 Onihei Hankacho

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bakufu 幕府 the Edo government

banya 番屋 prison

bugyoo, bugyō 奉行 Bugyo officials, Commissioners in the Edo government - full list

Buke shohatto 武家諸法度 Laws for the Samurai
(lit. Various Points of Laws for Warrior Houses)


dooshin 同心 Doshin, lesser police officer

gokei 五刑 five judicial penalties

goyoo choochin 御用提燈 Goyo Chochin, police lanterns


Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 Hasegawwa Heizo / 鬼平 Onihei (1745 - 1795)

hitsuke toozoku aratemekata 火付け盗賊改 special police for arson and robberies


jishinban 自身番 / kidoban 木戸番 Guardian of a neighbourhood "gate"
- - - nowadays koban 交番 police box in the neighbourhood

jitte, jittei, jutte 十手 / 實手 metal truncheon, "ten hands"


keibatsu 刑罰 punishment

keisatsu 警察 police (after the Meiji restauration)

Kodenma-choo, Kodenma-chō 小伝馬町 Kodenma-cho prison in Edo


machibugyoo 町奉行 Machibugyo, town commissioner, magistrate and metropolitan governor and district court chief justice
(Minami Machibugyo and Kita Machibugyo)

meakashi 目明し semi-official detective

metsuke 目付 inspector

mushuku 無宿 vagabong, homeless


ninsoku yoseba 人足寄場 rehabilitation facility for criminals
- installed as a means to prevent crime


okappiki 岡引 semi-official detective

Onihei 鬼平 / Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 Hasegawwa Heizo

oobanya 大番屋 Obanya, main prison

Ooka Echizen 大岡越前守, Ooka Tadasuke (1677 - 1752) 

oometsuke 大目付 Ometsuke, chef of the inspectors, inspector general


rooju, rôjû 老中 "chief elder" - senior counselor

rōya, rooya 牢屋 Roya, the Shogunal prison


seppuku 切腹 death penalty for a samurai, honorable suicide

shirasu 白州 "white pebbles" court room outside the magistrate's office

shisai 死罪 death penalty (of a commoner)

shokei 処刑 execution


Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次 (1719 - 1788)

teshita 手下 undercover informants of the Doshin

Tooyama 遠山景元 Toyama Saemon no Jo Kagemoto - (1793 – 1855) Tōyama no Kin-san 遠山の金さん


torimono 捕物 police arrest

torimonochoo 捕物帳 document about an arrest

torinawa (hojoo) 捕縄 policeman's rope, "capture-rope" - arresting cord


yakuza やくざ / ヤクザ gangster, gang of gangsters

yoriki 与力 police inspectors


zenka 前科 criminal record

zanzai 斬罪 beheading (of a samurai)


- - - - -

- to be updated regularly -



十手・捕縄事典 - 江戸町奉行所の装備と逮捕術
名和弓雄 Nawa Yumio (1912 - 2006)

. Nawa Yumio - Contents of the book .

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. Criminal Punishment in Edo .
a glossary of terms



Kozukappara keijoo 小塚原刑場 Kozukappara execution grounds
Suzugamori keijoo 鈴ヶ森刑場 Suzugamori execution grounds 




. Kubizuka 首塚 memorial stone pagodas and mounds for the beheaded .

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- quote -
Edo period police
In feudal Japan, individual military and citizens groups were primarily responsible for self-defense until the unification of Japan by Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1603. During the Edo period (1603–1868), the Tokugawa shogunate formed a centralized feudal government.[1] Samurai warriors who once protected Japan from foreign enemies and fought each other for supremacy became the new police and internal security force.[2] Their new job would be to ensure civil peace, which they accomplished for over 250 years.
----- History
During the Edo period the authoritarian Tokugawa shogunate instituted an elaborate police/security state, an administrative hierarchy was developed, and rules and regulations controlling many aspects of life in Japan went into effect. This new system of government has been called a police state,[4] possibly the world's first.
In 1868
the samurai era ended with the overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate and a new government came into power (Meiji government) and the samurai class was eventually abolished. In 1872, a former samurai [Kawaji Toshiyoshi] was sent to Europe to study systems of policing and he recommended a restructuring based partially on French and Prussian systems. In 1874, a nationalized police force was created using European police systems as a model. This new police force was the start of the modern police system in Japan, though it was initially dominated by former samurai from Satsuma who were part of the driving force behind the removal of the Tokugawa shogunate. The new Meiji period police continued the Edo period method of Japanese police controlling societal behavior and internal security as well as preventing and solving crimes.
----- Organization
The Edo period police apperatus utilized a multi-layered bureaucracy which employed the services of a wide variety of Japanese citizens. High and low ranking samurai, former criminals, private citizens and even citizens groups (Gonin Gumi) participated in keeping the peace and enforcing the laws and regulations of the Tokugawa shogunate.
----- Samurai police
Machi-bugyō
During the Edo period, high ranking samurai with an allegiance to the Tokugawa shogunate (hatamoto) were appointed machi-bugyō (city administrators or commissioners). The machi-bugyō performed the roles of chief of police, prosecutor, judge and other judicial related business both criminal and civil in Edo and other major towns.
Yoriki
Working under the machi-bugyō was the yoriki. Yoriki were samurai—they managed patrols and guard units composed of lower ranking police officials. Yoriki, being of a higher class, were able to ride a horse while performing their duties and were trusted to carry out assignments of high importance.
Dōshin
Working under the yoriki was the dōshin. Dōshin were samurai but of a lower class than yoriki—they performed the duties of prison guard and patrol officer which required close contact with commoners (chonin). They investigated crimes such as murder and helped with executions.
Non-samurai police assistants
Edo period police
relied heavily on commoners for assistance, from average village dwellers to the outcast hinin and eda castes. Members of the Japanese outcast were particularly helpful with guarding and executing prisoners, and disposing the bodies, something that samurai found to be repugnant (distasteful).
Komono
Komono were non-samurai chōnin who went with the dōshin on patrols and provided assistance.
Okappiki
Okappiki were non-samurai from the lowest outcast class, often former criminals who worked for the dōshin as informers and spies.
Gōyokiki/meakashi
Gōyokiki or meakashi were a non-samurai chōnin or outcast class who were hired by local residents and merchants to work as police assistants in a particular neighborhood—they were often former criminals. The term "tesaki" was used to describe gōyokiki or meakashi later in the Edo period.
----- Duties
Investigating crimes, arresting and interrogating arrested suspects, torturing criminal suspects in order to obtain a confession, punishing convicted criminals including executions.
----- Equipment
Edo period police used a variety of armor and carried lethal and non-lethal weapons to capture criminal suspects. If possible, suspected criminals were taken alive. This meant that special weapons and tactics had to be created in order to accomplish this task.
- - - Weapons
Bansho rokugin or keigo roku-go:
Edo period police stations were required to keep six kinds of weapons (bansho rokugin or keigo roku-go) available for use in case of disturbances.[16] these were the kanamuchi, the kiriko no bo, the tetto, the sodegarami, the tsukubo, and the sasumata.[Three of these tools were called torimono sandōgu ("three tools of arresting"), which consisted of the sodegarami, sasumata, and tsukubō. They were symbols of office and were often displayed in front of police checkpoints or used in processions, especially while convicted prisoners were being led to their execution.
Sodegarami
Sasumata
Tsukubo
Kanamuchi
Kiriko no bo
Tetto
Metsubushi
Jitte, Jutte: an iron or wooden club or truncheon, the jutte was a non-lethal weapon and an official symbol of office.
Te yari (hand spear): a small version of the yari suitable for use in confined spaces.
Kusari fundo/manriki
----- Armour
Edo period police and assistants wore chain armour clothing, armour for the hands, and armour for the head.
Hachi-gane (forehead protector).
Kusari katabira and kusari zukin (chain armor jacket and hood).
Han kote (gauntlets).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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- - - To join me on facebook, click the image !

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - - - - #hanzai #edocrime #edopolice #torimono - - - -
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10/02/2016

Koshu Kaido

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. Kaido 日本の街道 The Ancient Roads of Japan .
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Kooshuu Kaidoo, Kōshū Kaidō 甲州街道 Koshu Kaido Road
The Highway from Edo via Kofu to Suwa


One of the Edo Gokaidoo 江戸五街道 Edo Gokaido, Gokaidō - Edo Five Routes
Five Kaido starting at Nihonbashi, Edo

Koshu Kaido 甲州街道 Kōshū Kaidō
Nakasendo 中山道 . 中仙道 Nakasendō
Nikko Kaido 日光街道 Nikkō Kaidō
Oshu Kaido 奥州街道 Ōshū Kaidō
Tokaido 東海道 Tōkaidō


The Koshu Kaido was especially planned by Tokugawa Ieyasu to secure his route to escape Edo in case of an attack.
He had a group of 100 special armed guards live in Shinjuku to help and protect him in case of need.

. Hyakuninchoo 百人町 Hyakunincho district .
teppoogumi hyakunin tai 鉄砲組百人隊 100 Riflemen Team
Hyakunin (hundred-man) brigade of shooters //100 men musket (teppo) corps
stationed in Shinjuku


From Sekino-shuku (関野宿) there was a possibility to use the river 相模川 Sagamigawa to ship luggage coming from Kyoto to the coast (now to the towns of Chigasaki and Hiratsuka) and from there by boat to Edo.




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There are 44 post stations along the Kōshū Kaidō:

Tokyo
Nihonbashi's highway distance marker, from which modern highway distances are measured
View of Mt. Fuji from Tama River in Fuchū

Starting Location: Nihonbashi (Chūō)
1. Naitō Shinjuku (内藤新宿) (Shinjuku)
2. Shimotakaido-shuku (下高井戸宿) (Suginami)
3. Kamitakaido-shuku (上高井戸宿) (Suginami)

Fuda-Goshuku(布田五宿)Five Stations from Fuda (Chōfu, Chofu)
They are all small posts.
4. Kokuryō-shuku (国領宿) (Chōfu)
5. Shimofuda-shuku (下布田宿) (Chōfu)
6. Kamifuda-shuku (上布田宿) (Chōfu)
7. Shimoishihara-shuku (下石原宿) (Chōfu)
8. Kamiishihara-shuku (上石原宿) (Chōfu)

9. Fuchū-shuku (府中宿) (Fuchū, Fuchu)
10. Hino-shuku (日野宿) (Hino)
11. Hachiōji-shuku (八王子宿) (Hachiōji, Hachioji)

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12. Komagino-shuku (駒木野宿) (Hachiōji)
There was a special barrier (sekisho 関所) to prevent women to get out of Edo and weapons to come into the town. The barrier was beside a steep river.


CLICK for more photos !

At the barrier were two stones, one for the traveller to place his hands 手付き石 tetsuki ishi, while the official checked his papers, and one to place his papers in front of the official 手形石 tegata ishi.

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13. Kobotoke-shuku (小仏宿) (Hachiōji)
Also called 富士見関 because Mount Fujisan could be seen from here.
There were no lodgings at this station.

Kanagawa Prefecture
14. Ohara-shuku (小原宿) (Sagamihara)
15. Yose-shuku (与瀬宿) (Sagamihara)
16. Yoshino-shuku (吉野宿) (Sagamihara)
17. Sekino-shuku (関野宿) (Sagamihara)

Yamanashi Prefecture / Kōfu
18. Uenohara-shuku (上野原宿) (Uenohara) - Momotaro legend
19. Tsurukawa-shuku (鶴川宿) (Uenohara) - Momotaro legend
20. Notajiri-shuku (野田尻宿) (Uenohara)

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21. Inume-shuku (犬目宿) (Uenohara)- Momotaro legend



甲州犬目峠 Inume Toge Pass by Katsushika Hokusai 葛飾北斎  

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22. Shimotorisawa-shuku (下鳥沢宿) (Ōtsuki, Otsuki) - Momotaro legend
23. Kamitorisawa-shuku (上鳥沢宿) (Ōtsuki) - Momotaro legend

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24. Saruhashi-shuku (猿橋宿) (Ōtsuki) - Momotaro legend
It was famous for its 猿橋 Saruhashi, the "Monkey Bridge".



- quote -
Located in Otsuki is one of Japan's most famous bridges. The 1300 year old wooden bridge crosses the Katsura River in Yamanashi as it flows between two high cliffs. The ingenious cantilevered design is said to have been inspired by monkeys holding hands to cross the river. Obviously it must have been rebuilt many times, but the basic design has never been changed.
- source : japantravel.com/yamanashi -

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25. Komahashi-shuku (駒橋宿) (Ōtsuki, Otsuki)
26. Ōtsuki-shuku (大月宿) (Ōtsuki) - Momotaro legend
27. Shimohanasaki-shuku (下花咲宿) (Ōtsuki)
28. Kamihanasaki-shuku (上花咲宿) (Ōtsuki)
29. Shimohatsukari-shuku (下初狩宿) (Ōtsuki)
30. Nakahatsukari-shuku (中初狩宿) (Ōtsuki)
31. Shirano-shuku (白野宿) (Ōtsuki)
32. Kuronoda-shuku (黒野田宿) (Ōtsuki)

33. Komakai-shuku (駒飼宿) (Kōshū)
34. Tsuruse-shuku (鶴瀬宿) (Kōshū)
35. Katsunuma-shuku (勝沼宿) (Kōshū)
36. Kuribara-shuku (栗原宿) (Yamanashi)
37. Isawa-shuku (石和宿) (Fuefuki)
38. Kōfu-shuku (甲府宿) (Kōfu, Kofu)
39. Nirasaki-shuku (韮崎宿) (Nirasaki)
40. Daigahara-shuku (台ヶ原宿) (Hokuto)
41. Kyōraiishi-shuku (教来石宿) (Hokuto)

Nagano Prefecture

42. Tsutaki-shuku (蔦木宿) (Fujimi, Suwa District)
43. Kanazawa-shuku (金沢宿) (Chino)
44. Kamisuwa-shuku (上諏訪宿) (Suwa)
Ending Location: Shimosuwa-shuku 下諏訪宿 (Shimosuwa, Suwa District)
 (also part of the Nakasendō)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- reference source : free-age.jp/bridgestone-

There are various legends along the Koshu Kaido. Even Momotaro, the Peach Boy, was here!
This story is basically fun with the pun words.
桃太郎伝説もある甲州街道
From the mountain in the North of the road, called 百蔵山 Momokurayama (momo is a pun with momo 桃, the peach) the peach came rolling down the river. It was picked up at 鶴島 Tsurushima (Tsurukawa) in 上野原 Uenohara. From this peach Momotaro was born. When he grew up, he got his helpers, the dog from 犬目 Inume, the 雉 pheasant (bird) from 鳥沢 Torizawa and the monkey from 猿橋 Saruhashi.
They went to Mount 九鬼山 Kukiyama (Mountain of the nine demons) in 大月南方 Otsuki-South
and to Mount 岩殿山 Iwatonosan, Iwadonosan in 大月北方 Otsuki-North to drive away the demons.
One of the demons was wounded and bleeding, so now at the shrine 子神神社 Nenokami Jinja there can be found red soil, remains of the demon's blood.


- reference source : ymnco2.sakura.ne.jp/me/onitue -

The red soil, used for a stone wall in the shrine compound, had to be demolished in 2003 due to the danger of collapsing.

. Momotaroo 桃太郎 Momotaro the Peach Boy .


- 大月桃太郎研究会 - facebook -


. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Fukushima 福島県
平田村 Hirata

The old demon hag from Adachihara in Nihonmatsu 二本松の安達が原の鬼ババア
used to kill and eat travellers on the Koshu Kaido. From others she extracted money or valuable things.


source : rg-youkai.com/tales/ja/07_fukusima

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

安達が原の鬼婆
安達が原の岩屋に鬼婆が住み、旅人を食べる。泊まった僧侶に骸骨の山を見られ、殺そうとしたが観音像とお経の力に近づくことができず、そのうち朝日が昇って、鬼婆は光にやられて死んだ。

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甲州街道こうしゅうかいどう
- reference source : jinriki.info/kaidolist/koshukaido -

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

お山開きし甲州街道となりにけり
O yamabirakishi kooshuu kaidoo to nari ni keri

after the opening
of the mountain this becomes
the Old Koshu Road . . .


. Tomiyasu Fuusei 富安 風生 Tomiyasu Fusei .
(1885 - 1979)


. yamabiraki 山開 "opening the mountain" .
- - kigo for late summer - -

Usually a ritual at a shrine at the foot of the mountain, with members then climbing the mountain for the first time in this new season.


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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8/04/2016

Edo Philosophy

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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- quote
Japanese Thought Flourished during the Edo Period
Japan’s Highly Sophisticated Philosophies Should Be Internationally Appreciated



What kind of an image comes to mind when you hear the “Edo period”?
Some people may have an image of a peaceful era when war did not exist for a long time and the performing arts and high culture flourished with the support of the merchants while others may associate it with a dark period of national isolation when people groaned under heavy taxation. Different people have different impressions about the Edo period.

It should be noted in particular that the era saw the appearance of a lot of ideas that were unique to Japan along with the Chu Hsi and Wang Yang-ming schools of Confucianism. Mito-gaku, a style of learning cultivated in the Mito Domain and the study of Japanese classical literature were such examples.

Mr. Shoichi Watanabe, Professor Emeritus of Sophia University, recommends that we view history as if we were looking at a rainbow. There are fine water drops in the sky after it rains. Water drops seems like mist, but when viewed at a certain distance and from a certain direction, you can see a rainbow there. Like the droplets in the air, there are myriad historical facts, and when you look at them from a fixed distance and a certain direction, you can see something like a rainbow there.

There were so many studies during the Edo period, and they were seemingly separate from each other. But if we try to understand the flow of those studies, we will be able to look at them like one big rainbow.


The Power of Thought Started the Meiji Restoration
The Edo period often reminds us of the “Meiji Restoration”, which was the climax of the era. There are many NHK Taiga drama series that deal with the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate. In the spiritual messages series, Master Ryuho Okawa, the founder and CEO of the Happy Science group, has often summoned the spirits of people who played important roles in the Meiji Restoration.

One of those spirits is the spirit of Shonan Yokoi, a Japanese scholar and political reformer. He said, “The Meiji Restoration was a revolution, based not only on Western learning, but also on traditional Confucian thought.”

The spirit of the first Japanese Prime Minister, Hirobumi Ito, said, “It was the power of thought, not military force, that was the driving force for the success of the Meiji Restoration. It was the thought of Shoin Yoshida, more fundamentally, the Wang Yang-ming school of Confucian thought.”

Those spiritual messages revealed that the power of thought achieved the Meiji Restoration, and that it was an almost bloodless revolution.


Japan Saw the Age of the Hundred Schools of Thought
Some spiritual truths that those spiritual messages revealed highlight very interesting facts. (See the figure on the right.)

From this figure, you will find that Confucius and Mencius, the two most significant figures in Confucianism, were both born in the Edo period of Japan.

Confucius was reincarnated as Issai Sato, a famous Confucius scholar during the late Edo period, whose teachings had a deep influence on Shozan Sakuma and many other figures. Mencius was reincarnated as Sorai Ogyu, who insisted on going back to the original teachings of Confucianism. He presented many policy recommendations as an advisor close to the eighth Shogun, Yoshimune Tokugawa.

Confucius and Mencius, who had formed the basis of Confucianism, were reincarnated in the Edo period of Japan to lead the restoration movement of Confucianism. This shows that the Chinese era, called the era of the “Various Masters of the 100 schools”, also emerged in the history of Japan.


A Fusion of Confucianism and the Shinto Religion
Along with the rise of Confucianism in Japan, Shinto gods, including Izanagi-no-mikoto, were reincarnated in Japan as scholars of Japanese classical literature and the Wang Yang-ming school to start the movement for the restoration of Shinto. Japanese classical scholars taught that Japan was a great nation, inspiring many people and ingraining the spirit of Japan in people’s minds. Influenced by their ideas, the patriotic samurais of the Restoration also adopted Western values, and launched an anti-Shogunate movement. Eastern and Western values intertwined to raise the revolution.


Edo Period Thought Was Not Inferior to the Philosophies of the West
It has long been considered that Japan does not have thoughts and ideas that have been internationally recognized. In terms of philosophical thought, the country has been regarded as inferior to the West because it produced philosophers like Locke and Rousseau, who provided a basis for the modern political system and spread the Enlightenment.

However, when viewed from the perspective of spiritual truth, this idea is obviously wrong. In fact, the Edo period was a miraculous era when the ancient Shinto gods descended to Japan one after another and raised eastern philosophy to a higher level.
The Japanese should know more about the dynamic ways of thinking that they had during the Edo period. They were virtues of the East that the Japanese boasted to the world.

From now on, we will introduce the Japanese thought, which flourished during the Edo period, in these columns.

- Understanding Japanese Shinto
- source : eng.the-liberty.com


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .



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6/14/2016

metsuke ometsuke inspector

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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metsuke 目付 and oometsuke . Ōmetsuke 大目付 Inspector and Inspector General
soometsuke 惣目付 Sometsuke
daikansatsu 大監察 Daikansatsu "Great Inspector"
kansatsukan 監察官 Kansatsukan, Inspector General



江戶幕府大目付の研究 - Edo Bakufu ōmetsuke no kenkyū
山本英貴 Yamamoto Hideki

Metsuke worked under the supervision of the 若年寄 Wakadoshiyori.
Ometsuke worked under the supervision of the 老中 Roju.


- quote
Metsuke (目付) were the censors or the inspectors of Tokugawa Japan. They were bakufu officials ranking somewhat lower than the bugyō. The metsuke were charged with the special duty of detecting and investigating instances of maladministration, corruption or disaffection anywhere in Japan; and particularly amongst the populace having status below the daimyō.

- - - - - Intelligence gathering
The shogunate recognized the need for some kind of internal intelligence-gathering apparatus and for some degree of covert espionage within its own ranks. It could be said that the metsuke functioned as the Shogun's intelligence agency or as internal spies, reporting to the officials in Edo on events and situations across the country.

The metsuke were charged with focusing on those ranking below daimyō-status; and their counterparts, the ōmetsuke, were responsible for supervising the activities of officials and members of the daimyō (feudal lords).

Although similarly engaged, the reporting protocols of the metsuke and ōmetsuke differed. The metsuke reported to wakadoshiyori who ranked just below the rōjū. The ōmetsuke reported directly to the four or five rōjū at the top of the shogunate bureaucracy. By design, the intelligence-gathering activities of the metsuke was intended to complement those of the ōmetsuke even though there was no official reporting relationship between the two somewhat independent groups.
There were at any given time as many as twenty-four metsuke.

- - - - - Ad hoc evolution
The bureaucracy of the Tokugawa shogunate expanded on an ad hoc basis, responding to perceived needs and changing circumstances. Sometimes one or more of the metsuke or ōmetsuke would have been selected to address a specific or even a unique problem. For example, Arao Norimasa in the period from 1852 through 1854 was charged with special duties as kaibo-gakari-metsuke.

The prefix kaibō-gakari meaning "in charge of maritime defense" was used with the titles of some bakufu officials after 1845. This term was used to designate those who bore a special responsibility for overseeing coastal waters, and by implication, for dealing with matters involving foreigners. "Kaibō-gakari-metsuke" later came to be superseded by the term gaikoku-gakari. These developments prceeded the Gaikoku bugyō system which began just prior to the negotiations which resulted in the Harris Treaty. First appointed in August 1858, the gaikoku-bugyō were bakufu officials who were charged with advising the government on foreign affairs and who were tasked with conducting negotiations with foreign diplomats both in Japan and abroad.
- - - - - In popular culture :
- - - - - List of metsuke:
Oguri Tadamasa (1859–1860).
- source : wikipedia


- - - - - List of metsuke:
柳生宗矩 Yagyu Munenori (1632年 - 1636年) (the first one)
水野守信 Mizuno Morinobu(1632年 - 1636年)
秋山正重 Akiyama Masashige (1632年 - 1640年)
井上政重 Inoue Masashige (1632年 - 1658年)
加賀爪忠澄 Kagatsume Tadazumi(1640年 - 1650年)
- - - and many more
合原義直 Gohara Isaburo(1868年)(the last one)
- reference : Japanese wikipedia -




metsuke 目付 can also just mean a look or the looks of a person, not related to the Edo officers at all.

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In March 10 / 11, 1641, there was a great fire in Oke-machi 桶町火事. More than 400 people lost their lives and 123 homes of Samurai were burned down.
The fire started in the home of a medicine maker (薬師 kusushi) named Matsuo 松尾, and spread fast in the strong wind.
The home of the Government official 大目付 Ometsuke 加賀爪忠澄 Kagatsume Tadazumi (1586 - March 11, 1641) burned down and he died in the fire.
After this fire, the Shogun Iemitsu established a fire brigade of the Daimyo, 大名火消 Daimyobikeshi.

. okechoo, okemachi、桶町 Okecho, "Bucket district" .

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Asakusa Abekawachoo 阿部川町 Abekawa machi
Since 1636 a lot of government workers called "o kobito shuu" (okobito) 御小人衆 lived here, working for Metsuke office. At that time, the district did not have a special name yet. Since having no name was confusing as Edo grew, in the year 1696 it came under the directive of 細井九左衛門 Hosoi Kuzaemon, who gave it the name.
The leader of the Okobito, 川村太四郎 Kawamura Taishiro, had come from the Abekawa region of Shizuoka.
The ABE spelling changed from 安倍 to 阿部.

. Abekawa, Abe-Kawa 安倍川 / 阿部川 .

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- quote -
Metsuke: Intelligence gathering



kangen no metsuke 観見の目付け

(the text of this page is the same as the wikipedia.
- source : america.pink/metsuke -

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松例祭火事装束の大目付
shooreisai kaji shoozoku no oometsuke

pine torch festival -
the inspector wears robes
of the fire brigade

Tr. Gabi Greve

Mihara Seigyoo 三原清暁 Mihara Seigyo


. shoorei sai 松例祭 Shoreisai, pine torch festival .
toshiya matsuri 歳夜祭(としやまつり)
hyaku taimatsu no jinji 百松明の神事 ritual of 100 pine torches
- - kigo for mid-winter - -

on the last day of the old year, leading into the new year.
The last day of the 100 day-long winter austerities of the yamabushi at Dewa sanzan in .
It was held in former times to ward off the epidemy of tsutsugamushi, scrub typhus, along the coast of Northern Japan, about 1300 years ago.
The epidemy demons were driven out with large pine torches.

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .


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