Showing posts with label - - - Edo Bakufu -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - Edo Bakufu -. Show all posts

10/02/2016

Koshu Kaido

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. Kaido 日本の街道 The Ancient Roads of Japan .
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Kooshuu Kaidoo, Kōshū Kaidō 甲州街道 Koshu Kaido Road
The Highway from Edo via Kofu to Suwa


One of the Edo Gokaidoo 江戸五街道 Edo Gokaido, Gokaidō - Edo Five Routes
Five Kaido starting at Nihonbashi, Edo

Koshu Kaido 甲州街道 Kōshū Kaidō
Nakasendo 中山道 . 中仙道 Nakasendō
Nikko Kaido 日光街道 Nikkō Kaidō
Oshu Kaido 奥州街道 Ōshū Kaidō
Tokaido 東海道 Tōkaidō


The Koshu Kaido was especially planned by Tokugawa Ieyasu to secure his route to escape Edo in case of an attack.
He had a group of 100 special armed guards live in Shinjuku to help and protect him in case of need.

. Hyakuninchoo 百人町 Hyakunincho district .
teppoogumi hyakunin tai 鉄砲組百人隊 100 Riflemen Team
Hyakunin (hundred-man) brigade of shooters //100 men musket (teppo) corps
stationed in Shinjuku


From Sekino-shuku (関野宿) there was a possibility to use the river 相模川 Sagamigawa to ship luggage coming from Kyoto to the coast (now to the towns of Chigasaki and Hiratsuka) and from there by boat to Edo.




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There are 44 post stations along the Kōshū Kaidō:

Tokyo
Nihonbashi's highway distance marker, from which modern highway distances are measured
View of Mt. Fuji from Tama River in Fuchū

Starting Location: Nihonbashi (Chūō)
1. Naitō Shinjuku (内藤新宿) (Shinjuku)
2. Shimotakaido-shuku (下高井戸宿) (Suginami)
3. Kamitakaido-shuku (上高井戸宿) (Suginami)

Fuda-Goshuku(布田五宿)Five Stations from Fuda (Chōfu, Chofu)
They are all small posts.
4. Kokuryō-shuku (国領宿) (Chōfu)
5. Shimofuda-shuku (下布田宿) (Chōfu)
6. Kamifuda-shuku (上布田宿) (Chōfu)
7. Shimoishihara-shuku (下石原宿) (Chōfu)
8. Kamiishihara-shuku (上石原宿) (Chōfu)

9. Fuchū-shuku (府中宿) (Fuchū, Fuchu)
10. Hino-shuku (日野宿) (Hino)
11. Hachiōji-shuku (八王子宿) (Hachiōji, Hachioji)

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12. Komagino-shuku (駒木野宿) (Hachiōji)
There was a special barrier (sekisho 関所) to prevent women to get out of Edo and weapons to come into the town. The barrier was beside a steep river.


CLICK for more photos !

At the barrier were two stones, one for the traveller to place his hands 手付き石 tetsuki ishi, while the official checked his papers, and one to place his papers in front of the official 手形石 tegata ishi.

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13. Kobotoke-shuku (小仏宿) (Hachiōji)
Also called 富士見関 because Mount Fujisan could be seen from here.
There were no lodgings at this station.

Kanagawa Prefecture
14. Ohara-shuku (小原宿) (Sagamihara)
15. Yose-shuku (与瀬宿) (Sagamihara)
16. Yoshino-shuku (吉野宿) (Sagamihara)
17. Sekino-shuku (関野宿) (Sagamihara)

Yamanashi Prefecture / Kōfu
18. Uenohara-shuku (上野原宿) (Uenohara) - Momotaro legend
19. Tsurukawa-shuku (鶴川宿) (Uenohara) - Momotaro legend
20. Notajiri-shuku (野田尻宿) (Uenohara)

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21. Inume-shuku (犬目宿) (Uenohara)- Momotaro legend



甲州犬目峠 Inume Toge Pass by Katsushika Hokusai 葛飾北斎  

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22. Shimotorisawa-shuku (下鳥沢宿) (Ōtsuki, Otsuki) - Momotaro legend
23. Kamitorisawa-shuku (上鳥沢宿) (Ōtsuki) - Momotaro legend

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24. Saruhashi-shuku (猿橋宿) (Ōtsuki) - Momotaro legend
It was famous for its 猿橋 Saruhashi, the "Monkey Bridge".



- quote -
Located in Otsuki is one of Japan's most famous bridges. The 1300 year old wooden bridge crosses the Katsura River in Yamanashi as it flows between two high cliffs. The ingenious cantilevered design is said to have been inspired by monkeys holding hands to cross the river. Obviously it must have been rebuilt many times, but the basic design has never been changed.
- source : japantravel.com/yamanashi -

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25. Komahashi-shuku (駒橋宿) (Ōtsuki, Otsuki)
26. Ōtsuki-shuku (大月宿) (Ōtsuki) - Momotaro legend
27. Shimohanasaki-shuku (下花咲宿) (Ōtsuki)
28. Kamihanasaki-shuku (上花咲宿) (Ōtsuki)
29. Shimohatsukari-shuku (下初狩宿) (Ōtsuki)
30. Nakahatsukari-shuku (中初狩宿) (Ōtsuki)
31. Shirano-shuku (白野宿) (Ōtsuki)
32. Kuronoda-shuku (黒野田宿) (Ōtsuki)

33. Komakai-shuku (駒飼宿) (Kōshū)
34. Tsuruse-shuku (鶴瀬宿) (Kōshū)
35. Katsunuma-shuku (勝沼宿) (Kōshū)
36. Kuribara-shuku (栗原宿) (Yamanashi)
37. Isawa-shuku (石和宿) (Fuefuki)
38. Kōfu-shuku (甲府宿) (Kōfu, Kofu)
39. Nirasaki-shuku (韮崎宿) (Nirasaki)
40. Daigahara-shuku (台ヶ原宿) (Hokuto)
41. Kyōraiishi-shuku (教来石宿) (Hokuto)

Nagano Prefecture

42. Tsutaki-shuku (蔦木宿) (Fujimi, Suwa District)
43. Kanazawa-shuku (金沢宿) (Chino)
44. Kamisuwa-shuku (上諏訪宿) (Suwa)
Ending Location: Shimosuwa-shuku 下諏訪宿 (Shimosuwa, Suwa District)
 (also part of the Nakasendō)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- reference source : free-age.jp/bridgestone-

There are various legends along the Koshu Kaido. Even Momotaro, the Peach Boy, was here!
This story is basically fun with the pun words.
桃太郎伝説もある甲州街道
From the mountain in the North of the road, called 百蔵山 Momokurayama (momo is a pun with momo 桃, the peach) the peach came rolling down the river. It was picked up at 鶴島 Tsurushima (Tsurukawa) in 上野原 Uenohara. From this peach Momotaro was born. When he grew up, he got his helpers, the dog from 犬目 Inume, the 雉 pheasant (bird) from 鳥沢 Torizawa and the monkey from 猿橋 Saruhashi.
They went to Mount 九鬼山 Kukiyama (Mountain of the nine demons) in 大月南方 Otsuki-South
and to Mount 岩殿山 Iwatonosan, Iwadonosan in 大月北方 Otsuki-North to drive away the demons.
One of the demons was wounded and bleeding, so now at the shrine 子神神社 Nenokami Jinja there can be found red soil, remains of the demon's blood.


- reference source : ymnco2.sakura.ne.jp/me/onitue -

The red soil, used for a stone wall in the shrine compound, had to be demolished in 2003 due to the danger of collapsing.

. Momotaroo 桃太郎 Momotaro the Peach Boy .


- 大月桃太郎研究会 - facebook -


. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Fukushima 福島県
平田村 Hirata

The old demon hag from Adachihara in Nihonmatsu 二本松の安達が原の鬼ババア
used to kill and eat travellers on the Koshu Kaido. From others she extracted money or valuable things.


source : rg-youkai.com/tales/ja/07_fukusima

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

安達が原の鬼婆
安達が原の岩屋に鬼婆が住み、旅人を食べる。泊まった僧侶に骸骨の山を見られ、殺そうとしたが観音像とお経の力に近づくことができず、そのうち朝日が昇って、鬼婆は光にやられて死んだ。

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甲州街道こうしゅうかいどう
- reference source : jinriki.info/kaidolist/koshukaido -

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

お山開きし甲州街道となりにけり
O yamabirakishi kooshuu kaidoo to nari ni keri

after the opening
of the mountain this becomes
the Old Koshu Road . . .


. Tomiyasu Fuusei 富安 風生 Tomiyasu Fusei .
(1885 - 1979)


. yamabiraki 山開 "opening the mountain" .
- - kigo for late summer - -

Usually a ritual at a shrine at the foot of the mountain, with members then climbing the mountain for the first time in this new season.


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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8/04/2016

Edo Philosophy

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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- quote
Japanese Thought Flourished during the Edo Period
Japan’s Highly Sophisticated Philosophies Should Be Internationally Appreciated



What kind of an image comes to mind when you hear the “Edo period”?
Some people may have an image of a peaceful era when war did not exist for a long time and the performing arts and high culture flourished with the support of the merchants while others may associate it with a dark period of national isolation when people groaned under heavy taxation. Different people have different impressions about the Edo period.

It should be noted in particular that the era saw the appearance of a lot of ideas that were unique to Japan along with the Chu Hsi and Wang Yang-ming schools of Confucianism. Mito-gaku, a style of learning cultivated in the Mito Domain and the study of Japanese classical literature were such examples.

Mr. Shoichi Watanabe, Professor Emeritus of Sophia University, recommends that we view history as if we were looking at a rainbow. There are fine water drops in the sky after it rains. Water drops seems like mist, but when viewed at a certain distance and from a certain direction, you can see a rainbow there. Like the droplets in the air, there are myriad historical facts, and when you look at them from a fixed distance and a certain direction, you can see something like a rainbow there.

There were so many studies during the Edo period, and they were seemingly separate from each other. But if we try to understand the flow of those studies, we will be able to look at them like one big rainbow.


The Power of Thought Started the Meiji Restoration
The Edo period often reminds us of the “Meiji Restoration”, which was the climax of the era. There are many NHK Taiga drama series that deal with the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate. In the spiritual messages series, Master Ryuho Okawa, the founder and CEO of the Happy Science group, has often summoned the spirits of people who played important roles in the Meiji Restoration.

One of those spirits is the spirit of Shonan Yokoi, a Japanese scholar and political reformer. He said, “The Meiji Restoration was a revolution, based not only on Western learning, but also on traditional Confucian thought.”

The spirit of the first Japanese Prime Minister, Hirobumi Ito, said, “It was the power of thought, not military force, that was the driving force for the success of the Meiji Restoration. It was the thought of Shoin Yoshida, more fundamentally, the Wang Yang-ming school of Confucian thought.”

Those spiritual messages revealed that the power of thought achieved the Meiji Restoration, and that it was an almost bloodless revolution.


Japan Saw the Age of the Hundred Schools of Thought
Some spiritual truths that those spiritual messages revealed highlight very interesting facts. (See the figure on the right.)

From this figure, you will find that Confucius and Mencius, the two most significant figures in Confucianism, were both born in the Edo period of Japan.

Confucius was reincarnated as Issai Sato, a famous Confucius scholar during the late Edo period, whose teachings had a deep influence on Shozan Sakuma and many other figures. Mencius was reincarnated as Sorai Ogyu, who insisted on going back to the original teachings of Confucianism. He presented many policy recommendations as an advisor close to the eighth Shogun, Yoshimune Tokugawa.

Confucius and Mencius, who had formed the basis of Confucianism, were reincarnated in the Edo period of Japan to lead the restoration movement of Confucianism. This shows that the Chinese era, called the era of the “Various Masters of the 100 schools”, also emerged in the history of Japan.


A Fusion of Confucianism and the Shinto Religion
Along with the rise of Confucianism in Japan, Shinto gods, including Izanagi-no-mikoto, were reincarnated in Japan as scholars of Japanese classical literature and the Wang Yang-ming school to start the movement for the restoration of Shinto. Japanese classical scholars taught that Japan was a great nation, inspiring many people and ingraining the spirit of Japan in people’s minds. Influenced by their ideas, the patriotic samurais of the Restoration also adopted Western values, and launched an anti-Shogunate movement. Eastern and Western values intertwined to raise the revolution.


Edo Period Thought Was Not Inferior to the Philosophies of the West
It has long been considered that Japan does not have thoughts and ideas that have been internationally recognized. In terms of philosophical thought, the country has been regarded as inferior to the West because it produced philosophers like Locke and Rousseau, who provided a basis for the modern political system and spread the Enlightenment.

However, when viewed from the perspective of spiritual truth, this idea is obviously wrong. In fact, the Edo period was a miraculous era when the ancient Shinto gods descended to Japan one after another and raised eastern philosophy to a higher level.
The Japanese should know more about the dynamic ways of thinking that they had during the Edo period. They were virtues of the East that the Japanese boasted to the world.

From now on, we will introduce the Japanese thought, which flourished during the Edo period, in these columns.

- Understanding Japanese Shinto
- source : eng.the-liberty.com


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .



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6/14/2016

metsuke ometsuke inspector

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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metsuke 目付 and oometsuke . Ōmetsuke 大目付 Inspector and Inspector General
soometsuke 惣目付 Sometsuke
daikansatsu 大監察 Daikansatsu "Great Inspector"
kansatsukan 監察官 Kansatsukan, Inspector General



江戶幕府大目付の研究 - Edo Bakufu ōmetsuke no kenkyū
山本英貴 Yamamoto Hideki

Metsuke worked under the supervision of the 若年寄 Wakadoshiyori.
Ometsuke worked under the supervision of the 老中 Roju.


- quote
Metsuke (目付) were the censors or the inspectors of Tokugawa Japan. They were bakufu officials ranking somewhat lower than the bugyō. The metsuke were charged with the special duty of detecting and investigating instances of maladministration, corruption or disaffection anywhere in Japan; and particularly amongst the populace having status below the daimyō.

- - - - - Intelligence gathering
The shogunate recognized the need for some kind of internal intelligence-gathering apparatus and for some degree of covert espionage within its own ranks. It could be said that the metsuke functioned as the Shogun's intelligence agency or as internal spies, reporting to the officials in Edo on events and situations across the country.

The metsuke were charged with focusing on those ranking below daimyō-status; and their counterparts, the ōmetsuke, were responsible for supervising the activities of officials and members of the daimyō (feudal lords).

Although similarly engaged, the reporting protocols of the metsuke and ōmetsuke differed. The metsuke reported to wakadoshiyori who ranked just below the rōjū. The ōmetsuke reported directly to the four or five rōjū at the top of the shogunate bureaucracy. By design, the intelligence-gathering activities of the metsuke was intended to complement those of the ōmetsuke even though there was no official reporting relationship between the two somewhat independent groups.
There were at any given time as many as twenty-four metsuke.

- - - - - Ad hoc evolution
The bureaucracy of the Tokugawa shogunate expanded on an ad hoc basis, responding to perceived needs and changing circumstances. Sometimes one or more of the metsuke or ōmetsuke would have been selected to address a specific or even a unique problem. For example, Arao Norimasa in the period from 1852 through 1854 was charged with special duties as kaibo-gakari-metsuke.

The prefix kaibō-gakari meaning "in charge of maritime defense" was used with the titles of some bakufu officials after 1845. This term was used to designate those who bore a special responsibility for overseeing coastal waters, and by implication, for dealing with matters involving foreigners. "Kaibō-gakari-metsuke" later came to be superseded by the term gaikoku-gakari. These developments prceeded the Gaikoku bugyō system which began just prior to the negotiations which resulted in the Harris Treaty. First appointed in August 1858, the gaikoku-bugyō were bakufu officials who were charged with advising the government on foreign affairs and who were tasked with conducting negotiations with foreign diplomats both in Japan and abroad.
- - - - - In popular culture :
- - - - - List of metsuke:
Oguri Tadamasa (1859–1860).
- source : wikipedia


- - - - - List of metsuke:
柳生宗矩 Yagyu Munenori (1632年 - 1636年) (the first one)
水野守信 Mizuno Morinobu(1632年 - 1636年)
秋山正重 Akiyama Masashige (1632年 - 1640年)
井上政重 Inoue Masashige (1632年 - 1658年)
加賀爪忠澄 Kagatsume Tadazumi(1640年 - 1650年)
- - - and many more
合原義直 Gohara Isaburo(1868年)(the last one)
- reference : Japanese wikipedia -




metsuke 目付 can also just mean a look or the looks of a person, not related to the Edo officers at all.

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In March 10 / 11, 1641, there was a great fire in Oke-machi 桶町火事. More than 400 people lost their lives and 123 homes of Samurai were burned down.
The fire started in the home of a medicine maker (薬師 kusushi) named Matsuo 松尾, and spread fast in the strong wind.
The home of the Government official 大目付 Ometsuke 加賀爪忠澄 Kagatsume Tadazumi (1586 - March 11, 1641) burned down and he died in the fire.
After this fire, the Shogun Iemitsu established a fire brigade of the Daimyo, 大名火消 Daimyobikeshi.

. okechoo, okemachi、桶町 Okecho, "Bucket district" .

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Asakusa Abekawachoo 阿部川町 Abekawa machi
Since 1636 a lot of government workers called "o kobito shuu" (okobito) 御小人衆 lived here, working for Metsuke office. At that time, the district did not have a special name yet. Since having no name was confusing as Edo grew, in the year 1696 it came under the directive of 細井九左衛門 Hosoi Kuzaemon, who gave it the name.
The leader of the Okobito, 川村太四郎 Kawamura Taishiro, had come from the Abekawa region of Shizuoka.
The ABE spelling changed from 安倍 to 阿部.

. Abekawa, Abe-Kawa 安倍川 / 阿部川 .

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- quote -
Metsuke: Intelligence gathering



kangen no metsuke 観見の目付け

(the text of this page is the same as the wikipedia.
- source : america.pink/metsuke -

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

松例祭火事装束の大目付
shooreisai kaji shoozoku no oometsuke

pine torch festival -
the inspector wears robes
of the fire brigade

Tr. Gabi Greve

Mihara Seigyoo 三原清暁 Mihara Seigyo


. shoorei sai 松例祭 Shoreisai, pine torch festival .
toshiya matsuri 歳夜祭(としやまつり)
hyaku taimatsu no jinji 百松明の神事 ritual of 100 pine torches
- - kigo for mid-winter - -

on the last day of the old year, leading into the new year.
The last day of the 100 day-long winter austerities of the yamabushi at Dewa sanzan in .
It was held in former times to ward off the epidemy of tsutsugamushi, scrub typhus, along the coast of Northern Japan, about 1300 years ago.
The epidemy demons were driven out with large pine torches.

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .


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5/20/2016

Tokugawa Muneharu

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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Tokugawa Muneharu 徳川宗春
(1696 - 1764)
The Tokugawa Owari Clan 尾張徳川




Muneharu shared a lot with Shogun Yoshimune.
Since he lived with the common people in his youth, he knew about the problems of the poor and tried to improve their lot throughout his life.

. Shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune 徳川吉宗将軍 .
(1684 - 1751)


Yet later Muneharu could not agree with the severe frugality laws and sumptuary edicts of Yoshimune.
In Edo he favored the Yoshiwara courtesan Koshikibu (who later changed her name to Koharu).
In 1731 he became the Daimyo of Owari (Nagoya).
In his quest to improve the life of the people of Owari (Nagoya), he had theaters built in town, held colorful festivals and revived the economy in no time. He is also known for personal luxury, but this was his gesture to show how spending money by the rich would trickle down to the poor in town.
The population of Nagoya grew very fast during his reign.

. Nagoya karakuri ningyoo 名古屋 からくり人形 from Aichi .
The Legacy of the Tamaya Shobei family.

He revived the Festival floats with karakuri ningyo からくり人形 delicate mechanical dolls to an extend that the skilled craftsmen of Nagoya are famous to our day (Nagoya no monozukuri).

Muneharu also encouraged Noh, Kyogen and the tea ceremony.




He paraded in the streets with a huge hat and a long pipe of about 2 meters, riding a white oxen.


- - - - - Look at many details of this figure here:
source : setonovelty.blog65.fc2.com

But whatever worked well for the economy of Nagoya would not be accepted by Yoshimune for the whole of Japan.

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- quote
Tokugawa Muneharu 徳川 宗春, November 20, 1696 – November 1, 1764
was a daimyo in Japan during the Edo period. He was the seventh Tokugawa lord of the Owari Domain, and one of the gosanke.

Muneharu was the 20th son of Tokugawa Tsunanari by a concubine, and a great-great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu. During his lifetime, he rose to the junior third rank in the Imperial court, and held the titular office of Gon-Chūnagon (acting middle councilor). He was posthumously awarded the junior second rank and the office of Gon-Dainagon (acting great councilor). Among his brothers were Tokugawa Yoshimichi and Tokugawa Tsugutomo (the fourth and sixth lords of Owari), and Matsudaira Yoshitaka (second lord of the Mino Takasu Domain). A sister, Matsuhime, married Maeda Yoshinori, lord of the Kaga Domain, which was the richest domain in Japan outside the Tokugawa's own holdings. Muneharu did not marry, but had numerous concubines. His fourth daughter married the kampaku Konoe Uchisaki.

- - - - - Loss of power
Given to personal luxury, in 1731, Muneharu published a book, Onchiseiyō (温知政要), which criticized ruling shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune for his policy of excessive frugality.
In 1739, following a long dispute with Yoshimune, Muneharu was forced into retirement and confined within the grounds of Nagoya Castle. A relative succeeded him as lord of Owari, taking the name Tokugawa Munekatsu. After the death of Yoshimune, Muneharu moved outside the palace grounds. He died in 1764, but was not forgiven, and a metal net was placed over his grave to indicate his status. When a later shogun installed his own son as lord of Owari, 75 years after the death of Muneharu, he had the net removed as a gesture of pardon.
- source : wikipedia


Onchiseiyō (OnchiSeiyo, Onchi Seiyo) 温知政要 - published 1731





慈悲憐憫が第一の学問



「忍」の二文字を戒めとする


- reference : waseda.ac.jp/kotenseki -


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徳川宗春 江戸を超えた先見力
Tokugawa Muneharu : Edo o koeta senkenryoku.


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. kenyaku 倹約 frugality, thrift - Sparsamkeit .
. Buke shohatto 武家諸法度 Laws for the Samurai .
12 Samurai throughout the realm are to practice frugality.


「増税派の吉宗」Yoshimune for more taxes
and
「減税派の宗春」Muneharu for less taxes





source : blog.goo.ne.jp/masakasa_2007


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CLICK for more photos !

- quote -
"The theme of this karakuri is created on the image of Tokugawa Muneharu, the 7th Lord of the Owari Clan.
Tokugawa Muneharu was a multi-talented lord of strong individuality.
He wandered the streets of Nagoya wearing showy clothes, surprising people with his unique appearance. He also promoted local commerce and arts. By so doing, he greatly contributed to the economic and cultural development of Nagoya."
- source : kikuko-nagoya.com/html/karakuri-dokei-




徳川宗春 - 徳川美術館 Tokugawa Bijustukan Nagoya

- quote -
a private art museum, located on the former Ōzone Shimoyashiki compound in Nagoya, central Japan. Its collection contains more than 12,000 items, including swords, armor, Noh costumes and masks, lacquer furniture, Chinese and Japanese ceramics, calligraphy, and paintings from the Chinese Song and Yuan dynasties (960-1368).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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5/04/2016

kenyaku frugality

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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kenyaku 倹約 frugality, thrift - Sparsamkeit

. Buke shohatto 武家諸法度 Laws for the Samurai .

- - - - - Articles promulgated in 1615
12 Samurai throughout the realm are to practice frugality.

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A Model of Ecological Sustainability
Craft guilds and craftspeople that specialized in repairing broken goods were not rare in the pre-industrial world, but Japan during the Edo Period was a uniquely closed-off island location where frugality was an important virtue and self-sufficiency was crucial to survival.
- Eisuke Ishikawa

. Recycling and Reuse in Edo - リサイクル と 再生 / 再使用 .


bakusei kaikaku 幕政改革 Shogunate government reform
seitaku 贅沢 luxury
shashi kinshihoo 奢侈禁止法
- - - - - shashi kinshi rei 奢侈禁止令 law against luxury
shisso kenyaku 質素倹約 frugal life, modest life



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kenyakurei, kenyaku rei 倹約令
laws regulating expenditures; sumptuary edicts; thrift ordinance



source : blogs.yahoo.co.jp/kitasandou2
「寛政の倹約令」Kansei no Kenyaku Rei

During the long Edo period, quite a few laws to promote frugality were made.
One of the most famous it the
shashi kinshi rei 奢侈禁止令 law against luxury 1787
after the great famine of Tenmei 天明の大飢饉, ordered by
松平定信 Matsudaira Sadanobu.
Food, robes and the general lifestyle were greatly influenced by this law.

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The common people were forbidden to wear silk robes 絹布着用禁.
To pass aroung this law, the clever Edokko stopped using silk on the outside of their Kimono, but used them inside for linings.

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Special materials like yuuki tsumugi 結城紬 Yuki tsumugi used a cotton warp thread for weaving and were thus permitted.

- quote -
Yūki-tsumugi 結城紬 is the Japanese craft of silk cloth practised chiefly in the vicinity of Yūki in Ibaraki Prefecture.
Developing from earlier silk techniques, the name Yūki-tsumugi was adopted in 1602. Weavers were invited from Ueda and the cloth, at first plain, was used as gifts for the shogun. Currently approximately one hundred and thirty craftsmen transmit the technique in Yūki and Oyama.
Silk floss is extracted from silkworm cocoons and spun by hand into yarn. Patterns are added by tie-dyeing, before weaving with a loom known as a jibata (地機). The strap around the weaver's waist enables the tension of the vertical thread to be adjusted. It can take up to fifteen days to weave enough plain fabric for an adult garment, and up to forty-five days for patterned fabric.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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This is a modern Daruma from Celuloid, looking like bekko.

Accesories and hair decorations from tortoiseshell were forbidden. So the crafstmen pretended their pieces were made from cheap suppon スッポン Suppon turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

. bekkoo 鼈甲 / べっこう / べっ甲 tortoiseshell .

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Some luxury was appearing within the regulations 規制内で贅沢.

Since large 雛人形 Hina dolls for the Doll festival were forbidden, craftsmen made small but very luxurious ones.

Yukuta robes from cotton were allowed, so the craftsmem made them with ever more elaborate patterns.
Bright red and yellow colors were not allowed any more. so the craftsmen prepares
. hyaku nezumi 百鼠 a hundred shades of gray .
so show their individual tastes.


CLICK for more nezu colors !

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Viewing Japanese Prints
- quote -
FAQ: What were sumptuary edicts?
Numerous sumptuary regulations were issued throughout the Edo period (1615-1868) to control the expression of ideas that were deemed a threat to public decorum, safety, or morality, or that were subversive to the ruling Tokugawa shogunate. Ostentatious and inappropriate behavior and display for all the classes was proscribed.
The earliest sumptuary laws were based on similar practices from China, where consumption was correlated positively with status. In Japan these regulations were called ken'yakurei ("laws regulating expenditures": 儉約令) for all classes of society. They did not constitute a distinct body of laws, but rather were part of the occasional regulatory proclamations (ofuregaki: 御觸書) issued by the rôjû ("council of elders": 牢中) and disseminated through various intermediaries to the intended group or class.

Although the chônin ("persons of the town": 町人) often complained about the repressive measures, the government generally relied more on threats and exhortations than on imposing punishments. There were only a limited number of recorded cases of arrest for violating sumptuary edicts cited in Tokugawa-period legal documents or the popular literature. Throughout the Edo period the sumptuary regulations frequently referred to previous edicts, suggesting that many were not considered permanent or practically enforceable, and that compliance among the targeted groups was often a problem. An expression of the time, mikka hatto ("three-day laws": 三日法度), suggested that violations of sumptuary laws often followed after only brief periods of compliance.

Content and the Expression of Ideas
There were during the Edo period various periodic restrictions on "content," such as edicts that prohibited publishing about current events, unorthodox theories, rumors, scandals, erotica, government officials, or anything directly related to the Tokugawa rulers or the Imperial Family. One of the most repressive set of edicts was known as the Kansei Reforms, named after the era name Kansei (I/1789 - II/1801) in which they were enacted. With the death of the shogun Ieharu in 1786, his successor Ienari (1773-1841; ruled 1787-1837) remained a minor until 1793, and the real governing power was in the hands of Matsudaira Sadanobu (1758-1829), a grandson of the shogun Yoshimune and the daimyô (military lord, literally "great name") of the Shirakawa domain.
Sadanobu held the post of chief councilor (rojû shuseki) from 1787 to 1793. He initiated reforms that he believed were needed after a series of riots in various cities in the summer of 1787 were precipitated by high rice prices following several years of poor harvests and famines. The early stages of the Kansei Reforms focused on the removal from power of corrupt officials and the institution of various specific measures to check inflation and stabilize prices. The reforms were later extended to the field of publishing in 1790. In the fifth month of that year, no new books were to be published except by special permission. Current events were not to be depicted in prints, and gorgeous and extravagant works were to be avoided. No unorthodox theories were to be published, while the publication of erotica was to be gradually halted.
.....
Appearance and Expenditures
Other sumptuary edicts attempted to proscribe "appearance" and the expenditure of wealth as appropriate to each class. As some of the merchants began to amass large fortunes and live in a manner previously reserved only for the samurai class, the bakafu ("tent government," the shôgun's ruling officials) issued sumptuary laws to reinforce the distinctions between the classes, to encourage frugality, and to maintain a Neo-Confucian system of moral conduct. The government was particularly concerned that the morale and discipline of the samurai class should not be undermined by ostentatious displays of wealth among the 'chônin'. Many regulations proscribed the consumption of goods and services and placed limits on luxurious entertainment, identifying what was appropriate for members of each social level and closely correlating consumption with social status.
- snip -

Ukiyo-e researchers have long cited examples of edicts that affected printmaking, such as the banning of prints with bust portraits of women in the first month of Kansei 12 (1800). The edict was a curious one, as it admitted that there was nothing really wrong with such prints, but that they were to be proscribed as medatsu ("conspicuous"). Another example was the ban in 1793 on prints with the names of women other than courtesans.
- snip -
Among the worst of the later set of edicts were the repressive Tenpô kaikaku ("Tenpô Reforms") of 1842-1847.

- Read the full text here:
- reference source : viewingjapaneseprints.net/texts - John Fiorillo


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- reference -

- reference : norenkai.net -


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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5/03/2016

Hachiman Shrines Edo

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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
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Hachiman Shrines in the Edo period
八幡宮 Hachiman Gu, 八幡神社 Hachiman Jinja 八幡社 Hachiman no Yashiro / Hachiman Sha

The Warrior Deity Hachiman 八幡神, deification of Emperor Oojin 応神天皇 Ojin,
is quite popular in Japan and there are many shrines in his name.
Another reading of the Chinese characters is YAHATA or YAWATA.


僧形八幡神坐像 東大寺八幡殿蔵
Hachiman as a monk, soogyoo Hachiman
Temple Todai-Ji, Hachiman Hall

Today there are approximately 30,000 Hachimangū shrines nationwide, with the head shrine at
Usa Hachimangū 宇佐八幡宮 Usa Hachimangu in Ōita.

. WKD : Hachiman Shrines and their festivals .

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. Minamoto no Yoshiie Hachimantaro 源八幡太郎義家 Hachimantarō, Hachiman Taro .
(1039 - 1106)
Hachimantaro, an ancestor of Tokugawa Ieyasu 八幡太郎義家は徳川家康の先祖

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Hamamatsu Hachimangu 浜松八幡宮 Shizuoka

Iga Hachimangu 伊賀八幡宮 Aichi

Iwashimizu Hachimangu 石清水八幡宮 Kyoto

Katayama Hachiman Jinja 片山八幡神社 Aichi

Katsushika Hachimangu 葛飾八幡宮 Chiba

Matsudaira Toshogu Hachiman Sha 松平東照宮 八幡神社 Aichi

Nukada Jinja 鹿嶋八幡神社 Ibaraki

Wakamiya Hachiman Sha 若宮八幡社 Aichi

Yamanaka Hachimangu 山中八幡宮 Aichi


source : okazaki-city.forluck.info
伊賀八幡宮 家康 - Iga Hachimangu - Tokugawa Ieyasu
天照大権現 / 東照大権現 Tosho Daigongen 「東の天照大神」


- to be updated
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Setagaya Hachimangū 世田谷 八幡宮 Setagaya Hachimangu


Painted by Hasegawa Settan 1834-1836

Setagaya Hachimangū Shrine is said to have originated when Minamoto no Yoshiie called upon Usa Hachimangū Shrine in Buzen-no-Kuni (now Fukuoka Prefecture) to express gratitude for the successful subjugation of Ōshū. After Tokugawa Ieyasu opened the shogunate government, the shrine received a shogunal charter and became a tutelary shrine of Setagaya village.
- source : library.metro.tokyo.jp/portals -

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. Tomioka Hachimangu 富岡八幡宮 .
Fukagawa Tokyo 深川

. Yoyogi Hachimangu 代々木八幡宮 .
Shibuya, Tokyo 渋谷

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Sailing under the mitsudomoe: Eastern pirates and their worship of Hachiman
Bernhard Scheid (Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna)

In the medieval period, an international network of pirates affected the sea trade between China, Korea, Japan, and the Ryūkyū Islands and even raided the coasts of these countries quite frequently. Although they were known in China as wokou 倭寇 (“Japanese bandits,” Jp. wakō), it is clear from various sources that their ethnic composition was quite diverse and changed over time, including more and more people of Chinese origin. The question of wakō ethnicity has therefore become a focus of recent wakō scholarship. Less attention has been given to the fact that the wakō were obviously devout worshippers of Hachiman, or at least put the name of Hachiman Daibosatsu or his symbols, such as the mitsudomoe (a ring consisting of three interwoven comma shapes), on the flags or sails of their ships.
This seems to be related not only to the Hachiman cult of contemporary warrior houses in Japan, but also to Hachiman worship at the Ryūkyū court. In my paper, I will shed more light on the reasons for this predilection of Hachiman among seafaring outlaws.

- source : eastasian.ucsb.edu/seareligion-




橋本八幡宮の神紋は「右三つ巴」。
綿津見神社の神紋も「右三つ巴」。右三つ巴は宇美八幡宮と織幡神社の神紋と同じ。

- reference source : yascovicci.exblog.jp 橋本八幡宮 -
Fukuoka, Hashimoto 福岡市西区橋本

. mitsudomoe 三つ巴 threefold Tomoe .
... The crest of Hachiman is in the design of a mitsudomoe, a round whirlpool or vortex with three heads swirling right or left.
... the threefold division (Man, Earth, and Sky) at the heart of the Shinto religion.
Originally, it was associated with the Shinto war deity Hachiman, and through that was adopted by the samurai as their traditional symbol.

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- reference : 徳川家康 八幡 -

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The Political Meaning of the Hachiman Cult in Ancient and Early Medieval Japan
"Hachiman River" -- Religious Meanings of the Hachiman Cult: Releasing Living Beings in Hojogawa
The Hachiman Cult and the Dōkyō Incident
Metamorphosis of a Deity: The Image of Hachiman in Yumi Yawata
Tamukeyama Hachimangu Tegaie 2012
- Books and articles by Ross Bender
- source : Ross Bender -



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- - - To join me on facebook, click the image !

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #hachimanshrines #hachimangu - - - -
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4/30/2016

teppo guns

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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teppoo, teppô 鉄砲 Teppo, gun, musket, matchlock, Gewehr
hinawajuu, hinawajū 火縄銃 Hinawaju

teppo ashigaru  鉄砲足軽 matchlockmen
tanegashima 種子島, also hinawajū 火縄銃 Tanegashima matchlock


source : kotobank

- quote -
Tanegashima (種子島), also hinawajū (火縄銃), was a type of matchlock configured arquebusfirearm introduced to Japan through the Portuguese in 1543.Tanegashima were used by the samurai class and their foot soldiers (ashigaru) and within a few years the introduction of the tanegashima in battle changed the way war was fought in Japan forever.



1 History
1.1 Origins

The tanegashima seems to have been based on snap matchlocks that were produced in Portuguese India, at the armory of Goa (a colony of Portugal since 1510). The name tanegashima came from the Japanese island (Tanegashima) where a Chinese junk with Portuguese adventurers on board was driven to anchor by a storm in 1543.
The lord of the Japanese island, Tanegashima Tokitaka (1528–1579), purchased two matchlock muskets from the Portuguese and put a swordsmith to work copying the matchlock barrel and firing mechanism. The smith (Yaita) did not have much of a problem with most of the gun but "drilling the barrel helically so that the screw (bisen bolt) could be tightly inserted" was a major problem as this "technique did apparently not exist in Japan until this time." The Portuguese fixed their ship and left the island and only in the next year when a Portuguese blacksmith was brought back to Japan was the problem solved.
Within ten years of its introduction, over 300,000 tanegashima firearms were reported to have been manufactured.
1.2 Sengoku period
1.3 Edo period
1.4 Modern use
2 Parts of the tanegashima
3 Gallery
- source : wikipedia -

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- quote
Teppô is the Japanese term for arquebuses, or matchlocks, the first European firearm to be introduced to Japan. Though some forms of gunpowder weapons existed in Japan earlier, having been introduced from China via Korea or the Ryukyus, European firearms made a major impact upon Sengoku period samurai warfare.
While the term teppô might literally be translated as "iron cannon," or "metal gun," the term hinawajû is sometimes also used, meaning literally "fire rope gun," and referring to the matchlock mechanism.

Introduction to Japan

The introduction of the European matchlock began in 1543, during the Sengoku period. In that year, two or three Portuguese arrived aboard a Chinese junk off the coast of Tanegashima, south of Kyushu. Though the account by Fernao Mendes Pinto is oft-cited, that by Antonio Galvano, governor of Malacca from 1536-1540, is considered by some scholars more reliable. According to his account, published posthumously in 1557, the three Portuguese were Christopher Antonio da Mota, Francis Zimoro, and Antonio Perota, who had abandoned their Portuguese compatriots in Siam and found passage aboard this Chinese junk.

After trying out the arquebuses the Portuguese had with them, the lord of the island, Tanegashima Tokitaka, purchased from the strangers two examples of the firearms for his family treasury and is said to have occupied himself ceaselessly with learning to use them. He instructed a retainer to learn to make the gunpowder, and another, the swordsmith Yasuita Kinbei Kiyosada, to reproduce the weapon itself. According to some accounts, Tokitaka gave his daughter to the Portuguese in exchange for the weapons, and/or for instruction in their production. Kiyosada encountered difficulties, however, in reproducing the spring mechanism, and also in properly sealing the end of the barrel. Fortunately the next year a Portuguese ship arrived (by some accounts bearing the same Portuguese men), and a smith on board was able to teach Kiyosada about the spring mechanism, and how to close the barrel. This discovery led to the production of several tens of firearms in a period of a little over a year. Tokitaka instructed his retainers to practice on the new weapon, and many beccame proficient. Later, the Sakai merchant Tachibana Iemonzaburô, later known as Teppô-mata, came and stayed on the island for one or two years and learned the craft. From him, the knowledge spread throughout the country.

After that the Portuguese had begun to openly trade with other cities in Japan. Nagasaki had become a major trade port for trade between the Japanese and Portuguese, and the traders brought a variety of novelties including wool, velvet, tobacco, clocks and eyeglasses. But the most popular and less novel item brought to Japan by Europe, was the matchlock arquebus.

Many of the daimyô were impressed after seeing the European matchlock; by 1549 many daimyô ordered their weaponsmiths to copy and mass-produce this advanced weapon. One daimyô in particular who saw potential in this weapon was Oda Nobunaga; he placed an order for 500 arquebuses, the largest order to date...

Soon the Japanese demonstrated not only their ability to quickly assimilate objects from other cultures, but also their ability to improve upon it. Many metalsmiths went to work and even improved the teppô. This weapon was found to be more powerful then the bow, and easier to use. Eventually the teppô replaced many archer units in battle.

A look at the Teppô
The First 30 Years

1549 - Oda Nobunaga's father placed an order for 500 arquebuses.
1570 - Oda Nobunaga's army of 30,000 were forced to withdraw by a fierce counter attack of the Ikko-ikki of Ishiyama Honganji. 3,000 Ikko-ikki matchlockmen used controlled volley firing against Nobunaga's men. .....



- - - - - Edo Period
Firearms continued to be used by both samurai authorities and by peasants & commoners in the Edo period. Sakai and Kunitomo continued to be the chief sites of production, and matchlocks continued to be the dominant form of firearms used; firearms technology did not advance much within Japan over the course of the 17th to mid-19th centuries. Flintlocks, which had replaced the matchlock in Europe, were known and occasionally produced, but the matchlock remained dominant in Japan, possibly in part because they produced less recoil. These sorts of muskets were by far the most common form of firearm in the country, with some estimates claiming that roughly 150,000 to 200,000 firearms were in circulation at any given time in Tokugawa Japan. Peasants' weapons generally fired shot two to three monme in weight, equivalent to .440 to .495 caliber, in today's terminology. At the request of the shogunate, gunsmiths also on occasion produced handguns and small cannon.
David Howell argues that over the course of the period, within the countryside at least, firearms came to be seen less as weapons (i.e. for military purposes) and more as essential agricultural equipment. Peasants maintained possession of their guns after Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Sword Hunts in the 1580s-90s, which specifically targeted swords, and not firearms. It was only in 1657 that regulations on peasant ownership of weapons began to be put into place; even then, hunters, and farmers who claimed they needed guns to help defend themselves and their crops against wild boar and other such threats, were permitted to continue to own firearms. .....
..... A series of edicts issued in the 1720s not only permitted the use of weapons by peasants year-round, but actually encouraged their use, and the borrowing of weapons, for the purposes of scaring away animals.
..... In the early 19th century, the shogunate began to worry about the amorphous imagined threat of "bad guys" - including rônin, jobless commoners, and the like - hoarding weapons and planning violence or other criminal activities. Numerous edicts banned peasants from engaging in martial activities, including firing practice.
- - - - - Bakumatsu
Meiji Period

- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com



Tanegashima / Teppo / Hinawaju ... Japanese Matchlock Guns
source : militaria.co.za/nmb/topic


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Teppo-machi, teppoochoo 鉄砲町 Teppocho, Gunsmith's village
now 日本橋本町3・4 - - - Nihonbashi

Teppokaji 鉄砲鍛冶 Craftsmen producing guns were only allowed to work in this district.

. teppoo kaji 鉄砲鍛冶 gunsmith producing Teppo matchlocks .
- Introduction -


There is also a Teppo-machi in other cities of Japan.
Nagasaki.

Not far from Shimabara Castle in Nagasaki's Shimabara City sits the town's well-preserved samurai district. Known as "teppo-machi" or "gun town", this district once housed foot soldiers of the local clan who were skilled in firearms use.
Today, the neighborhood is a quiet place. The single main street boasts a small canal running through its center; on either side, many of the imposing gates of old samurai mansions still stand. Three of the old samurai houses are open to the public and admission to all of the properties is free.
Low-class samurais lived in Teppo-machi (what is called 'Samurai-house zone')
- source : en.japantravel.com/nagasaki -


- - - - - List of Teppo-Cho in Japan
鉄砲町(てっぽうちょう、てっぽうまち)
- reference : wikipedia -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

O-Teppo Matsuri お鉄砲まつり Teppo Festival

In 宮城県 Miyagi, Kurihara District at 花山村 Hanayama village after the festival when all guns are shot, if there was one that did not fire properly, the family of this man will have bad luck. Therefore they all keep the weapons very clean and free of ritual impurities.

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Gunma 群馬県 勢多郡 横野村

daija 大蛇 huge serpent
「樽」の酒屋は大身代で、守護の大蛇が棲んでいた。大蛇のために、毎年36石入り、6尺の大樽の酒を用意していたが、ある時主人が、蛇さえいなければ身代ももっと上がると考え、火縄銃で撃ち殺してしまった。遺骸を埋めたのが蛇塚で、その後、酒屋は没落してしまった。


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Ibaraki 茨城県 水戸市 Mito

mujina ムジナ Badger
ある人が雨の日の夜に月を見て、それが狢の化けているものだと知り、油断をさせて火縄銃でその月を打ち落とした。狢は月に化けることがある。


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Kochi 高知県 幡多郡 黒潮町

tanuki 狸
炭焼をしていた話者が夜竃をしていた所、自分の娘が呼びに来た。怪しんで火縄銃を差し付けたら、逃げて行った。また別の日、隣の男が来て「お前の女房が病気だから帰ってくれ」という。怪しんだ紺蔵が男を竃の前で待たせて観察していると、男は居眠りを始め、耳も口もすっかり狸の相を現してしまった。そこで燃える炭を叩き付けると狸は逃げ、翌朝、焼け爛れた大狸が谷川に浮いていた。

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土佐山村 Tosayama
山で妖怪に行き会ったときは、火縄銃にある照尺の小穴からのぞくと正体が分かる。

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Nara 奈良県 添上郡 月ヶ瀬村 石打 Tsukigase Ishiuchi

Toosuke Jizoo 藤助地蔵 Tosuke Jizo


source : geografi.nu/region
The mountain path toward Tosuke Jizo at Tukigaseishiuchi

Once upon a time,
a hunter named Tosuke took his beloved dog and went hunting in the mountains. He waited in his mountain hut for a prey. Suddenly he heard a loud noise and run outside, but he did not see anything. His dog seemed to see or sense something, but he trembled in fear.
Tosuke became afraid, took the last bullet and shot his gun into the dark. But out of his gun came a ball of fire toward himself and he died almost on the spot. His dog pulled him inside the hut and watched over him.
But then the hut burned down in the fire in no time and the body of Tosuke became a 黒仏 "Black Buddha".
The villagers built a small sanctuary for him, Tosuke Jizo, and came here to pray every year on the 6th day of the 8th month.
Many years later when his descendants tried to re-built the hut, they found a hinawaju 縄銃 gun in the straw roof of the building.
This is near 小字 堂山 Shoji Doyama. There are actually two stone statues, one of 不動明王Fudo Myo-O and one of 藤助地蔵 Tosuke Jizo.


source : panoramio.com/photo


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- - - - - 上北山村 - - - - - ippon datara イッポンダタラ
「ハテノハツカに伯母ヶ峯越すな」と言う。伯母ヶ峯にはイッポンダタラが出て通る人を食らった。西原の射場兵庫という鉄砲名人が退治したのが12月20日で、この日にはイッポンダタラの供養がある。ハテノハツカにはその時の火縄銃が汗をかくという。

. Ippondatara, Ippon-datara 一本ダタラ - Ippon tatara .
Yoshitsune and his horses 義経の馬 .

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Saitama 埼玉県 秩父郡 Chichibu district

daija 大蛇 huge serpent
沼の主の大蛇を火縄銃で撃ち殺すと、その人の子孫は背中や脇の下にうろこのようなあざがあり、毛の生えている子供が生まれる。大蛇が殺された時、沼が決壊して大水になった。死んでいる大蛇を見た人は病気になった。


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- reference : nichibun yokai database -
222 to explore
火縄銃 OK

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source : militaria.co.za/nmb/topic/14557
Woodblock prints with matchlocks!



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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

- source : Kobayashi Issa - David Lanoue -

鉄砲の三尺先の小てふかな
teppô no san jaku saki no ko chô kana

three feet
from the musket's barrel...
little butterfly


Susumu Takiguchi points out that guns were "brought to Japan for the first time by the shipwrecked Portuguese in 1543 (some say 1542), and revolutionised the way battles were fought and castles were designed. They were initially 'hinawa-ju' (matchlock or firelock) and this must be the type of 'teppo' which Issa was talking about."


鉄砲の先に立たり女郎花
eppô no saki ni tachitari ominaeshi

in the musket's
line of fire...
a maiden flower



木がらしや鉄砲かつぎて小脇差
kogarashi ya teppô katsugite ko wakizashi

winter wind--
he shoulders a musket
and a short sword



雨乞にから鉄砲のきげん哉
amagoi ni kara teppô no kigen kana

after praying for rain
in a mood
to shoot the musket




. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .

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sugideppo 杉鉄砲 blowing toy for children made from Sugi wood

春や昔杉鉄砲の痛きこと
川名大

杉鉄砲借りしが縁児と笑ふ
浜田みずき

良寛堂ひとりやだれの杉鉄砲
松田ひろむ

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神杉を突いて鉄砲宮相撲
茨木和生

鉄砲射堋(あづち)霧間の樹神(こだま)かよひけり
調古

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #teppoguns #gunsteppo #hinawaju #tanegashima #matchlock - - - -
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