Showing posts with label - - - History - - - the EDO period -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - History - - - the EDO period -. Show all posts

7/06/2017

nengo era names

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name, period name

The system of Japanese era names (年号 nengō, "year name") was irregular until the beginning of the 8th century. After 701, sequential era names developed without interruption across a span of centuries.
..... The system on which the Japanese era names are based originated in China in 140 BC, and was adopted by Japan in AD 645, during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku.
The first era name to be assigned was "Taika" (大化), celebrating the political and organizational changes which were to flow from the great Taika reform (大化の改新) of 645. Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive era names was interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Monmu (697–707). Since then, era names have been used continuously up through the present day.
..... In historical practice, the first day of a nengō (元年 gannen) starts whenever the emperor chooses; and the first year continues until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the nengō's second year.
- quote : wikipedia -



All the Nengo have a detailed Timeline in the wikipedia:
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1596 慶長 Keichō

. Keicho no Eki 慶長の役 Fight of Keicho .
Kato Kiyomasa 加藤清 in Kumamoto

Tokugawa Ieyasu founded the Edo Bakufu in Keicho 8.
He passed on the title of Shogun to Hidetada in Keicho 10.
The 鎖国政策 Sakoku policy of closing the land for trade, except for Holland, was introduced in Keicho 14. (1609)
Banning Christianity followed in Keicho 18 (1613).
大坂冬の陣 Osaka Fuyu no Jin, the Winter Siege of Osaka and final victory for the Tokugawa government was in Keicho 19. (1615).

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1615 元和 Genna - also Genwa

Genna 02 - Death of Tokugawa Ieyasu (1616)
- - Summer Siege of Osaka
- - . Buke Shohatto 武家諸法度 laws for the Samurai .
Genna 09 - Tokugawa Iemitsu becomes Shogun

. Unpei fude 雲平筆 Unpei brush - Fujino Unpei 藤野雲平.
made since the Genna period

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1624 寛永 Kan'ei (Kanei)
Empress Meishō, 1629–1643; Emperor Go-Kōmyō, 1643–1654.

Kanei 01 - Spanish trade ships were banned.
Kanei 10 - Japanese were forbidden to travel outside of Japan - Sakoku policy was firmly installed.
Kanei 11 - Building of 出島 Dejima island in Nagasaki.
Kanei 12 - Buke Shohatto Samurai laws became even stricter. 参勤交代 Sankin Kotai visits to Edo were enforced.
Kanei 14 - . 島原の乱 Shimabara no Ran Rebellion .
Kanei 19 - 1642 . 寛永の大飢饉 Great Famine of Kanei .

. Kaneiji 寛永寺 Kanei-Ji - Temple in Ueno .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1644 正保 Shōhō

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1648 慶安 Keian also Kyōan

Keian 06 - 1651 . Keian jiken 慶安事件 The Keian uprising .
- - - Yui Shoosetsu - Shōsetsu 由井正雪 Yui Shosetsu (1605 - 1651)
- - - Marubashi Chuuya - Chūya 丸橋忠弥 Marubashi Chuya (? - 1651)

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1652 承応 Jōō also Shōō; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655–1663.

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1655 明暦 Meireki also Myōryaku or Meiryaku

Meireki 03 - . Great Fire of Meireki 明暦の大火 .
March 2–3, 1657 / 3 Meireki/1/18-19

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1658 万治 Manji
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

1661 寛文 Kanbun Emperor Reigen, 1663–1687.
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

1673 延宝 Enpō also Enhō - Enpo
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1681 天和 Tenna also Tenwa

Tenna 02 - . Great Fire of Tenna 天和の大火 .
January 25, 1683 / 2 Tenna/12/28

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1684 貞享 Jōkyō Emperor Higashiyama, 1687–1709.

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1688 元禄 Genroku

Genroku 11 . Chokugaku Fire 勅額火事 .

. 元禄 Haiku Poets of the Genroku period .

- quote -
This period spanned the years from ninth month of 1688 through third month of 1704. The reigning emperor was Higashiyama Tennō (東山天皇).
..... The years of Genroku are generally considered to be the Golden Age of the Edo period. The previous hundred years of peace and seclusion in Japan had created relative economic stability. The arts and architecture flourished. There were unanticipated consequences when the shogunate debased the quality of coins as a strategy for financing the appearance of continuing Genroku affluence. This strategic miscalculation caused abrupt inflation. Then, in an effort to solve the ensuing crisis, the bakufu introduced what were called the Kyōhō Reforms. .....
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !



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1704 宝永 Hōei      Emperor Nakamikado, 1709–1735.

Hoei 04 - 1707 . 富士山が噴火 Great Eruption of Mount Fujisan .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1711 正徳 Shōtoku - Shotoku

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1716 享保 Kyōhō Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735–1747.

Kyoho 17 - 1732 . 享保の大飢饉 Great Famine of Kyoho .

Kyoohoo no kaikaku 享保の改革 Kyoho, Kyōhō reforms
- and Tokugawa Yoshimune,
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1736 元文 Genbun

1741 寛保 Kanpō also Kanhō

1744 延享 Enkyō Emperor Momozono, 1747–1762.

1748 寛延 Kan'en

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1751 宝暦 Hōreki also Hōryaku;
Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762–1771.

Horeki 10 - . Hōreki Fire 宝暦の大火 Horeki Fire .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1764 明和 Meiwa       Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771–1779.

Meiwa 09 - . Great Fire of Meiwa 明和の大火 .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1772 安永 An'ei (Anei) Emperor Kōkaku, 1780–1817.

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1781 天明 Tenmei

Tenmei 03 - 1783 . 浅間山が大噴火 Great eruption of Mount Asamasan . 浅間山が大噴火
- followed by
Tenmei 03 - . 天明の大飢饉 Great Famine of Tenmei .

Tenmei 04 - 1784 . Tenmei inflation of currency .
and the reforms of Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1789 寛政 Kansei
1801 享和 Kyōwa

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1804 文化 Bunka      Emperor Ninkō, 1817–1846.

Bunka 03 - . Great Fire of Bunka 文化の大火 .
- - 江戸神田佐久間町の大火 Great fire in Sakumacho 1829

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1818 文政 Bunsei

Bunsei 12 - . Great Fire of Bunsei 文政の大火 .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1830 天保 Tenpō also Tenhō

Tenpo 03 - 1832 . 天保の大飢饉 Great Famine of Tenpo .

Tenpoo no kaikaku 天保の改革 Tenpo no taikaku Reforms
and Mizuno Tadakuni.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Tenpooreki 天保暦 Tenporeki Calendar
- 天保壬寅元暦 Tenpō jin'in genreki - by Shibukawa Kagesuke
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1844 弘化 Kōka Emperor Kōmei, 1846–1867.

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1848 嘉永 Kaei

Kaei 06 - 1854 . Commodore Perry and the "black ships" ペリー来航 - 黒船 .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1854 安政 Ansei
1860 万延 Man'en (Manen)
1861 文久 Bunkyū
1864 元治 Genji

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1865 慶応 Keiō

慶應義塾 Keio University
Keio University (慶應義塾大学 Keiō Gijuku Daigaku), abbreviated as Keio (慶應) or Keidai (慶大), is a Japanese private university located in Minato, Tokyo. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo (now Tokyo).
- quote : wikipedia -

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1868 明治 Meiji - Emperor Meiji, 1868–1912.

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- source reference : wikipedia

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #nengo #eodnengo - - - -
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5/30/2017

Australian ship 1830

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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Australian ship seen in Edo, 1830
January 16, 1830.

- source : theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/may/28


A watercolour of a British-flagged ship that arrived off the coast of Mugi, in Shikoku, Japan in 1830, chronicled by low-ranking Samurai artist Makita Hamaguchi in documents from the Tokushima prefectural archive.
Photograph: Courtesy of Tokushima prefectural archive


- quote
Australian convict pirates in Japan: evidence of 1830 voyage unearthed
Exclusive: Fresh translations of samurai accounts of ‘barbarian’ ship arriving at the height of Japan’s feudal isolation corroborate a story long dismissed as fantasy


An amateur historian has unearthed compelling evidence that the first Australian maritime foray into Japanese waters was by convict pirates on an audacious escape from Tasmania almost two centuries ago.

Fresh translations of samurai accounts of a “barbarian” ship in 1830 give startling corroboration to a story modern scholars had long dismissed as convict fantasy: that a ragtag crew of criminals encountered a forbidden Japan at the height of its feudal isolation.

The brig Cyprus was hijacked by convicts bound from Hobart to Macquarie Harbour in 1829, in a mutiny that took them all the way to China.

Its maverick skipper was William Swallow, a onetime British cargo ship apprentice and naval conscript in the Napoleonic wars, who in a piracy trial in London the following year told of a samurai cannonball in Japan knocking a telescope from his hand.

Swallow’s fellow mutineers, two of whom were the last men hanged for piracy in Britain, backed his account of having been to Japan.

Western researchers, citing the lack of any Japanese record of the Cyprus, had since ruled the convicts’ story a fabrication.

But that conclusion has been shattered by Nick Russell, a Japan-based English teacher and history buff, in a remarkable piece of sleuthing that has won the endorsement of Australian diplomatic officials and Japanese and Australian archival experts.

Russell, after almost three years of puzzling over an obscure but meticulous record of an early samurai encounter with western interlopers, finally joined the dots with the Cyprus through a speculative Google search last month.

The British expatriate all but solved what was for the Japanese a 187-year mystery, while likely uncovering vivid new detail of an epic chapter of colonial Australian history.

“If you’d said I was going to go hunt and find a new pirate ship, I’d have gone, ‘you’re crazy’,” Russell told Guardian Australia. “I just stumbled on it. Boom. There it was on the screen in front of me.

“I immediately knew and as soon as I started checking, everything just fitted so perfectly.”

The ship anchored on 16 January 1830 off the town of Mugi,
on Shikoku island, where Makita Hamaguchi, a samurai sent disguised as a fisherman to check the ship for weapons, noted an “unbearable stench in the vicinity of the ship”.

The site is about 900m from where Russell’s holiday house now stands.

It was Hamaguchi’s watercolour sketch of an unnamed ship with a British flag that first intrigued Russell when he saw it on the website of the Tokushima prefectural archive in 2014.

With the help of a local volunteer manuscript reading group, Russell has since worked at translating written accounts of the ship’s arrival by Hamaguchi and another samurai, Hirota, now held by the Tokushima prefectural archive. Hamaguchi’s is called Illustrated Account of the Arrival of a Foreign Ship, while Hirota’s is A Foreign Ship Arrives Off Mugi Cove.

Russell first thought it may be a whaling ship, but the manuscript readers were skeptical. Having learned mutinies were common among whalers, Russell last month Googled the words “mutiny 1829”.
This stumbling upon a link between a samurai record and the story of the Cyprus was the research equivalent of finding a needle in a haystack, according to Warwick Hirst, the former curator of manuscripts at the State Library of New South Wales.
“It was a fantastic find,” Hirst, author of The Man Who Stole the Cyprus, told Guardian Australia. “I have no doubt that the Japanese account describes the visit of the Cyprus.”
What emerges is a picture of a desperate band of travellers, low on water and firewood, who provoked curiosity and suspicion among local warlords vexed by their appearance.
Bound to violently repel them by order of Japan’s ruling shogun, the samurai commanders showed some restraint, giving the foreigners advice on wind direction after raining down cannon balls and musket shot on their ship.

Hamaguchi wrote of sailors with “long pointed noses” who were not hostile, but asked in sign language for water and firewood. One had burst into tears and begun praying when an official rejected an earlier plea.

A skipper who looked 25 or 26 placed tobacco in “a suspicious looking object, sucked and then breathed out smoke”.

He had a “scarlet woollen coat” with “cuffs embroidered with gold thread and the buttons were silver-plated”, which was “a thing of great beauty, but as clothing it was gaudy”.

Hamaguchi’s watercolour sketch of the coat has what Russell said may be a telling detail on the sleeve: a bird that could be a swallow, the skipper’s own stamp on a British military officer’s jacket taken as a souvenir in the mutiny.

--- Photo --- A watercolour by samurai Makita Hamaguchi

The skipper gave instructions to a crew that “in accordance with what appeared to be some mark of respect” followed orders to remove their hats “to the man, most of them revealing balding heads”.

They “exchanged words amongst themselves like birds twittering”.

A dog on the ship “did not look like food. It looked like a pet.”

Another samurai chronicler called Hirota noted the crew offered gifts including an object he later drew, which looks like a boomerang.

One sailor bared his chest to the disguised samurai to reveal a tattoo of “the upper body of a beautiful woman”, Hamaguchi wrote.

Another produced “a big glass of what appeared to be an alcoholic beverage and indicated that we should drink”.

“We declined by waving our hands, upon which they passed the glass around themselves, one by one tapping their heads as they drank to indicate the good feeling it brought them, and finished the lot.”

Onshore, the samurai commanders were anxious to follow an 1825 edict by the shogun bolstering Japan’s isolationist policy.
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It stated: “All foreign vessels should be fired upon. Any foreigner who landed should be arrested or killed. Every interaction should be reported in the utmost detail.”

Hamaguchi quoted Mima, a local commander, saying he had been “suspicious of that ship since it arrived”.

“The men on the ship do not look hungry at all and in fact they seem to be mocking us by diving off the stern and climbing back onto the ship again,” Mima said. “It is very strange that everyone who goes out for a closer look returns feeling very sorry for them.

“I think they are pirates. We should crush them!”

Mima stayed up till dawn discussing what to do with his superior Yamauchi, who decided: “We should take out a large lead ball and tell them that if they don’t leave immediately, we will fire on them and reduce them to matchwood.”
Yamauchi later told an underling to give some water and firewood if the sailors agreed to leave.

The “barbarians” in sign language told the samurai go-betweens they needed five days to mend sails and paint the ship, one making “a fist with one hand and put it under his cocked head indicating sleep”.

When Yamauchi refused, the skipper asked for three days, then gave the samurai messengers a letter to pass on.
“Commander Yamauchi was not happy. ‘What did you accept a letter from them for? Take it back at once!’” Hamaguchi wrote.

When the ship did not raise its anchor, a cannon fired on the ship like a “thunder clap … followed by an eerie screeching noise as the old deeply pitted ball flew between the two masts of the barbarian ship”.

“Irritatingly, without sign of haste or panic, the crew leisurely spread one sail,” Hamaguchi said.

The ship spread another sail but did not move, prompting an infuriated Yamauchi to order more cannon fire.

With little wind but an onshore breeze, the ship could not sail out to sea and “instead, ignoring the hail of cannon and musketoon balls” sailed west between two samurai firing positions.

Hamaguchi wrote that “at about this time the feudal overseer realised it was a British ship and became extremely angry”, ordering fire on the ship’s waterline.

“Two cannon balls hit and shook the ship badly. The foreigners were standing and yelling.”
Another cannon ball smashed into the ship’s hull, and one or two crew lay on the deck appearing “killed or injured”.

--- Photo --- the watercolour picture of a British-flagged ship that arrived off the coast of Mugi, in Shikoku,

“The others turned towards commander Yamauchi’s boat, all removed their hats and appeared to be praying,” Hamaguchi wrote.

Yamauchi asked an underling when the wind would improve, then was “good enough to share this knowledge with the barbarians through sign language and they swiftly turned the brig across the wind”.

The smaller samurai boats surrounded the foreigners and “a foul stench was coming from the ship”.
When a samurai musketeer
“showed his courage by brandishing his big gun in their faces”, the “barbarians looked worried, cried out and trembled with fear”, Hamaguchi wrote.

----- continue reading
- source : theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/may/28

This article was amended on 29 May 2017. An earlier version mistranslated Yamauchi as Yamanouchi.
This has been corrected.

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Legend of an Australian Pirate Ship in Japan Confirmed




Convicts in Australia hijacked the British ship the Cyprus in 1829. When they were eventually captured,
William Swallow, leader of the pirates, and some of his men were put on trial. They gave an account of sailing to Japan in 1830, but no one believed them. Almost 200 years later, the story was considered a legend -until now.
Nick Russell searched through 19th century Japanese writings and found and translated an account from samurai Makita Hamaguchi that confirms a Western ship showed up at Shikoku island on January 16, 1830.

- source : neatorama.com/2017/05/28/Legend-of-an-Australian-Pirate-Ship -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #australianship #edoaustralia
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3/20/2017

Keian Uprising

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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Keian jiken 慶安事件 The Keian uprising in 1651
Keian no hen 慶安の変


The Keian period, from April 1, 1649 till 1652



- quote -
.. a failed coup d'état attempt carried out against the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1651, by a number of rōnin. Though it failed, the event is historically significant as an indication of a wider problem of disgruntled ronin throughout the country at the time. Masterminded by Yui Shōsetsu and Marubashi Chūya, the uprising is named after the Keian era in which it took place.

According to strategist Yui's plan, Marubashi would take Edo Castle, the headquarters of the shogunate, using barrels of gunpowder to begin a fire which would rage through Edo, the capital. In the confusion, with the authorities distracted by firefighting efforts, the ronin would storm the castle and kill key high officials.

At the same time, Yui would lead a second group and seize the Tokugawa stronghold in Sunpu (modern-day city of Shizuoka). Further action was planned for Osaka Castle and Kyoto. They timed their rebellion to take advantage of the death of Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu, as his successor, Ietsuna, was still a child. The conspirators aimed to force the shogunate to relax its policies of seizing hans and dispossessing daimyōs, which under Iemitsu had deprived tens of thousands of samurai of position and income, adding them to the ranks of ronin.

Ultimately, however, the uprising failed when the conspirators' plan was discovered. Marubashi Chūya fell ill, and, talking through his fever dreams, revealed secrets which made their way to the authorities by the time the rebels were ready to move. Marubashi was arrested and executed in Edo; Yui Shōsetsu escaped that fate by committing seppuku, in Sunpu, upon finding himself surrounded by police. Several of the rebels committed suicide alongside him. The families of the conspirators as well were then tortured and killed by the authorities, as was usual at the time; several were crucified.

In the aftermath of the suppression of the uprising, the Shogunal Elders (Rōjū) met to discuss the origins of the uprising, and how to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Originally, most of the Elders sought to take severe measures, including expelling all ronin from the city, but they were eventually convinced by Abe Tadaaki to take a more rational tack. He suggested reducing the number of ronin opposed to the shogunate, not through expulsion, but by introducing more favorable policies. In particular, he convinced the council that the shogunate ought to do away with the law of escheatment, and to work to help ronin settle into proper jobs. Forcefully expelling a great number of people from the city, he argued, would only serve to create more opposition to the government.

Far from being an isolated incident, the Keian Uprising was followed by an event the following year involving several hundred ronin, and another soon afterwards in Sado. Granted, these were not directly related, that is, none of the persons involved were the same, nor did they follow a single leader or organized ideology. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, it is significant to note how widespread the distaste for the shogunate was at this time, and the degree of the "problem" of the ronin throughout the country.



The tale was then retold in a novel, Keian Taiheiki (慶安太平記), and in a number of Kabuki plays, the most famous of which, also called Keian Taiheiki, was written by renowned playwright Kawatake Mokuami.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Yui Shoosetsu - Shōsetsu 由井正雪 Yui Shosetsu (1605 - 1651)

- quote -
a military strategist, and leader of the unsuccessful 1651 Keian Uprising. Though a commoner, and thus not officially of the samurai class, Yui was known as one of the "Three Great Ronin" along with Kumazawa Banzan and Yamaga Sokō.

Born in Sunpu to humble origins, Yui is said to have been a talented youth; he was taken in by a number of rōnin from the area, who taught him recent history, and likely swordsmanship and military strategy as well.



As an adult, he found employment as an instructor at a samurai academy, teaching swordsmanship and related disciplines. But these academies, which could be found throughout the country, served not only the pure function of schools of martial arts; certainly, discipline, ethics, and related arts were taught as well. But the schools also served as social and intellectual spaces, in which political ideas were discussed, and grievances aired in a familiar environment where comrades and friends met. Students were almost exclusively members of the samurai class, but running the full gamut of rankings, from daimyo to ronin. As regulations were made stricter at this time, and many ronin expelled from their domains, the number of students grew dramatically.



He later opened a school of military strategy and martial arts in the Renjaku-chō neighborhood of Kanda in Edo, as well as an armorer's shop and ironworks. Here he continued to gain contacts, friends, and prestige among the ronin and others; one of them was Marubashi Chūya, a samurai and fellow instructor of martial disciplines and strategy, with whom he would plan the Keian Uprising some years later.

Beginning in 1645, Yui plotted a coup against the Tokugawa shogunate along with Marubashi, a small group of rōnin, and a number of their students. It was to take place in 1651, shortly after the death of Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu, and would later come to be known as the Keian Uprising. Unfortunately for Yui and his comrades, the plot was discovered before it truly began. Yui was in Sunpu, preparing to execute a secondary series of attacks when Marubashi was arrested in Edo; surrounded by shogunate officials, he committed seppuku rather than be captured.


由井正雪の乱 Yui Shosetsu no ran

Following his death, the officials performed a variety of obscenities upon his body, and then proceeded to subject his parents and other close relatives to crucifixion. Yui Shōsetsu, though ultimately unsuccessful in his political plots, is a notable figure as representative of the growing political unrest in the early Edo period, as a result of strict laws put forth, and enforced, by the shogunate. He and his conspirators were only one of many groups throughout the country meeting in samurai academies and other venues, discussing politics and current events. Most, of course, did not act upon their beliefs as Yui and Marubashi did, but that discussion existed among a great number of people, despite, or perhaps because of the shogunate's strict enforcement of its laws, is significant.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


There is even a line of Sake rice wine named after Yui Shosetsu.




正雪 無量寿(むりょうじゅ)大吟醸 Shosetsu Muryoju brand

- 由比正雪にちなんだ酒銘 -
- reference source : tajima-ya.com/shousetsu. -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Shizuoka 静岡県

Shoosetsu mushi 正雪虫 / Shoosetsu tonbo 正雪トンボ The Shosetsu Dragonfly
This animal begun to appear in Shizuoka after the violent death of Yui Shosetsu. They say his soul reincarnated to haunt the place of his birth and death.
It is also called カトンボ Chikara tonbo and begins to fly in early summer. It is only seen in Shizuoka!
This animal, a kind of kawatonbo 川とんぼ river dragonfly, is now extinct.


source : okab.exblog.jp/9934655


. tonbo (tombo, tonboo) 蜻蛉 dragonfly .
and
蜉蝣 kagero 正雪蜻蛉 紋蜉蝣 /白腹蜻蛉 /斑蜻蛉
Ephemeroptera
- kigo for early autumn -



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Marubashi Chuuya - Chūya 丸橋忠弥 Marubashi Chuya (? - 1651)
Yari no Chuya 槍の忠弥 Chuya with the long spear



(Ichikawa Sadanji as Chuya) 初代市川左團次の丸橋忠弥

- quote -
Chūya was a ronin (masterless samurai) from Yamagata, and instructor in martial arts and military strategy, most famous for his involvement in the 1651 Keian Uprising which sought to overthrow Japan's Tokugawa shogunate. He is said to have been a man of great strength and good birth whose distaste for the shogunate stemmed primarily from a desire for revenge for the death of his father, killed by the shogunal army at the 1615 siege of Osaka. The identity of his father is not clear, but may have been Chōsokabe Motochika.
... his weapon of choice became the Jūmonji Yari 十文字槍 a cross-shaped spear. The martial art of wielding the yari is called sōjutsu. ,
... Marubashi met Yui Shōsetsu, ...
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


(Ichikawa Sadanji) 初代市川左團次の丸橋忠弥

Chuya's grave at the temple
. 神霊山 Shinreizan  金乗院 Konjo-In  慈眼寺 Jigen-Ji .
豊島区高田2-12-39 / 2 Chome-12-39 Takada, Toshima ward





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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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1/01/2017

- reference edojidai campus info

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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- reference - Edo Jidai campus Info

- reference source : www.edojidai.info... -



江戸時代の人口は何人くらいいたのでしょうか?
江戸時代の服装にはどのような特徴があったのか
拷問で自白させるのが当たり前だった江戸時代の取り調べ
武家言葉とべらんめえ調で話された江戸時代の会話
江戸時代の通貨は金貨・銀貨・銅銭の3種類でした
世界一識字率の高かったと言われる江戸時代の日本人
江戸時代に虫歯になったらどんな治療をしたのでしょうか?
江戸時代にはどのような食事をしていたのでしょうか
誰でもなれて資格試験もなかった江戸時代のお医者さん
江戸時代の主な年号とさまざまな出来事 **

夏と冬で時間の長さが違った江戸時代~鐘の音で時を知った
現代人よりも10cm以上低い江戸時代の人の平均身長
江戸時代の火事とほとんど破壊行為だった消火方法
江戸時代の髪型にはどのような特徴があったのでしょうか
平均寿命は30才から40才だったと言われる江戸時代の人々
世界トップレベルの数学だったと言われる江戸時代の和算
江戸時代のお風呂は混浴だったって本当!?
江戸時代の代表的な文化と特徴についての豆知識
現代と江戸時代の物価がどれくらい違うか比較してみました
究極のリサイクル社会だった江戸時代

庶民の社交場的なサロンだった江戸時代のお風呂
糞尿は農家に売るのが当たり前だった~江戸時代のトイレ事情
「士農工商」の身分制度序列は本当はウソだった?
江戸時代の名前に関するうんちく~庶民にも苗字があった?
江戸時代の人はどうやって英語を学んだのでしょうか?
現代とくらべるとかなり厳しかった江戸時代の刑罰と法制度
江戸時代の人はどのように避妊していたのでしょうか?
座ったまま縄につかまって出産をした江戸時代の女性たち
江戸時代の女性は生理のときどのように処理していたのか?
とても質素でつつましいものだった江戸時代の庶民の生活

江戸時代の主役である侍たちのちょっと面白い生き様
時代劇は本当の江戸時代を表現していたのか?
徳川歴代将軍の意外なエピソード
江戸時代の嘘のような本当の話あれこれ
意外に知らない江戸時代の真実の暮らし
江戸のちょっと面白うんちく話

- reference source : www.edojidai.info... -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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12/10/2016

The Edo Clan

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. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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The Edo Clan of the Musashi Taira 武蔵江戸氏 Musashi Edo-Shi

They lived in the hamlet 江戸郷 Edo Go, their Homeland in the Musashi Plain. It was located in the
日比谷の入江 Hibiya no Irie inlet.
Edo 江戸 means "estuary", lit. "inlet door", "entrance to the inlet".

Other clans who lived in the Edo area before Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Bakufu government:



畠山氏 Hatakeyama clan in 深谷 Fukaya
河越氏 Kawagoe clan in 川越 Kawagoe
豊島氏 Toyoshima clan in 川口 Kawaguchi


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- quote
The Edo clan were a minor offshoot of the Taira clan,
and first fortified the settlement known as Edo, which would later become Tokyo. The Imperial Palace now stands at this location.
During the Azuchi-Momoyama period, the clan was renamed the 武蔵喜多見氏 Musashi Kitami clan.
The clan originated in Chichibu in Musashi Province (now Saitama Prefecture). In the late 12th century,
江戸重継 Edo Shigetsugu (Chichibu Shigetsugu) moved south and fortified the little hill at Edo, located where the Sumida River enters Tokyo Bay. This area later became the Honmaru and Ninomaru portions of Edo Castle. There, the Edo grew in military strength under the second patriarch, Edo Shigenaga.

In August 1180, Shigenaga attacked Muira Yoshizumi, an ally of the rival Minamoto clan. Three months later, he switched sides just as Minamoto Yoritomo entered Musashi. Shigenaga assisted the Minamoto in overthrowing the Taira in Kyoto. In return, Yoritomo granted Shigenaga seven new estates in Musashi Province, including Kitami in what is now Tokyo's western Setagaya Ward.

Records show that in 1457, Edo Shigeyasu surrendered his main base at Edo to Ota Dokan. Dokan was a vassal of the powerful Ōgigayatsu branch of the Uesugi clan under Uesugi Sadamasa. Sadamasa was the Kanto-Kanrei for the Ashikaga. Dokan built Edo castle on the site. The Edo clan then moved to Kitami.

In 1593, in a pledge of obedience to Tokugawa Ieyasu, Edo Katsutada changed the clan name to Kitami. Katsutada was employed by the first and second Tokugawa shoguns, reaching the position of Magistrate of Sakai, south of Osaka. Katsutada's grandson-in-law, Shigemasa, found favor with the fifth shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi. He rose from the position of hatamoto, with a stipend of one thousand koku, to sobayonin, or "Grand Chamberlain", with a stipend of twenty thousand. It was an influential post, responsible for relaying messages between the shogun and his senior councilors. He was also awarded a large domain in 1686. However, the clan's fortunes suddenly plummeted. In 1689, Shigemasa's nephew violated the Shogunate taboo on bloodshed. Shigemasa had to forfeit his status and property and was banished to Ise, where he died in 1693 at age 36. The 500-year-old Edo clan essentially ceased as a recognized clan.
Tombstones of several generations of the clan are at 慶元寺 Keigen-Ji, a Buddhist temple founded in 1186 by Edo Shigenaga, in Kitami.
The name later changed to 常陸江戸氏 Hitachi Edo-Shi.
- source : wikipedia



江戸重長 Edo Taro Shigenaga  
was the second head of the Edo clan. He first settled and lent his name to the fishing village Edo that eventually grew to become Tokyo.
He was also known as Edo Taroo 江戸太郎 Edo Taro.
In 1180, Shigenaga was asked by Minamoto Yoritomo to cooperate in his uprising against rule of the Taira in Kyoto. Hesitant at first, Shigenaga eventually helped Yoritomo overthrow the Taira rule. Yoritomo granted Shigenaga seven new estates in Musashi Province, including Kitami in what is now Tokyo's western Setagaya Ward.

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source : 4travel.jp/travelogue/10825822

Graves of the Musashi Kitami Clan - 江戸氏之墓所
慶元寺 Keigen-Ji - see below

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- quote -
The ones who got there first
Four centuries before Tokugawa Ieyasu arrived at Edo, a fierce band of mounted warriors had already fortified the hill where Ieyasu would build his magnificent Edo Castle, and on which the Imperial Palace now stands.

In the late 12th century, the Edo clan, as these warriors called themselves, had moved south from Chichibu in present-day Saitama Prefecture led by their patriarch, Edo Shigetsugu. Seizing Edo, they rapidly built up their military presence in the southern Kanto Plain to such a point that, in 1180, Shigenaga, the second clan head, was asked by Minamoto Yoritomo (1147-99) to cooperate in his uprising against the great Taira family in Kyoto.

Shigenaga was not easily persuaded, but eventually lent his power to Yoritomo in overthrowing Taira rule. In appreciation, Yoritomo granted Shigenaga seven new estates in Musashi Province, including Kitami in what is now Tokyo’s western Setagaya Ward.

Little is known about the Edo clan in the turbulent Kamakura Period that began with Yoritomo’s founding of a shogunate in that city in 1192; nor do we know of their fate during the Kyoto-based shogunate known as the Muromachi Period, that ran from 1338-1573. However, records show that in 1457, Edo Shigeyasu surrendered his main base at Edo to Ota Dokan (1432-86), a vassal of Uesugi Sadamasa, Governor of the Kanto Plain, and moved to Kitami. Dokan then built a castle on the site with views of Mount Fuji and Edo Bay, before being killed by an assassin sent by his own master in 1486. The castle was then abandoned until it was taken over by Ieyasu in 1590.

In a pledge of obedience to Ieyasu, Edo Katsutada changed the clan name to Kitami in 1593. Katsutada was employed by the first and second shoguns, reaching the position of Magistrate of Sakai, south of Osaka.

His grandson-in-law, Shigemasa, bathed in the special favor of the fifth shogun and rose to the rank of daimyo by 1682. Promoted to a sobayonin (grand chamberlain), whose influential role was to relay messages between the shogun and his senior councilors, he was awarded a further large domain in 1686.

From this zenith of happiness, however, Shigemasa’s fortunes plummeted — and with them, those of the Edo clan. In 1689, Shigemasa’s nephew violated the shogunal taboo on bloodshed and the family was held collectively responsible. As punishment, Shigemasa forfeited his status and all property and was banished to Ise, where he died in 1693 at age 36. His kin was similarly punished, and with that the 500-year-old Edo clan vanished.

To this day, however, memories of the first possessor of Edo linger on at Keigen-ji in Kitami, Setagaya Ward, an impressive Buddhist temple founded in 1186 by Edo Shigenaga. Tombstones of several generations of the clan, some quite eroded but others recently renovated, huddle together in a corner of the graveyard, tied eternally by their invisible bond of kinship.
- source : Japan Times 2003 - Sumiko Enbutsu -

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Keigenji 慶元寺 Keigen-Ji
永劫山 花林院 慶元寺 Eigosan Karin-In Keigen-Ji

世田谷区喜多見4-17-1 / 4 Chome-17-1 Kitami, Setagaya ward
浄土宗 Jodo Sect.

Apart from the main temple hall, it has a 鐘楼 bell tower and a 三重堂 three-story pagoda.


source and more photos : tesshow.jp/setagaya

The main statue is 阿弥陀如来 Amida Nyorai.
Edo Taro Shigenaga founded this temple, then called 岩戸山大沢院東福寺 Tofuku-Ji in 1186, which then belonged to the 天台宗 Tendai sect.
In 1451 it was relocated to 成城(元喜多見) Seijo (Moto Kitami) and found its final place in 1468.
In 1540, the priest 空誉上人 / 空与(空與)/ 空与守欣上人 Kuyo Shonin revitalized the temple, which had lost its importance. The name changed 上山華林院慶元寺 and now it belonges to the Jodo Sect.
In 1636, Shogun Iemitsu awarded the temple with land of 10石 (about 1ha(10000㎡), annexing 6 temples in the neighborhood.

Number 4 in the pilgrimage to 33 Kannon temples along the Tamagawa 多摩川三十三ヶ所観音霊場.




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Kitami eki 喜多見駅 Kitami station
on the Odakyu Railway Line, on the border between Setagaya Ward and Komae City.
The name of the area,
Kitami
, (also written 北見)
is thought to originate from an ancient Ainu word meaning "flat, wooded place".
- quote wikipedia -



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- Some further History -
... The Kantō Plain appears to have first been populated in the Late Jōmon Period sometime after 3100 BC. ...
... Kofun Period (200-500 AD) : It seems that around the 300’s, Kantō became a vassal state of the Yamato Court. There are more than 200 Kofun in the Tōkyō Metropolis.
丸山古墳 Maruyama Kofun “Round Mountain” Kofun is in 芝公園 Shiba Kōen park ...


... “A feudal warlord named Ōta Dōkan came into the small fishing village of Edo and built his castle there.”...
... “Though it was once an insignificant village in the marshy wetlands,
Tokugawa Ieyasu transformed Edo into a glorious capital befitting of the shōgun.”...
... The Edo clan still had a residence in Kitami, which is present day Setagawa Ward. In light of Tokugawa Ieyasu’s dominance over the area, it would be presumptuous (and confusing) for a clan to retain the name of the capital city when a new daimyō, appointed by the unifier of Japan, controlled that city. So in 1593, taking an oath of submission and fealty to Tokugawa Ieyasu, the last Edo Clan daimyō gave up the name Edo and assumed the name, Kitami, which was where their primary holdings were. ...
... In 1693, the direct family line, no longer Edo but Kitami, was extinguished after the banishment of Kitami Shigeyasu to Ise when his grandson murdered somebody or something.
... At the height of Tokugawa power, the castle is said to have been the biggest in the world and the city was likely the most populous.
- More details and history about the name of EDO -
- source : japanthis.com/2013 -

. Oota Dookan 太田道灌 Ota Dokan (1432 - 1486) .

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- - - - - Now we come to September 3rd, 1868 :
慶応4年7月17日(西暦では1868年9月3日)
Edo o shooshite Tōkyō to nasu shoosho 江戸を称して東京と為すの詔書
江戸ヲ称シテ東京ト為スノ詔書


Imperial Edict Renaming Edo to Tōkyō.

私は、今政治に自ら裁決を下すこととなり、全ての民をいたわっている。
江戸は東国で第一の大都市であり、四方から人や物が集まる場所である。当然、私自らその政治をみるべきである。よって、以後江戸を東京と称することとする。これは、私が国の東西を同一視するためである。
国民はこの私の意向を心に留めて行動しなさい。

"I at this time settle all matters of state myself in the interest of the people.
Edo is the largest city in the eastern provinces, a place in which things gather from every direction. It were well that
I should personally oversee its governance. Therefore from this time on I shall call it“Tokyo”(Eastern Capital).
This is so that I might oversee all affairs in the land equally, from east to west.
Let the people heed this my will."

- reference source : wikipedia -

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- reference : Edo Shigenaga -
- reference : Kitami Edo Tokyo -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .


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10/06/2016

Edo Anthology Book

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.  Reference and LINKS - Books .
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An Edo Anthology:
Literature from Japan’s Mega-City, 1750-1850
Editor: Jones, Sumie; Watanabe, Kenji
University of Hawaii Press



During the eighteenth century, Edo (today’s Tokyo) became the world’s largest city, quickly surpassing London and Paris. Its rapidly expanding population and flourishing economy encouraged the development of a thriving popular culture. Innovative and ambitious young authors and artists soon began to look beyond the established categories of poetry, drama, and prose, banding together to invent completely new literary forms that focused on the fun and charm of Edo. Their writings were sometimes witty, wild, and bawdy, and other times sensitive, wise, and polished. Now some of these high spirited works, celebrating the rapid changes, extraordinary events, and scandalous news of the day, have been collected in an accessible volume highlighting the city life of Edo.

Edo’s urban consumers
demanded visual presentations and performances in all genres. Novelties such as books with text and art on the same page were highly sought after, as were kabuki plays and the polychrome prints that often shared the same themes, characters, and even jokes. Popular interest in sex and entertainment focused attention on the theatre district and “pleasure quarters,” which became the chief backdrops for the literature and arts of the period. Gesaku, or “playful writing,” invented in the mid-eighteenth century, satirized the government and samurai behavior while parodying the classics. These entertaining new styles bred genres that appealed to the masses.
Among the bestsellers were lengthy serialized heroic epics, revenge dramas, ghost and monster stories, romantic melodramas, and comedies that featured common folk.
source : www.uhpress.hawaii.edu


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- source : Kinokuniya Webstore -



Some of the translations presented here are the first available in English and many are based on first editions.

Table of Contents
Preface
Introduction: The Production and Consumption of Literature in a Flourishing Metropolis
Notes for the Reader

I Playboys, Prostitutes, and Lovers
Seki the Night Hawk, 1753
Yamaoka Matsuake / Robert Campbell

"A Lousy Journey of Love: Two Sweethearts Won't Back Down" 1783
Hiraga Gennai / Timon Screech

At a Fork on the Road to Hiring a Hooker, 1798 (Sara Langer, Trans)
Umebori Kokuga

Intimations of Spring: The Plum Calendar, 1832-1833.
Illustrated by Yanagawa Shigenobu and Yanagawa Jusan (Shigenobu II)
Tamenaga Shunsui / Valerie L. Durham


II Ghosts, Monsters, and Deities
One Hundred Monsters in Edo of Our Time, 1758
Baba Bunko / William J. Farge

Rootless Grass, 1763, 1769
Hiraga Gennai /David Sitkin

Thousand Arms of Goddess, Julienned: The Secret Recipe of Our Handmade Soup Stock,
1785. Illustrated by Kitao Masanobu -- (Santo Kyoden)
Shiba Zenko /Adam L. Kern

The Monster Takes a Bride, 1807. Illustrated by Katsukawa Shun'ei
Jippensha Ikku /Adam Kern

Epic Yotsuya Ghost Tale, 1825
Tsuruya Nanboku IV / Faith Bach


III Heroes, Rogues, and Fools
Playboy, Grilled Edo Style, 1785. Illustrated by Kitao Masanobu
Santo Kyoden / Sumie Jones

Osome and Hisamatsu: Their Amorous History---Read All About It!, 1813 219(28)
Tsuruya Nanboku IV / Sakurada Jisuke II / Caryn Callahan

Opening section from The Tale of the Eight Dog Warriors of the Satomi Clan,
1814-1842. Illustrated chiefly by Yanagawa Shigenobu and Keisai Eisen
Kyokutei Bakin / Ellen Widmer

Funamushi episodes from The Tale of the Eight Dog Warriors of the Satomi Clan, 1814-1842.
Illustrated chiefly by Yanagawa Shigenobu and Keisai Eisen
Kyokutei Bakin / Valerie L. Durham

Eight Footloose Fools: A Flower Almanac, written in 1820, published in 1849.
Illustrated chiefly by Keisai Eisen, Utagawa Kuninao, and Utagawa Kuniyoshi
Ryutei Rijo / Dylan Mcgee / Christopher Robins

Benten the Thief, 1862
Kawatake Mokuami / Alan Cummings


IV City and Country Folks
Mr. Senryu's Barrel of Laughs, Edo Haikai Style, 1765-1838
Karai Senryu / Jason Webb

"The Housemaid's Ballad" and Other Poems, 1769
Domyaku Sensei /Andrew Markus - In the World of Men, Nothing But Lies, 1812. Illustrated by Utagawa Kuninao
Shikitei Sanba / Joel Cohn

The Floating World Barbershop, 1813-1814. Illustrated by Utagawa Kuninao
Shikitei Sanba /Charles Vilnis

Tales from the North, 1818
Tadano Makuzu / Bettina Gramlich-Oka


V Artists and Poets
On Farting, c. 1774, c. 1777
Hiraga Gennai / William F. Sibley

The "Peony Petals" Sequence, 1780
Yosa Buson / Takai Kito / Chris Drake

Peasants, Peddlers, And Paramours: Waka Selections
Roger K. Thomas

Icicle Teardrops and Butterfly Wings: Popular Love Songs
John Solt


VI Tourists and Onlookers
Comparisons of Cities-
(1) Anonymous,
"What They Think Good about Kyo and Edo,"
c. 1820,
(2) Shiba Kokan, "On Good and Bad Things about Kyo and Edo" (A Letter
to Yamaryo Kazuma), 1813, and
(3) Kimuro Boun, Tales of the Kyo I Have Seen, 1780
Timon Screech

Songs of the Northern Quarter, 1786
Ichikawa Kansai / Mark Borer

Outlandish Nonsense: Verses on Western Themes
Timon Screech

An Account of the Prosperity of Edo, 1832: "Urban Chivalry" and "Honjo District"
Terakado Seiken / Andrew Markus


Source Texts and Modern Editions
List of Contributors
Permissions
Index of Names
Subject Index


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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4/28/2016

Tokugawa Yoshimune

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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Tokugawa Yoshimune 徳川吉宗将軍
(1684 - 1751)




He was the first Shogun not born in Edo castle and brought up to become a Shogun. Thus his views on life were quite different from the Tokugawa Shoguns before him.
Since he lived with the common people in his youth in Wakayama, he knew about the problems of the poor and tried to improve their lot throughout his life.

- quote
... the eighth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, ruling from 1716 until his abdication in 1745. He was the son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, the grandson of Tokugawa Yorinobu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
... Yoshimune was from the branch of Kii. The founder of the Kii house was one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's sons, Tokugawa Yorinobu. Ieyasu appointed him daimyo of Kii. Yorinobu's son, Tokugawa Mitsusada, succeeded him. Two of Mitsusada's sons succeeded him, and when they died, Tokugawa Yoshimune, Mitsusada's fourth son, became daimyo of Kii in 1705. Later, he became shogun. ...
... In 1697, Genroku underwent the rites of passage and took the name Tokugawa Shinnosuke. In 1705, when Shinnosuke was just 21 years old, his father Mitsusada and two older brothers died. Thus, the ruling shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi appointed him daimyo of Kii. ...

Shogun (1716–1745)
Yoshimune succeeded to the post of the shogun in Shōtoku-1 (1716). His term as shogun would last for 30 years.
Yoshimune is considered among the best of the Tokugawa shoguns.

Yoshimune established the gosankyō to augment (or perhaps to replace) the gosanke. Two of his sons, together with the second son of his successor Ieshige, became the founders of the Tayasu, Hitotsubashi and Shimizu lines. Unlike the gosanke, they did not rule domains. Still, they remained prominent until the end of Tokugawa rule, and some later shoguns were chosen from the Hitotsubashi line.

Yoshimune is known for his financial reforms. He dismissed the conservative adviser Arai Hakuseki and he began what would come to be known as the Kyōhō Reforms.

Yoshimune also tried to resurrect the Japanese swordsmithing tradition. Since the beginning of the Edo period, it was quite difficult for smiths to make a living and to be supported by Daimyō, because of the lack of funds. But Yoshimune was quite unhappy with this situation, causing a decline of skills. And so, he gathered smiths from Daimyō fiefs for a great contest, in 1721.
The four winners who emerged were all great masters, Mondo no Shô Masakiyo (主水正正清), Ippei Yasuyo (一平安代), the 4th generation Nanki Shigekuni (南紀重国) and Nobukuni Shigekane (信国重包). But it didn't worked well to arouse interest, quite like tournaments in modern Japan.
Yoshimune also ordered the compilation of Kyōhō Meibutsu Chō (享保名物帳), listing the best and most famous swords all over Japan. This book allowed the beginning of the Shinshintō period of Nihontō history, and indirectly contributed to the Gassan school, who protected the Nihontō tradition before and after the surrender of Japan.

Although foreign books had been strictly forbidden since 1640, Yoshimune relaxed the rules in 1720, starting an influx of foreign books and their translations into Japan, and initiating the development of Western studies, or rangaku.

Ogosho (1745–1751)
In 1745, Yoshimune retired, took the title Ōgosho and left his public post to his oldest son. The title is the one that Tokugawa Ieyasu took on retirement in favor of his son Hidetada, who in turn took the same title on his retirement.
Yoshimune died on the 20th day of the 5th month of the year Kan'en-4 (July 12, 1751).
- source : wikipedia


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Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684-1751)
was a Japanese ruler, or shogun. He attempted most energetically to revitalize the Tokugawa shogunate after it began to encounter economic and other difficulties in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ....
- source : yourdictionary.com/tokugawa-yoshimune-

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..... Yoshimune is known for taking a more proactive tack in effecting shogunate control over many facets of the economy of the realm. Among his many policies, he effected a dramatic increase in the domestic production of sugar, silk, and ginseng, three goods which had previously been heavily imported, as part of efforts to stem the outflow of silver from the country. He also imposed a variety of sumptuary laws, and granted authorization to merchant groups to form kabunakama, groups which paid the shogunate fees in exchange for monopoly rights to production and distribution of certain goods. .....
..... The ritual protocols and procedures surrounding Yoshimune's accession to the position of shogun are an oft-cited example of shogunal ritual, and in particular of shogunal proclamations (宣下, senge), the most important type of ritual in the Tokugawa Book of Rites (Tokugawa reiten roku).
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com -

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Yoshimune installed the
meyasubako 目安箱 petition box
suggestion box / complaints box / Vorschlagskasten für Petitionen
sojoobako, sojōbako 訴状箱




Only he had to key to open it, thus hearing the voice of the people directly and giving them a chance to complain about their superiors.

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Petition box
The petition box was a process employed at various times and places, notably in Edo period Tosa han, to allow members of society, regardless of their status, to have their comments and suggestions heard by the lord.
..... The first shogun to implement a petition box system was Tokugawa Yoshimune.
He did so in 1721, after having overseen a similar system as daimyô of Wakayama han, installing the box in front of the hyôjôsho (judicial offices). Prior to this, people often petitioned the shogunate illegally, through petitions known as osso (direct appeals to high officials) and sutebumi (anonymous petitions left at the gates of the castle); the creation of a petition box allowed for a legal avenue for such grievances to be expressed.
While social commentary could be submitted into the shogunate's petition box easily enough, petitions which called for legal appeals could only be submitted in certain types of cases, where other legal avenues had already been tried. The petition box system was considered quite successful, however, and was not only maintained, but was expanded to Kyoto, Osaka, and Sunpu, and remained in place until 1868. A number of policy moves, such as the establishment of the Edo fire brigades, have been traced to suggestions made in petitions placed in the box. ....
- reference source : wiki.samurai-archives.com/index -

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Yoshimune established a public hospital at the garden in
Koishikawa 小石川養生所  Koishikawa Yojosho
with free treatment for all and a large herb garden for medicine.



... The hospital was established in 1722 by the shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune in the herb gardens of what is now the Koishikawa Botanical Gardens at the suggestion of the town physician Ogawa Shosen. The hospital offered its services only to the indigent. It was eventually merged into Tokyo University's medical school.
- source : wikipedia -


小石川養生所の開設


. - Edo 江戸 the Castle Town - .
Matsuo Basho at Koishikawa

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hanabi 花火 Fireworks after an epidemy

..... Yahei studied large-scale fireworks and showed his marvelous works at the Water God Festival in 1717. When the country suffered many deaths due to famine in Kansai (west) and cholera in Edo, the 8th shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune held a Water God Festival at Sumida River to console the souls of the dead, with Yahei’s fireworks.
This is said to be the beginning of Sumidagawa Fireworks that continues to attract millions of people in Tokyo today.
. HANABI 花火 Japanese Fireworks - Introduction .

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Along the new river banks and open spaces to protect from fire he had many cherry trees planted and thus supported the old custom of
hanami 花見 cherry blossom viewing and merrymaking.
He wanted to give the townspeople a chance to enjoy life.
The most famous spots are 飛鳥山 Asukayama, 御殿山 Gotenyama, Koganei and Mukojima.


飛鳥山 - 広重 Asukayama, Hiroshige


「飛鳥山花見」勝川春潮 Katsukawa Shuncho (1781 - 1788)
The ladies wore special Hanami Kimono for the occasion.

And the food was of course
. hanami bentoo 花見弁当 Bento lunch box for blossom viewing .


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In the early eighteenth century, shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune planted many cherry trees in the area and opened up the land for the enjoyment of the "Edokko" or citizens of Tokyo. The park was formally established, alongside Ueno Park, Shiba Park, Asuka Park, and Fukagawa Park, in 1873 by the Dajō-kan, as Japan's first public parks.
- source :wikipedia -



御殿山花見之図 - 広重 Gotenyama, Hiroshige

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To boost the coffers of the Bakufu, he encouraged the development of new rice fields -
shinden kaihatsu 新田開発 reclamation projects.
development program of newly cultivable lands / developing new farming land


source : edo/kaikaku/sinden
町人請負新田

He also initiated reforms for the use of koban 小判 gold money.

. shinden kaihatsu 新田開発 developing new farm land .
and the taxing system (nengu 年貢) for farmers

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. Tokugawa Muneharu 徳川宗春 (1696 - 1764) .

「増税派の吉宗」Yoshimune for more taxes
and
「減税派の宗春」Muneharu for less taxes

. kenyaku 倹約 frugality, thrift - Sparsamkeit .
. Buke shohatto 武家諸法度 Laws for the Samurai .
12 Samurai throughout the realm are to practice frugality.

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. takagari 鷹狩 hunting with hawks and falcons .
The hunting grounds of the Shogun

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Oka Echizen 大岡越前 - Ōoka Tadasuke 大岡忠相 
(1677 – February 3, 1752)
as a Japanese samurai in the service of the Tokugawa shogunate. During the reign of Tokugawa Yoshimune, as a magistrate (machi-bugyō) of Edo, his roles included chief of police, judge and jury, and Yamada Magistrate (Yamada bugyō) prior to his tenure as South Magistrate (Minami Machi-bugyō) of Edo. With the title Echizen no Kami (Governor of Echizen or Lord of the Echizen), he is often known as Ōoka Echizen (大岡越前). He was highly respected as an incorruptible judge. In addition, he established the first fire brigade made up of commoners, and the Koishikawa Yojosho (a city hospital). Later, he advanced to the position of jisha bugyō, and subsequently became daimyo of the Nishi-Ōhira Domain (10,000 koku).



..... Ōoka Tadasuke has been the central character in two jidaigeki television series. In one, Ōoka Echizen, actor Gō Katō played the lead. In the other, Meibugyō! Ōoka Echizen, Kinya Kitaōji played the same role.
In addition, series such as Abarenbo Shogun have portrayed Ōoka as an intimate of the shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Yoshimune is well loved as a Jidaigeki hero, the

aberenbo Shogun 暴れん坊将軍 "The Wild Shogun".
He was rather large for his times and very strong, throwing huge Sumo wrestlers in the sand like nothing in his youth.



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Abarenbō Shōgun
a Japanese television program on the TV Asahi network. Set in the eighteenth century, it showed fictitious events in the life of Yoshimune, the eighth Tokugawa shogun. The program started in 1978 under the title Yoshimune Hyōbanki: Abarenbō Shōgun (Chronicle in Praise of Yoshimune: The Bold Shogun) who went after rogue Councillors and Daimyo who were abusing their power. After a few seasons, they shortened the first two words and ran for two decades under the shorter title until the series ended in 2003; a two-hour special aired in 2004, and then restarted from Oct. 13, 2013 at 7:00PM (Japan time) and still runs today. The earliest scripts occasionally wove stories around historic events such as the establishment of firefighting companies of commoners in Edo, but eventually the series adopted a routine of strictly fiction.

Along with Zenigata Heiji and Mito Kōmon, it ranks among the longest-running series in the jidaigeki genre. Like so many other jidaigeki, it falls in the category of kanzen-chōaku, loosely, "rewarding good and punishing evil."

Goyō toritsugi
The goyō toritsugi (御用取次) (his reform of the soba yōnin (側用人) was a Hatamoto person who scheduled appointments for the Shogun. He is generally a man of advanced years. In the first two casts, the character's name was Kanō Gorozaemon (played by comic Ichirō Arishima). Next came Tanokura Magobei (Eiji Funakoshi), and a few followed in the cast changes of the last years of the show.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Jidaigeki (時代劇) is a genre of film, television, and theatre in Japan.
Literally "period dramas", they are most often set during the Edo period of Japanese history, from 1603 to 1868. Some, however, are set much earlier—Portrait of Hell, for example, is set during the late Heian period—and the early Meiji era is also a popular setting. Jidaigeki show the lives of the samurai, farmers, craftsmen, and merchants of their time. Jidaigeki films are sometimes referred to as chambara movies, a word meaning "sword fight", though chambara is more accurately a subgenre of jidaigeki. Jidaigeki rely on an established set of dramatic conventions including the use of makeup, language, catchphrases, and plotlines.
..... List of jidaigeki films
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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