Showing posts with label - - - History - - - the EDO period -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - History - - - the EDO period -. Show all posts

12/10/2016

The Edo Clan

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. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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The Edo Clan of the Musashi Taira 武蔵江戸氏 Musashi Edo-Shi

They lived in the hamlet 江戸郷 Edo Go, their Homeland in the Musashi Plain. It was located in the
日比谷の入江 Hibiya no Irie inlet.
Edo 江戸 means "estuary", lit. "inlet door", "entrance to the inlet".

Other clans who lived in the Edo area before Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Bakufu government:



畠山氏 Hatakeyama clan in 深谷 Fukaya
河越氏 Kawagoe clan in 川越 Kawagoe
豊島氏 Toyoshima clan in 川口 Kawaguchi


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- quote
The Edo clan were a minor offshoot of the Taira clan,
and first fortified the settlement known as Edo, which would later become Tokyo. The Imperial Palace now stands at this location.
During the Azuchi-Momoyama period, the clan was renamed the 武蔵喜多見氏 Musashi Kitami clan.
The clan originated in Chichibu in Musashi Province (now Saitama Prefecture). In the late 12th century,
江戸重継 Edo Shigetsugu (Chichibu Shigetsugu) moved south and fortified the little hill at Edo, located where the Sumida River enters Tokyo Bay. This area later became the Honmaru and Ninomaru portions of Edo Castle. There, the Edo grew in military strength under the second patriarch, Edo Shigenaga.

In August 1180, Shigenaga attacked Muira Yoshizumi, an ally of the rival Minamoto clan. Three months later, he switched sides just as Minamoto Yoritomo entered Musashi. Shigenaga assisted the Minamoto in overthrowing the Taira in Kyoto. In return, Yoritomo granted Shigenaga seven new estates in Musashi Province, including Kitami in what is now Tokyo's western Setagaya Ward.

Records show that in 1457, Edo Shigeyasu surrendered his main base at Edo to Ota Dokan. Dokan was a vassal of the powerful Ōgigayatsu branch of the Uesugi clan under Uesugi Sadamasa. Sadamasa was the Kanto-Kanrei for the Ashikaga. Dokan built Edo castle on the site. The Edo clan then moved to Kitami.

In 1593, in a pledge of obedience to Tokugawa Ieyasu, Edo Katsutada changed the clan name to Kitami. Katsutada was employed by the first and second Tokugawa shoguns, reaching the position of Magistrate of Sakai, south of Osaka. Katsutada's grandson-in-law, Shigemasa, found favor with the fifth shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi. He rose from the position of hatamoto, with a stipend of one thousand koku, to sobayonin, or "Grand Chamberlain", with a stipend of twenty thousand. It was an influential post, responsible for relaying messages between the shogun and his senior councilors. He was also awarded a large domain in 1686. However, the clan's fortunes suddenly plummeted. In 1689, Shigemasa's nephew violated the Shogunate taboo on bloodshed. Shigemasa had to forfeit his status and property and was banished to Ise, where he died in 1693 at age 36. The 500-year-old Edo clan essentially ceased as a recognized clan.
Tombstones of several generations of the clan are at 慶元寺 Keigen-Ji, a Buddhist temple founded in 1186 by Edo Shigenaga, in Kitami.
The name later changed to 常陸江戸氏 Hitachi Edo-Shi.
- source : wikipedia



江戸重長 Edo Taro Shigenaga  
was the second head of the Edo clan. He first settled and lent his name to the fishing village Edo that eventually grew to become Tokyo.
He was also known as Edo Taroo 江戸太郎 Edo Taro.
In 1180, Shigenaga was asked by Minamoto Yoritomo to cooperate in his uprising against rule of the Taira in Kyoto. Hesitant at first, Shigenaga eventually helped Yoritomo overthrow the Taira rule. Yoritomo granted Shigenaga seven new estates in Musashi Province, including Kitami in what is now Tokyo's western Setagaya Ward.

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source : 4travel.jp/travelogue/10825822

Graves of the Musashi Kitami Clan - 江戸氏之墓所
慶元寺 Keigen-Ji - see below

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- quote -
The ones who got there first
Four centuries before Tokugawa Ieyasu arrived at Edo, a fierce band of mounted warriors had already fortified the hill where Ieyasu would build his magnificent Edo Castle, and on which the Imperial Palace now stands.

In the late 12th century, the Edo clan, as these warriors called themselves, had moved south from Chichibu in present-day Saitama Prefecture led by their patriarch, Edo Shigetsugu. Seizing Edo, they rapidly built up their military presence in the southern Kanto Plain to such a point that, in 1180, Shigenaga, the second clan head, was asked by Minamoto Yoritomo (1147-99) to cooperate in his uprising against the great Taira family in Kyoto.

Shigenaga was not easily persuaded, but eventually lent his power to Yoritomo in overthrowing Taira rule. In appreciation, Yoritomo granted Shigenaga seven new estates in Musashi Province, including Kitami in what is now Tokyo’s western Setagaya Ward.

Little is known about the Edo clan in the turbulent Kamakura Period that began with Yoritomo’s founding of a shogunate in that city in 1192; nor do we know of their fate during the Kyoto-based shogunate known as the Muromachi Period, that ran from 1338-1573. However, records show that in 1457, Edo Shigeyasu surrendered his main base at Edo to Ota Dokan (1432-86), a vassal of Uesugi Sadamasa, Governor of the Kanto Plain, and moved to Kitami. Dokan then built a castle on the site with views of Mount Fuji and Edo Bay, before being killed by an assassin sent by his own master in 1486. The castle was then abandoned until it was taken over by Ieyasu in 1590.

In a pledge of obedience to Ieyasu, Edo Katsutada changed the clan name to Kitami in 1593. Katsutada was employed by the first and second shoguns, reaching the position of Magistrate of Sakai, south of Osaka.

His grandson-in-law, Shigemasa, bathed in the special favor of the fifth shogun and rose to the rank of daimyo by 1682. Promoted to a sobayonin (grand chamberlain), whose influential role was to relay messages between the shogun and his senior councilors, he was awarded a further large domain in 1686.

From this zenith of happiness, however, Shigemasa’s fortunes plummeted — and with them, those of the Edo clan. In 1689, Shigemasa’s nephew violated the shogunal taboo on bloodshed and the family was held collectively responsible. As punishment, Shigemasa forfeited his status and all property and was banished to Ise, where he died in 1693 at age 36. His kin was similarly punished, and with that the 500-year-old Edo clan vanished.

To this day, however, memories of the first possessor of Edo linger on at Keigen-ji in Kitami, Setagaya Ward, an impressive Buddhist temple founded in 1186 by Edo Shigenaga. Tombstones of several generations of the clan, some quite eroded but others recently renovated, huddle together in a corner of the graveyard, tied eternally by their invisible bond of kinship.
- source : Japan Times 2003 - Sumiko Enbutsu -

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Keigenji 慶元寺 Keigen-Ji
永劫山 花林院 慶元寺 Eigosan Karin-In Keigen-Ji

世田谷区喜多見4-17-1 / 4 Chome-17-1 Kitami, Setagaya ward
浄土宗 Jodo Sect.

Apart from the main temple hall, it has a 鐘楼 bell tower and a 三重堂 three-story pagoda.


source and more photos : tesshow.jp/setagaya

The main statue is 阿弥陀如来 Amida Nyorai.
Edo Taro Shigenaga founded this temple, then called 岩戸山大沢院東福寺 Tofuku-Ji in 1186, which then belonged to the 天台宗 Tendai sect.
In 1451 it was relocated to 成城(元喜多見) Seijo (Moto Kitami) and found its final place in 1468.
In 1540, the priest 空誉上人 / 空与(空與)/ 空与守欣上人 Kuyo Shonin revitalized the temple, which had lost its importance. The name changed 上山華林院慶元寺 and now it belonges to the Jodo Sect.
In 1636, Shogun Iemitsu awarded the temple with land of 10石 (about 1ha(10000㎡), annexing 6 temples in the neighborhood.

Number 4 in the pilgrimage to 33 Kannon temples along the Tamagawa 多摩川三十三ヶ所観音霊場.




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Kitami eki 喜多見駅 Kitami station
on the Odakyu Railway Line, on the border between Setagaya Ward and Komae City.
The name of the area,
Kitami
, (also written 北見)
is thought to originate from an ancient Ainu word meaning "flat, wooded place".
- quote wikipedia -



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- Some further History -
... The Kantō Plain appears to have first been populated in the Late Jōmon Period sometime after 3100 BC. ...
... Kofun Period (200-500 AD) : It seems that around the 300’s, Kantō became a vassal state of the Yamato Court. There are more than 200 Kofun in the Tōkyō Metropolis.
丸山古墳 Maruyama Kofun “Round Mountain” Kofun is in 芝公園 Shiba Kōen park ...


... “A feudal warlord named Ōta Dōkan came into the small fishing village of Edo and built his castle there.”...
... “Though it was once an insignificant village in the marshy wetlands,
Tokugawa Ieyasu transformed Edo into a glorious capital befitting of the shōgun.”...
... The Edo clan still had a residence in Kitami, which is present day Setagawa Ward. In light of Tokugawa Ieyasu’s dominance over the area, it would be presumptuous (and confusing) for a clan to retain the name of the capital city when a new daimyō, appointed by the unifier of Japan, controlled that city. So in 1593, taking an oath of submission and fealty to Tokugawa Ieyasu, the last Edo Clan daimyō gave up the name Edo and assumed the name, Kitami, which was where their primary holdings were. ...
... In 1693, the direct family line, no longer Edo but Kitami, was extinguished after the banishment of Kitami Shigeyasu to Ise when his grandson murdered somebody or something.
... At the height of Tokugawa power, the castle is said to have been the biggest in the world and the city was likely the most populous.
- More details and history about the name of EDO -
- source : japanthis.com/2013 -

. Oota Dookan 太田道灌 Ota Dokan (1432 - 1486) .

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- - - - - Now we come to September 3rd, 1868 :
慶応4年7月17日(西暦では1868年9月3日)
Edo o shooshite Tōkyō to nasu shoosho 江戸を称して東京と為すの詔書
江戸ヲ称シテ東京ト為スノ詔書


Imperial Edict Renaming Edo to Tōkyō.

私は、今政治に自ら裁決を下すこととなり、全ての民をいたわっている。
江戸は東国で第一の大都市であり、四方から人や物が集まる場所である。当然、私自らその政治をみるべきである。よって、以後江戸を東京と称することとする。これは、私が国の東西を同一視するためである。
国民はこの私の意向を心に留めて行動しなさい。

"I at this time settle all matters of state myself in the interest of the people.
Edo is the largest city in the eastern provinces, a place in which things gather from every direction. It were well that
I should personally oversee its governance. Therefore from this time on I shall call it“Tokyo”(Eastern Capital).
This is so that I might oversee all affairs in the land equally, from east to west.
Let the people heed this my will."

- reference source : wikipedia -

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- reference : Edo Shigenaga -
- reference : Kitami Edo Tokyo -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .


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10/06/2016

Edo Anthology Book

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.  Reference and LINKS - Books .
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An Edo Anthology:
Literature from Japan’s Mega-City, 1750-1850
Editor: Jones, Sumie; Watanabe, Kenji
University of Hawaii Press



During the eighteenth century, Edo (today’s Tokyo) became the world’s largest city, quickly surpassing London and Paris. Its rapidly expanding population and flourishing economy encouraged the development of a thriving popular culture. Innovative and ambitious young authors and artists soon began to look beyond the established categories of poetry, drama, and prose, banding together to invent completely new literary forms that focused on the fun and charm of Edo. Their writings were sometimes witty, wild, and bawdy, and other times sensitive, wise, and polished. Now some of these high spirited works, celebrating the rapid changes, extraordinary events, and scandalous news of the day, have been collected in an accessible volume highlighting the city life of Edo.

Edo’s urban consumers
demanded visual presentations and performances in all genres. Novelties such as books with text and art on the same page were highly sought after, as were kabuki plays and the polychrome prints that often shared the same themes, characters, and even jokes. Popular interest in sex and entertainment focused attention on the theatre district and “pleasure quarters,” which became the chief backdrops for the literature and arts of the period. Gesaku, or “playful writing,” invented in the mid-eighteenth century, satirized the government and samurai behavior while parodying the classics. These entertaining new styles bred genres that appealed to the masses.
Among the bestsellers were lengthy serialized heroic epics, revenge dramas, ghost and monster stories, romantic melodramas, and comedies that featured common folk.
source : www.uhpress.hawaii.edu


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- source : Kinokuniya Webstore -



Some of the translations presented here are the first available in English and many are based on first editions.

Table of Contents
Preface
Introduction: The Production and Consumption of Literature in a Flourishing Metropolis
Notes for the Reader

I Playboys, Prostitutes, and Lovers
Seki the Night Hawk, 1753
Yamaoka Matsuake / Robert Campbell

"A Lousy Journey of Love: Two Sweethearts Won't Back Down" 1783
Hiraga Gennai / Timon Screech

At a Fork on the Road to Hiring a Hooker, 1798 (Sara Langer, Trans)
Umebori Kokuga

Intimations of Spring: The Plum Calendar, 1832-1833.
Illustrated by Yanagawa Shigenobu and Yanagawa Jusan (Shigenobu II)
Tamenaga Shunsui / Valerie L. Durham


II Ghosts, Monsters, and Deities
One Hundred Monsters in Edo of Our Time, 1758
Baba Bunko / William J. Farge

Rootless Grass, 1763, 1769
Hiraga Gennai /David Sitkin

Thousand Arms of Goddess, Julienned: The Secret Recipe of Our Handmade Soup Stock,
1785. Illustrated by Kitao Masanobu -- (Santo Kyoden)
Shiba Zenko /Adam L. Kern

The Monster Takes a Bride, 1807. Illustrated by Katsukawa Shun'ei
Jippensha Ikku /Adam Kern

Epic Yotsuya Ghost Tale, 1825
Tsuruya Nanboku IV / Faith Bach


III Heroes, Rogues, and Fools
Playboy, Grilled Edo Style, 1785. Illustrated by Kitao Masanobu
Santo Kyoden / Sumie Jones

Osome and Hisamatsu: Their Amorous History---Read All About It!, 1813 219(28)
Tsuruya Nanboku IV / Sakurada Jisuke II / Caryn Callahan

Opening section from The Tale of the Eight Dog Warriors of the Satomi Clan,
1814-1842. Illustrated chiefly by Yanagawa Shigenobu and Keisai Eisen
Kyokutei Bakin / Ellen Widmer

Funamushi episodes from The Tale of the Eight Dog Warriors of the Satomi Clan, 1814-1842.
Illustrated chiefly by Yanagawa Shigenobu and Keisai Eisen
Kyokutei Bakin / Valerie L. Durham

Eight Footloose Fools: A Flower Almanac, written in 1820, published in 1849.
Illustrated chiefly by Keisai Eisen, Utagawa Kuninao, and Utagawa Kuniyoshi
Ryutei Rijo / Dylan Mcgee / Christopher Robins

Benten the Thief, 1862
Kawatake Mokuami / Alan Cummings


IV City and Country Folks
Mr. Senryu's Barrel of Laughs, Edo Haikai Style, 1765-1838
Karai Senryu / Jason Webb

"The Housemaid's Ballad" and Other Poems, 1769
Domyaku Sensei /Andrew Markus - In the World of Men, Nothing But Lies, 1812. Illustrated by Utagawa Kuninao
Shikitei Sanba / Joel Cohn

The Floating World Barbershop, 1813-1814. Illustrated by Utagawa Kuninao
Shikitei Sanba /Charles Vilnis

Tales from the North, 1818
Tadano Makuzu / Bettina Gramlich-Oka


V Artists and Poets
On Farting, c. 1774, c. 1777
Hiraga Gennai / William F. Sibley

The "Peony Petals" Sequence, 1780
Yosa Buson / Takai Kito / Chris Drake

Peasants, Peddlers, And Paramours: Waka Selections
Roger K. Thomas

Icicle Teardrops and Butterfly Wings: Popular Love Songs
John Solt


VI Tourists and Onlookers
Comparisons of Cities-
(1) Anonymous,
"What They Think Good about Kyo and Edo,"
c. 1820,
(2) Shiba Kokan, "On Good and Bad Things about Kyo and Edo" (A Letter
to Yamaryo Kazuma), 1813, and
(3) Kimuro Boun, Tales of the Kyo I Have Seen, 1780
Timon Screech

Songs of the Northern Quarter, 1786
Ichikawa Kansai / Mark Borer

Outlandish Nonsense: Verses on Western Themes
Timon Screech

An Account of the Prosperity of Edo, 1832: "Urban Chivalry" and "Honjo District"
Terakado Seiken / Andrew Markus


Source Texts and Modern Editions
List of Contributors
Permissions
Index of Names
Subject Index


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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4/28/2016

Tokugawa Yoshimune

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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Tokugawa Yoshimune 徳川吉宗将軍
(1684 - 1751)




He was the first Shogun not born in Edo castle and brought up to become a Shogun. Thus his views on life were quite different from the Tokugawa Shoguns before him.
Since he lived with the common people in his youth in Wakayama, he knew about the problems of the poor and tried to improve their lot throughout his life.

- quote
... the eighth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, ruling from 1716 until his abdication in 1745. He was the son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, the grandson of Tokugawa Yorinobu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
... Yoshimune was from the branch of Kii. The founder of the Kii house was one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's sons, Tokugawa Yorinobu. Ieyasu appointed him daimyo of Kii. Yorinobu's son, Tokugawa Mitsusada, succeeded him. Two of Mitsusada's sons succeeded him, and when they died, Tokugawa Yoshimune, Mitsusada's fourth son, became daimyo of Kii in 1705. Later, he became shogun. ...
... In 1697, Genroku underwent the rites of passage and took the name Tokugawa Shinnosuke. In 1705, when Shinnosuke was just 21 years old, his father Mitsusada and two older brothers died. Thus, the ruling shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi appointed him daimyo of Kii. ...

Shogun (1716–1745)
Yoshimune succeeded to the post of the shogun in Shōtoku-1 (1716). His term as shogun would last for 30 years.
Yoshimune is considered among the best of the Tokugawa shoguns.

Yoshimune established the gosankyō to augment (or perhaps to replace) the gosanke. Two of his sons, together with the second son of his successor Ieshige, became the founders of the Tayasu, Hitotsubashi and Shimizu lines. Unlike the gosanke, they did not rule domains. Still, they remained prominent until the end of Tokugawa rule, and some later shoguns were chosen from the Hitotsubashi line.

Yoshimune is known for his financial reforms. He dismissed the conservative adviser Arai Hakuseki and he began what would come to be known as the Kyōhō Reforms.

Yoshimune also tried to resurrect the Japanese swordsmithing tradition. Since the beginning of the Edo period, it was quite difficult for smiths to make a living and to be supported by Daimyō, because of the lack of funds. But Yoshimune was quite unhappy with this situation, causing a decline of skills. And so, he gathered smiths from Daimyō fiefs for a great contest, in 1721.
The four winners who emerged were all great masters, Mondo no Shô Masakiyo (主水正正清), Ippei Yasuyo (一平安代), the 4th generation Nanki Shigekuni (南紀重国) and Nobukuni Shigekane (信国重包). But it didn't worked well to arouse interest, quite like tournaments in modern Japan.
Yoshimune also ordered the compilation of Kyōhō Meibutsu Chō (享保名物帳), listing the best and most famous swords all over Japan. This book allowed the beginning of the Shinshintō period of Nihontō history, and indirectly contributed to the Gassan school, who protected the Nihontō tradition before and after the surrender of Japan.

Although foreign books had been strictly forbidden since 1640, Yoshimune relaxed the rules in 1720, starting an influx of foreign books and their translations into Japan, and initiating the development of Western studies, or rangaku.

Ogosho (1745–1751)
In 1745, Yoshimune retired, took the title Ōgosho and left his public post to his oldest son. The title is the one that Tokugawa Ieyasu took on retirement in favor of his son Hidetada, who in turn took the same title on his retirement.
Yoshimune died on the 20th day of the 5th month of the year Kan'en-4 (July 12, 1751).
- source : wikipedia


- quote -
Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684-1751)
was a Japanese ruler, or shogun. He attempted most energetically to revitalize the Tokugawa shogunate after it began to encounter economic and other difficulties in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ....
- source : yourdictionary.com/tokugawa-yoshimune-

- quote -
..... Yoshimune is known for taking a more proactive tack in effecting shogunate control over many facets of the economy of the realm. Among his many policies, he effected a dramatic increase in the domestic production of sugar, silk, and ginseng, three goods which had previously been heavily imported, as part of efforts to stem the outflow of silver from the country. He also imposed a variety of sumptuary laws, and granted authorization to merchant groups to form kabunakama, groups which paid the shogunate fees in exchange for monopoly rights to production and distribution of certain goods. .....
..... The ritual protocols and procedures surrounding Yoshimune's accession to the position of shogun are an oft-cited example of shogunal ritual, and in particular of shogunal proclamations (宣下, senge), the most important type of ritual in the Tokugawa Book of Rites (Tokugawa reiten roku).
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com -

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Yoshimune installed the
meyasubako 目安箱 petition box
suggestion box / complaints box / Vorschlagskasten für Petitionen
sojoobako, sojōbako 訴状箱




Only he had to key to open it, thus hearing the voice of the people directly and giving them a chance to complain about their superiors.

- quote -
Petition box
The petition box was a process employed at various times and places, notably in Edo period Tosa han, to allow members of society, regardless of their status, to have their comments and suggestions heard by the lord.
..... The first shogun to implement a petition box system was Tokugawa Yoshimune.
He did so in 1721, after having overseen a similar system as daimyô of Wakayama han, installing the box in front of the hyôjôsho (judicial offices). Prior to this, people often petitioned the shogunate illegally, through petitions known as osso (direct appeals to high officials) and sutebumi (anonymous petitions left at the gates of the castle); the creation of a petition box allowed for a legal avenue for such grievances to be expressed.
While social commentary could be submitted into the shogunate's petition box easily enough, petitions which called for legal appeals could only be submitted in certain types of cases, where other legal avenues had already been tried. The petition box system was considered quite successful, however, and was not only maintained, but was expanded to Kyoto, Osaka, and Sunpu, and remained in place until 1868. A number of policy moves, such as the establishment of the Edo fire brigades, have been traced to suggestions made in petitions placed in the box. ....
- reference source : wiki.samurai-archives.com/index -

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Yoshimune established a public hospital at the garden in
Koishikawa 小石川養生所  Koishikawa Yojosho
with free treatment for all and a large herb garden for medicine.



... The hospital was established in 1722 by the shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune in the herb gardens of what is now the Koishikawa Botanical Gardens at the suggestion of the town physician Ogawa Shosen. The hospital offered its services only to the indigent. It was eventually merged into Tokyo University's medical school.
- source : wikipedia -


小石川養生所の開設


. - Edo 江戸 the Castle Town - .
Matsuo Basho at Koishikawa

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hanabi 花火 Fireworks after an epidemy

..... Yahei studied large-scale fireworks and showed his marvelous works at the Water God Festival in 1717. When the country suffered many deaths due to famine in Kansai (west) and cholera in Edo, the 8th shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune held a Water God Festival at Sumida River to console the souls of the dead, with Yahei’s fireworks.
This is said to be the beginning of Sumidagawa Fireworks that continues to attract millions of people in Tokyo today.
. HANABI 花火 Japanese Fireworks - Introduction .

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Along the new river banks and open spaces to protect from fire he had many cherry trees planted and thus supported the old custom of
hanami 花見 cherry blossom viewing and merrymaking.
He wanted to give the townspeople a chance to enjoy life.
The most famous spots are 飛鳥山 Asukayama, 御殿山 Gotenyama, Koganei and Mukojima.


飛鳥山 - 広重 Asukayama, Hiroshige


「飛鳥山花見」勝川春潮 Katsukawa Shuncho (1781 - 1788)
The ladies wore special Hanami Kimono for the occasion.

And the food was of course
. hanami bentoo 花見弁当 Bento lunch box for blossom viewing .


- quote -
In the early eighteenth century, shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune planted many cherry trees in the area and opened up the land for the enjoyment of the "Edokko" or citizens of Tokyo. The park was formally established, alongside Ueno Park, Shiba Park, Asuka Park, and Fukagawa Park, in 1873 by the Dajō-kan, as Japan's first public parks.
- source :wikipedia -



御殿山花見之図 - 広重 Gotenyama, Hiroshige

.......................................................................

To boost the coffers of the Bakufu, he encouraged the development of new rice fields -
shinden kaihatsu 新田開発 reclamation projects.
development program of newly cultivable lands / developing new farming land


source : edo/kaikaku/sinden
町人請負新田

He also initiated reforms for the use of koban 小判 gold money.

. shinden kaihatsu 新田開発 developing new farm land .
and the taxing system (nengu 年貢) for farmers

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. Tokugawa Muneharu 徳川宗春 (1696 - 1764) .

「増税派の吉宗」Yoshimune for more taxes
and
「減税派の宗春」Muneharu for less taxes

. kenyaku 倹約 frugality, thrift - Sparsamkeit .
. Buke shohatto 武家諸法度 Laws for the Samurai .
12 Samurai throughout the realm are to practice frugality.

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. takagari 鷹狩 hunting with hawks and falcons .
The hunting grounds of the Shogun

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Oka Echizen 大岡越前 - Ōoka Tadasuke 大岡忠相 
(1677 – February 3, 1752)
as a Japanese samurai in the service of the Tokugawa shogunate. During the reign of Tokugawa Yoshimune, as a magistrate (machi-bugyō) of Edo, his roles included chief of police, judge and jury, and Yamada Magistrate (Yamada bugyō) prior to his tenure as South Magistrate (Minami Machi-bugyō) of Edo. With the title Echizen no Kami (Governor of Echizen or Lord of the Echizen), he is often known as Ōoka Echizen (大岡越前). He was highly respected as an incorruptible judge. In addition, he established the first fire brigade made up of commoners, and the Koishikawa Yojosho (a city hospital). Later, he advanced to the position of jisha bugyō, and subsequently became daimyo of the Nishi-Ōhira Domain (10,000 koku).



..... Ōoka Tadasuke has been the central character in two jidaigeki television series. In one, Ōoka Echizen, actor Gō Katō played the lead. In the other, Meibugyō! Ōoka Echizen, Kinya Kitaōji played the same role.
In addition, series such as Abarenbo Shogun have portrayed Ōoka as an intimate of the shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Yoshimune is well loved as a Jidaigeki hero, the

aberenbo Shogun 暴れん坊将軍 "The Wild Shogun".
He was rather large for his times and very strong, throwing huge Sumo wrestlers in the sand like nothing in his youth.



- quote -
Abarenbō Shōgun
a Japanese television program on the TV Asahi network. Set in the eighteenth century, it showed fictitious events in the life of Yoshimune, the eighth Tokugawa shogun. The program started in 1978 under the title Yoshimune Hyōbanki: Abarenbō Shōgun (Chronicle in Praise of Yoshimune: The Bold Shogun) who went after rogue Councillors and Daimyo who were abusing their power. After a few seasons, they shortened the first two words and ran for two decades under the shorter title until the series ended in 2003; a two-hour special aired in 2004, and then restarted from Oct. 13, 2013 at 7:00PM (Japan time) and still runs today. The earliest scripts occasionally wove stories around historic events such as the establishment of firefighting companies of commoners in Edo, but eventually the series adopted a routine of strictly fiction.

Along with Zenigata Heiji and Mito Kōmon, it ranks among the longest-running series in the jidaigeki genre. Like so many other jidaigeki, it falls in the category of kanzen-chōaku, loosely, "rewarding good and punishing evil."

Goyō toritsugi
The goyō toritsugi (御用取次) (his reform of the soba yōnin (側用人) was a Hatamoto person who scheduled appointments for the Shogun. He is generally a man of advanced years. In the first two casts, the character's name was Kanō Gorozaemon (played by comic Ichirō Arishima). Next came Tanokura Magobei (Eiji Funakoshi), and a few followed in the cast changes of the last years of the show.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- quote -
Jidaigeki (時代劇) is a genre of film, television, and theatre in Japan.
Literally "period dramas", they are most often set during the Edo period of Japanese history, from 1603 to 1868. Some, however, are set much earlier—Portrait of Hell, for example, is set during the late Heian period—and the early Meiji era is also a popular setting. Jidaigeki show the lives of the samurai, farmers, craftsmen, and merchants of their time. Jidaigeki films are sometimes referred to as chambara movies, a word meaning "sword fight", though chambara is more accurately a subgenre of jidaigeki. Jidaigeki rely on an established set of dramatic conventions including the use of makeup, language, catchphrases, and plotlines.
..... List of jidaigeki films
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #yoshimune #tokugawayoshimune #abarenboshogun - - - -
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4/14/2016

seppuku and harakiri

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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seppuku 切腹 -- harakiri 腹切り ritual suicide

The shogunate executed criminals in various ways ...
Samurai were often sentenced to commit seppuku in lieu of these forms of punishment. Seppuku is a term of suicide for the samurai.
. Criminal Punishment in Edo .
- Introduction -

. Kiri-sute gomen, kirisute gomen 斬捨御免 or 切捨御免
literally, "authorization to cut and leave" - the body of the victim .

Punishment for the incorrect exercise of this right was severe. An offender could be beheaded without being allowed to perform seppuku and have his house abolished, meaning that none of his sons could succeed the title.

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- quote
seppuku (切腹 or せっぷく, "stomach- or abdomen-cutting") or
harakiri (腹切り, "cutting the belly")

is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment.



It was originally reserved for samurai. Part of the samurai bushido honor code, seppuku was used either voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies (and likely suffer torture) or as a form of capital punishment for samurai who had committed serious offenses, or performed because they had brought shame to themselves. The ceremonial disembowelment, which is usually part of a more elaborate ritual and performed in front of spectators, consists of plunging a short blade, traditionally a tantō, into the abdomen and drawing the blade from left to right, slicing the abdomen open.
1 Etymology
2 Overview
3 Ritual
4 Female ritual suicide
- - - 4.1 History
- - - 4.2 Religious and social context
- - - 4.3 Terminology
5 Seppuku as capital punishment
6 European witness
7 Seppuku in modern Japan
8 Notable cases
9 In popular culture
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

- - - - - some vocabulary - - - - -


funshi 憤死 indignation death, which is any suicide made to state dissatisfaction or protest
jigai 自害 suicide / jisatsu 自殺
junshi 殉死 seppuku at the death of one's master
jūmonji giri 十文字切り, "cross-shaped cut"
kagebara 陰腹, "shadow stomach" (variety of kanshi)
kanshi 諫死, "remonstration death/death of understanding", in which a retainer would commit suicide in protest of a lord's decision.
kappuku 割腹 - Seppuku
oibara, tsuifuku 追腹 or 追い腹 Seppuku at the death of one's master



source : blogs.yahoo.co.jp/eraser1eraser

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

蒲生下野守の家来に切腹する者がいて、非常に強勢な者は肝臓に毛が生えていると聞くので確かめてほしいと言う。切腹した後で確かめると、本当に毛が生えていたという。
.
ある者が商い聖を殺して金を奪った。後に妻をむかえ子をもうけたが、生まれた子供は殺した聖そっくりだった。やがて子が成長するとその子の不作法の為切腹を命じられた。

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jina 人痾,fukuyoo 服妖 in Kanto
天明の頃、関東方面で眉を抜いて薄く残し、かたい眉と言ったり、鬢を薄くして疫病髪と名付け、また赤い帯をして腹切り帯と言ったりする事が流行った。それが京にもうつりそうになった頃、関東の田沼山城守某が城中で佐野善左衛門某に殺され、佐野が切腹するなどの事件が発生した。これは中国史書にある人痾というものだ。

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Minamoto Yorimasa no kubi 源頼政の首
源三位頼政が扇の芝で切腹した時、首が重く感じるところに葬ってほしいと郎等に言い残した。郎等はその首を持って東に行き、古我で休憩したところ首が重くて上がらなくなったのでそこに葬ったという。


................................................................................. Akita 秋田県

takekomasama 竹駒様 TakeKoma Sama

In 仙北市, 現在堀之内に住んでいる田口イシノ氏は石を占いの道具にしているのでイシガミサマともいう。角館にはイシノ氏の姉のカミサマがいる。この人は27、8才のころから目が見えなくなったが、神様や仏様が飛んでくるのが見えるようになった。殿様や切腹した侍がくるとその真似をする。それが治らないので、神様におつかわれするようになればなおるといわれた。その1ヵ月後に竹駒様がついたので、神社に参拝しておつかわれするように決めた。すると2週間で目が開いて、3週間ですっかり見えるようになった。


................................................................................. Aomori 青森県

zashikiwaraji ザシキワラシ
In Sannohe 三戸郡, いまはもうとりこわされた、大きな屋敷だった堀川家の座敷にはザシキワラシがでた。昔座敷で切腹した人がいて、その血が板戸についていたという。上段の間で客が寝ているとトントン音がしたり、人の気配がしたりして、ザシキワラシが寝かしてくれないので、話者の家に夜中泊めてくれと来る客人もいたという。


................................................................................. Fukui 福井県

kitsune 狐 Fox
ある武家で、不都合を起こした為に切腹が命じられた。切腹を命じにやって来た役人は、狐が化けていたので、犬がほえると正体をあらわして逃げた。別の家は稲荷さんの申し子だと言われていた。この2つの家は両方とも断絶した。


................................................................................. Gunma 群馬県

Some fields were ritually polluted and unfit for cultivation.
Amont the pollutions was a field where someone had commited Harakiri 腹切り畑.
The other reasons are
忌み田,忌み畑,ぼんでん田,さかさ田,ジャンボン田,底なし田,位牌田,鳥居田,たたり畑,かかとり畑などと呼ばれる。

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甘楽郡

o-Kiku no tatari お菊の祟り curse of O-Kiku
小幡の殿様が侍女の菊ばかりを寵愛したので他の侍女や奥方の恨みを買い、菊が殿様に差し上げる御飯に針を入れられた。殿様は怒って菊を責め、蛇の入った樽に入れ、宝積寺の池に投げ込んだ。小柏源介という侍が悲鳴を聞いて樽を開けると、瀕死の菊が出て来た。菊は「このご恩にお家に蛇の害は無いように致します」と言って事切れた。お菊の母が「お菊が無実なら芽が出ろ」と池の辺に炒りゴマをまいたら、芽が出た。お菊の祟りで小幡家に戦死や切腹の沙汰が続いたので、宝積寺に碑を建てて供養した。


................................................................................. Hiroshima 広島県

nanafushigi 七不思義
小学校2年の頃、日が暮れてから父親に背負われ陶晴賢が切腹した所を通っていると、父親の髪が急に1本立った。どうしたのかと父親に尋ねると父親は言葉を制して真言を唱えた。すると髪は寝た。後で聞くとそれがみさきというものだった。


................................................................................. Ibaraki 茨城県

bodaiju no tatari ぼだい樹のたたり curse
In 常陸太田市
平将門の乱で敗れた武将のお姫様が奥州に逃げる途中で死んでしまい、7人の家来もそこで切腹した。親鸞上人が哀れがり、そこにぼだい樹を植えた。それが話者の家のぼだい樹で、枝を折ると災難があると言う。ある人がぼだい樹から蜂の巣をとったら、話者の妹がひきつけをおこした。行者にお祓いしてもらったら治った。


................................................................................. Kanto 関東方面

天明の頃、関東方面で眉を抜いて薄く残し、かたい眉と言ったり、鬢を薄くして疫病髪と名付け、また赤い帯をして腹切り帯と言ったりする事が流行った。それが京にもうつりそうになった頃、関東の田沼山城守某が城中で佐野善左衛門某に殺され、佐野が切腹するなどの事件が発生した。これは中国史書にある人痾というものだ。


................................................................................. Kochi 高知県

Shichinin misaki 七人みさき
安芸郡北川村では、山に働きに来ていた若者7人が小屋で戯れている時、1人に山刀が刺さって死に、ほかの者も切腹して死んだ。その墓が最近まであったが、神様にして一所にかためた。七人みさきの本家は北川村の野川ではないかという。


................................................................................. Kumamoto 熊本県

neko 猫 cat
In 人吉市, あるお坊さんが謀反の疑いで切腹させられたが、無実であった。その妾のひとりがそのことを恨みに思って、猫に「仇はとっておくれ」と願いを込めて、その猫を道連れに自殺した。以後、切腹を命じた相良侯の家では不思議なことが起きたので猫寺を建てた。


................................................................................. Mie 三重県

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Hyoouemon gitsune 兵右衛門狐 the fox

桑名藩の釘貫兵右衛門が夫婦狐の穴を壊した。翌日登城する途中、遅刻を咎める藩主の使い来て兵右衛門は切腹した。後に狐の復讐であることが分かり、藩主は祟りを恐れ狐を笠田野に祀った。維新の頃、孫右衛門が夫婦狐の1匹を撃ち殺し、孫右衛門はまもなく死んだ。

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. Jizoo 地蔵 Jizo Bosatsu of 大王町 Daio Town .
Shima 志摩市


................................................................................. Nagano 長野県

yamainu 山犬 wolf,高津大権現 Takatsu Daigongen

In 下條村, 馬を野飼いにしていると、荒々しい山犬が現れ馬を食い殺したので、「高津大権現」と唱えた後腰に持っていた鎌で山犬切腹した。その鎌を清めた後、奉納した。


................................................................................. Okayama 岡山県

In Niimi 新見市, Misaki
新見市西方では、変死のあった場所にミサキを祀る。山で首吊りがあると、そこに木を植えてミサキ様といったり、切腹して亡くなった人をツルギミサキ、首吊りで亡くなった人をツナミサキといって祀ったりもする。


................................................................................. Tokyo 東京都

In 神着村, シナの王が漂流してきて、切腹して死んだ。「向かい畑」という丘に葬ったところ、夜な夜な光を発し、異変が生じた。そこで丘と根続きの中で一番高い、大堀の山に改葬したところ異変がやんだ。


................................................................................. Yamanashi 山梨県

gorinzaka ゴリンザカ

In 都留市, 矢島員雄氏の畑の畔にある五輪の石塔のそばの坂をゴリンザカというが、これはこの石塔があるからとも、誰かがこの坂で5厘拾ったからとも、武士のゴリンサンが切腹した場所だからともいう。なお、馬に乗ってこの坂の石塔の前を通り過ぎるものは、必ず落馬するという。

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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source : oonisi.way-nifty.com/lameru

Family Seppuku of Bessho Nagaharu 一族切腹 - 別所長治

- quote -
Bessho Nagaharu 別所長治 (1558 - 1580)
a Japanese daimyo of the Sengoku period. He was the eldest son of Bessho Yasuharu.
In 1578
Oda Nobunaga called on his retainers to attack the Mōri clan. Nagaharu almost decided to lead the Oda troops, but after hearing that the low-born general Hashiba Hideyoshi, whom he did not respect, was allied with the Oda faction he revolted, instead allying himself with Hatano Hideharu of Tamba province.
This led to Nagaharu being besieged by Hideyoshi's troops on the orders of Nobunaga. Nagaharu took a stand in Miki Castle 三木城, starting the Siege of Miki. The siege did not go well for Hideyoshi, and with a revolt by Araki Murashige and the help of the Mōri clan Nagaharu successfully repelled the Oda force. But Hideyoshi returned and this time instead of launching a direct assault, he launched multiple sieges against smaller castles like Kamiyoshi Castle and Shigata Castle to cut off the support from Mori.
This led to a rapid depletion of food, and in 1580, with no hope of another reinforcement from Mōri clan, Nagaharu committed seppuku in exchange for the lives of the troops in Miki Castle.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Seppuku
by Uemon Moridan (Author), eric shahan (Translator), Fumio Manaka (Translator)

An early 19th century Densho, or written transmission of knowledge, on how a Seppuku, or ritual suicide, ceremony should be conducted. This is the first time such a document has been translated into English.
It includes: A reproduction of the entire document A transliteration of the original medieval Japanese A contemporary Japanese interpretation English translation
source : amazon com

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

ながながと切腹の場や夏芝居
naganaga to seppuku no ba ya natsu shibai

the Seppuku scene
is just soooo long . . .
Kabuki summer performance

Tr. Gabi Greve

Ooki Amari 大木あまり Oki Amari (1941 - )


. WKD : natsu shibai 夏芝居 .
- - Kabuki kigo for late summer - -



source : jikabuki.com/learning_jikabuki

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切腹のいまだはたせず菊人形
岬 雪夫

切腹の間からりんどう見えており
五島高資

切腹の間より見せたる牡丹かな
宗田安正

切腹は白き色なり春の夢
長谷川秋子

春雪いくたび切腹で終る色彩映画
三橋鷹女

藤袴切腹衝動堪えけり
浅賀穀象虫

- - - - - Harakiri - - - - -

稽古する腹切の場や春の雨
keiko suru harakiri no ba ya haru no ame

training
for a scene of Harakiri -
rain in spring


. 正岡子規 Masaoka Shiki .

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どうせ最後は 腹切るつもりの人愛す
山崎秋風鬼

もののふの腹切り岩やかきつばた
矢野智司

初写真腹切矢倉背景に
山口青邨

土蜘蛛に腹切らせゐる大暑かな
石塚友二

枝豆の食ひ腹切らばこぼれ出む
三橋敏雄

楠が腹切るあとの梅のはな
曾良 Sora


- - - - - Kappuku - - - - -

まんじゅしゃげむかし割腹したるかな
八島岳洋

割腹の通草ためらひなかりけり
大橋はじめ

割腹死鶲撒かるる空の端
斎藤玄

- More haiku about finding one's death -

- reference : HAIKUreikuDB -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .


. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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2/20/2016

kekkon marriage

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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kekkon 結婚 konrei 婚礼 marriage in Edo
and engiri, en kiri 縁切り to cut a bond - divorce .  

under construction
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- quote
Love and Marriage
Among the textbooks that were commonly used during the Edo Period are a number of editions offering instruction on letter writing. One of them specifically addressed the art of composing love letters. As evidenced by the large number of such letters that have been found, moreover, one can surmised that written correspondence between lovers was a common practice.



Monogyny was the rule for both samurai aristocrats and commoners in the Edo period. Marriage partners were usually sought from families with similar social rank, and the consent of domainal and shogunal authorities were required for marriages involving samurai households. Wedding a partner of one's desire was rare, therefore, since the choice of spouse was made in accordance with the will and judgment of the parents. Cases of double suicide among young lovers were not uncommon when they found their parents' decisions unacceptable.

Those from low-ranking farming households that were less preoccupied with social status were freer to choose their own mates. Often, they met potential partners at local village festivals.

Tying the Knot
Marriage was a more formalized affair for higher-ranking farming households, though. Parents usually asked relatives and others with a broad network of acquaintances to find suitable marriage candidates. The family background of such candidates was checked, and if both families found the arrangement agreeable, a meeting was set up.

If both sides agreed to proceed with the marriage, an engagement ceremony was held, mediated by a village elder. On the day of the marriage, the groom visited the house of the bride, from where the couple, along with their parents and attendants, marched to the groom's house. The wedding ceremony was held at night, and the bride was introduced to members of the groom's village.

Marriage was even more complicated for leading aristocratic houses. A written request had to be submitted to the shogunal government, and newly married couples were required to visit Edo Castle to formally announce their wedlock.

The age of first marriage for women was much younger than it is today, although it rose toward the end of the Edo period. This was because girls began serving for a number of years as housemaids for aristocratic families and large landowners. Men who were employed business establishments were not allowed to marry until they were able to support a family, so their average age of first marriage over 40.

Divorces were fairly common, as were second, third, and even fourth marriages. Although it has been supposed that only the male had the right to demand a divorce, quite often divorce proceedings were initiated by the wife, and the cause of divorce was quite frequently the wife's involvement in an affair or her running away from home. In cases where discussions fail to produce an amicable divorce, women had a last-resort choice of seeking refuge in one of two temples in the country; after three years in the temple, the husband was unconditionally required to issue a letter of divorce.
- source : web-japan.org/tokyo/know/marriage / Hisako Hata

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Japanese Weddings in the Edo Period (1615–1868)
Essay
daimyô wedding.
Konrei-dôgu shokikei sunpô-sho (Wedding Trousseau Items Size Manual)
- source : metmuseum.org- - Monika Bincsik

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Samurai's marriage in Edo Period
The wedding was called Koshi-ire (輿入れ).
Tokoiri (床入り), the first night the new couple goes to bed together.
- source : iromegane.com/japan/culture -

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. nakoodo isha 仲人医者 doctors as matchmakers for marriage .
keian 慶庵 / 桂庵 Keian matchmaker
Named after the famous matchmacer-doctor Yamato Keian 大和慶庵 (around 1653).

A 仲人 Nakodo go-between was necessary for a regular marriage in Edo.

miai 見合い, "matchmaking", lit. "looking at one another"
omiai, o-miai お見合い

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. Tookeiji 東慶寺 Tokei-Ji - Kamakura .

A nunnery that was a refuge for women who wanted to divorce their husbands.

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. Enkiri, engiri 縁切り to cut a bond - divorce .  

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


- reference : nichibun yokai database -
kekkon 結婚 100
konrei 婚礼 66
koshi-ire 輿入れ 02

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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1/30/2016

shuppansha publishing

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. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .
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shuppansha 出版社 publishing company, book publisher

There are various articles about books, publishing and famous publishers in the Edopedia.
This page will be updated regularly.



Edo no honyasan 江戸の本屋さん Book stores in Edo
今田洋三

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. akahon 赤本 red book .


. Edo Meisho Zue 江戸名所図会, “Guide to famous Edo sites” .
Edo Meisho Hanagoyomi 江戸名所花暦 Flower Calendar of Famous Places in Edo


. ezooshi 絵草子 illustrated book or magazine .
「絵草子屋」 ezooshiya store
Ezoushi - Also written 絵双紙.
otogizooshi 御伽草子 popular tales
ukiyo zooshi 浮世草子 Ukiyo-zoshi - books about the floating world


. kashihonya, kashihon'ya 貸本屋 booklender, booklender
furuhonya, furu-honya 古本屋 selling old books .



. kawaraban 瓦版 Edo newspaper, handbill, broadside .
news broadsheet, lit. "tile-block printing" / yomiuri 読売、lit. "to read and sell"
Japanese newspapers (新聞 "shinbun")


. kibyooshi 黄表紙 Kibyoshi, "yellow book covers" .


. saiken 細見 "guide book" / Yoshiwara saiken 吉原細見 .
shibai saiken 芝居細見 guide book for theaters and actors
horizontal format (yokobon 横本), vertical format (tatebon 竪本)


. seihonshi 製本師 bookbinder - Buchbinder
seihonya 製本屋 - seihon gyoosha 製本業者 .

seihon ginooshi 製本技能士
seihon 製本 bookbinding - seihonjo 製本所 bookbinding factory, bookbindery, Buchbinderei
wasoobon, wasoohon 和装本 Japanese book making / wahon 和本 Japanese Book



. shunga 春画 "spring pictures" erotic pictures .


. Teikin Oorai, Teikin ōrai 庭訓往来 textbooks .
Kakimori Bunko 柿衛文庫 .


. Tsuruya Kiemon 鶴屋喜右衛門 Publisher 仙鶴堂 Senkakudo, Edo .

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Tsutaya Juuzaguroo, Tsutaya Jūzaburō 蔦屋重三郎 Tsutaya Jusaburo (1750 - 1797)
see below



. ukiyo-e shi 浮世絵師 Ukiyo-e producer .
ukiyo-e, lit. pictures of the floating world. Paintings and woodblock prints.
planned by the publisher hanmoto 版元 and produced in collaboration with the painter/designer eshi 絵師, carver horishi 彫師 and printer surishi 摺師.


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CLICK for more Japanese books !

出版文化と江戸の教養

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- - - - - common sizes of books

masugata-bon 枡形本 square book
mutsuhan-bon 六半本 sixth-size books
yokonaga-bon 横長本 "wider-than-high” books
yatsuhan-bon 八半本"eighth-sized” books
yotsuhan-bon 四半本 quarter-size books
and
大判 oversized books 


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Tsutaya Juuzaburoo, Tsutaya Jūzaburō 蔦屋重三郎 Tsutaya Jusaburo (1750 - 1797)

- quote -
. . . the founder and head of the Tsutaya publishing house in Edo, Japan, and produced illustrated books and ukiyo-e woodblock prints of many of the period's most famous artists. Tsutaya's is the best-remembered name of all ukiyo-e publishers. He is also known as Tsuta-Jū and Jūzaburō I.



Tsutaya set up his shop in 1774 and began by publishing guides to the Yoshiwara pleasure quarters.

- MORE in the wikipedia -



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the Book in Japan:
A Cultural History from the Beginnings to the Nineteenth Century
by Peter F. Kornicki (Author)

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- quote -
Printing and Publishing
Pre-Modern Printing
- - - - - Tokugawa Period
..... Roughly 300 titles were produced in the 1590s-1630s using moveable type, .....
- snip -
The earliest publishing houses emerged in Kyoto around 1600; simply called hon'ya (bookstores) they engaged in both printing/publishing and retail, and numbered over a hundred by the 1630s.
- snip -
Over the course of the entire Edo period, an estimated 3,757 publishing/bookstore operations were established in Japan, 1,530 of which went out of business before the end of the period.
- - - - - Process
Publishers would often initiate projects, deciding on themes and hiring illustrators or print designers. The illustrators would then submit their designs to the publisher, who would then take over much of the remainder of the process.
- hangiya (板木屋, block-carver)
- copyist or hanshitagaki (版下書)
- nishiki-e and surimono
- the verb 上梓 (jôshi), meaning "to print" or "to publish."
- woodblocks, known as zôhan (蔵版)
- - - - - Paper
- hemp (mashi 麻紙) - kôzo (楮) - Bamboo paper (tôshi 唐紙 or gasenshi 画箋紙)
- - - - - Pigments
- hide-glue called nikawa
Sumi - the same black ink used for painting and calligraphy was used for printing blacks and greys.
White pigments made from seashell (gofun) or lead oxide (enpaku)
Dayflower blue (tsuyukusa) - a light blue hue which reacts easily to moisture, turning yellow.
Prussian blue - the first chemical/artificial pigment developed in the world (i.e. deriving directly from neither vegetable or mineral sources); first used in Japan in 1829; a deep, rich blue that does not fade or discolor.
Beni (safflower red), used to produce various shades of red, pink, orange, and yellow.
Purples obtained by mixing dayflower blue with safflower red, or by other means.

- reference source : wiki.samurai-archives.com/index -
(very extensive reference !)

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Japanese books
Books in Japan (和本, wahon or 和装本, wasouhon) have a long history, which begins in the late 8th century AD. The majority of books were hand-copied until the Edo period (1603–1867), when woodblock printing became comparatively affordable and widespread. Movable-type printing had been used from the late 16th century, but for various aesthetic and practical reasons woodblock printing and hand-copied remained dominant until much later. Japanese equivalents for "book" include 本 (hon) and 書籍 (shoseki). The former term indicates only bound books, and does not include scrolls. The latter is used for printed matter only. The most general term is 書物 (shomotsu), which means all written or printed matter that has been collected into a single unit, regardless of construction.
1 Book composition
1.1 Binding methods
1.1.1 Pre-binding books
1.1.2 Bound books
2 Printing history
2.1 Nara Period
2.2 Heian and Kamakura Periods
2.3 Muromachi Period
2.4 The early-modern printing revolution
2.5 Meiji Period and beyond
- reference : wikipedia -

江戸時代の出版
- reference : wikipedia -


. besutoseraa ベストセラー bestseller authors - list .


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:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #shuppansha #publishinginedo #tsutaya #bestseller - - - -
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