Showing posts with label - - - Senryu. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - Senryu. Show all posts

4/20/2016

Tenpura Tempura in Edo

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. Food in Edo  江戸の食卓 .
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tenpura てんぷら . 天婦羅 . 天麩羅 . 天ぷら Tenpura, Tempura
deep-fried battered food


The name "Tempura" was only used to describe fish Tempura.
agemono 揚げ物 deep fried food
shoojin age 精進揚げ deep-fried vegetables


- quote -
"Agemono", or deep-fried foods, are of three basic types.
"Suage", in which foods are fried without a coating of flour or batter, is appropriate for freshwater fish, eggplant, green peppers and other vegetables whose color and shape can be utilized to good effect.
"Karaage", in which food is first dredged in flour or arrowroot starch, preserves the natural water content of the food and produces a crisp outer surface. In "tatsutaage", a variant of "karaage", pieces of chicken are marinated in a mixture of "sake", soy sauce and sugar, lightly covered with arrowroot starch and deep-fried.



"Tempura" belongs to a third type of "agemono", in which foods are coated with batter. For "agemono" a heavy pot with a wide bottom is used. Vegetable oil is poured into the pot to a depth twice the thickness of the foods to be fried and is then heated to a temperature of 160°to 180°C (320°to 360°F). To keep the oil at a constant temperature, it is important that the foods do not cover more than a third of the surface area of the oil.
- reference source : web-japan.org/museum/others/cuisine -

- quote -
Many ingredients are deep-fried. Mostly fish and seafood and vegetables.
Even the new leaves of greet tea are made into tempura during the season 新茶の天婦羅.
..... The recipe for tempura was introduced to Japan by Portuguese Jesuit missionaries particularly active in the city of Nagasaki also founded by the Portuguese, during the sixteenth century (1549).
Tokugawa Ieyasu, founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, reportedly loved tempura. Originally, tempura was a popular food eaten at street vendors called 'yatai'(屋台) since the Genroku era.


Tempura yatai (stall) - (Fukagawa Edo Museum)

Today, tempura is still a popular side dish at home, and is frequently eaten as a topping at soba stands.
..... In Japan, restaurants specializing in tempura are called tenpura-ya and range from inexpensive fast food chains to very expensive five-star restaurants. Many restaurants offer tempura as part of a set meal or a bento (lunch box), and it is also a popular ingredient in take-out or convenience store bento boxes. The ingredients and styles of cooking and serving tempura vary greatly through the country, with importance being placed on using fresh, seasonal ingredients.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

frittierter Fisch, frittiertes Gemüse

WASHOKU : Tenpura Tempura dishes in our BLOG

basu tenpura バス天ぷら tempura from black bass
ブラックバス天ぷら付のうどん
From Lake Biwa

Maple leaves tempura (momiji tenpura)


kinpura きんぷら 【金麩羅】Kinpura
the coating is made with buckwheat flour. Oil from torreya nuts (kaya 榧(かや) is used for frying.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


. yatai 屋台 food stalls, pushcart stalls .
The most famous three ones were for Sushi, Tenpura and Soba buckwheat noodles.

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江戸前天ぷら Edo-mae tempura, made with local seafood from Tokyo Bay.
The most favorite were shrimp and tiger prawns, ika 烏賊 squid, anago 穴子 sea eel and megochi めごち eel,
kohada 小鰭 spotted shad and kisu 鱚 smelt-whiting, Sillago japonica.

The fried ingredients were picked up with a small bamboo stick, dipped in a sauce of soy sauce with grated radish (daikon) and enjoyed outside, from spring to autumn.

In Edo, only goma-abura ごま油 sesame oil was used for Tempura. It kept longer tasty when re-heated.
Tempura stalls were only allowed to fry outside homes to prevent fires. Inside a home or restaurant it was forbidden to prepare Tempura.

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tenpuraya 天麩羅屋 vendor of tenpura in Edo
They were the beginning of small stalls selling "fast food" to be eaten while standing, for the fast-living workers of Edo.


source : homepage3.nifty.com/shokubun

. Food vendors in Edo .

天麩羅の指をぎぼしへ引きなすり
tenpura no yubi o giboshi e hikinasuri

he wipes his fatty tempura fingers
on the giboshi decoration
of the bridge


This Senryu tells us about the carefree behaviour of the tempura cooks.
Tempura was made with some flavor on the food items, but not served with sauce as it is today.
Some sources say Tempura dipping sauce was introduced much later in the Meiji period.

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu in Edo .

. giboshi 擬宝珠 metal decoration of a railing .

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source : togetter.com/li

Tsukioka 月岡芳年「風俗三十二相  むまさう 嘉永年間女郎之風俗」
A prostitute eating shrimp tempura

mumasao むまさう Umaso, this is so delicious !

. Tsukioka Yoshitoshi 月岡芳年 (1839 – June 9, 1892) .


The pose of the lady, turning to the side to wipe her face, is the same as in a favorite ukiyo-e by Utagawa Kuniyoshi, which was used to put on a handfan for some cooling in summer.


歌川国芳- 園中八撰花 Enchu Hassenka (Eight flowers of the garden)
- 松 Matsu (with pine in the background)

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

The kitsune 狐 Fox likes tempura and tempura oil . . .

................................................................................. Ibaraki 茨城県

In the 稲敷郡 Inashiki district at 江戸崎町 Edosaki village there are many fox legends, when people have to walk along the paths of the fields, were foxes and badgers play their tricks on the humans.
Sometimes the fox steals the tempura of someone returning from town and bringing it home as a present for the family 土産の天ぷら.


................................................................................. Miyazaki 宮崎県

In えびの市 Ebino town, in 尾八重野 Obeno, there was a lady fox called おせん狐 O-Sen , the King of all the regional foxes there.
She lived in the trenches dug during the war by the army of 西郷隆盛 Saigo Takamori.
When people walked along 浜川原 Hamawawabaru at night, there was a large branche of a pine tree in the middle of the road and they could not pass. This was an act of the Fox O-Sen. So they threw some Tempura at the branches, and they dissolved, leaving them to see a huge fox with a large tail on the road.


................................................................................. Nagano 長野県

Offerings for the ancestors on the family altar (butsudan 仏壇) for the O-Bon rituals contain many things, among them 野菜や天ぷら vegetables and tempura.
.
In the 上伊那郡 Kamiina district sometimes people get bewitched by a fox.
They behave quite wild and strange, walk on all four's an want only Tempura to eat.
To get rid of the spell they have to be kept in one room over night and hit with branches of a peach tree 桃の枝. That will bring them back to normal.
.
To get rid of the bewitchment of a fox, among other things, people say prayers and have to eat Tempura.
.
In the 東筑摩郡 Higashichikuma district were people kept silk worms 養蚕, they had to fry their tempura away from home by the river so as not to get the smell to the silk worms.
Sometimes at night a fox came, dipped his tail into the Tempura frying pan and made it un-usable. If the farmers forgot to take the bottle with sesame oil home, this would also be gone by next morning.


................................................................................. Niigata 新潟県

In 十日町市 Tokaichi town there was a fox called サンクロウギツネ Sankurogitsune, living between the hamlets of 蒲生集落 Gamo and 室野集落 Murono. If people walked there he would steal their 天ぷらや油揚 tempura and Aburaage Tofu.


................................................................................. Osaka 大阪府

In 堺市 Sakai town there was a fox
At the 城蔵稲荷 Inari Fox Shrine they tell this story:
An old priest once kept a White Fox with three legs. The brother of the priest was a hunter and the fox feared him. The fox shape-shifted into the old priest and pretended his brother had killed someone and wanted to have him punished. But the brother understood the trick, put some Tempura of a rat on the ground, tricked the White Fox to catch it and killed the fox.

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

天麩羅にかぎる魚や花曇
tenpura ni kagiru sakana ya hanagumori

this fish is best
as Tempura . . .
cherry blossom haze


綾部仁喜 Ayabe Jinki (1929 - 2015)

. WKD : "hanagumori" 花曇, .
- - kigo for late spring - -
A clouded sky during the Cherry blossom season, blossom haze, is "hanagumori", 花曇, only in this season used as a kigo for late spring and never used for other flowers in haze or clouds.

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歳晩や親身のような天婦羅蕎麦
長谷川かな女 Hasegawa Kanajo

天麩羅にからりと揚げて春告げ草 高澤良一
天麩羅の種のねずつぽ石鼎忌 石川桂郎
てんぷらの揚げの終りの新生姜 草間時彦
てんぷらやすでに鰭張る今年鯊 水原秋櫻子

たらの芽の天麩羅の棘食べにけり 長谷川公二
人獣の舌の天麩羅花ぐもり 磯貝碧蹄館
刀豆の天麩羅といふごわつけり 高澤良一
土用入り天麩羅箸の先焦げて 荒巷樹(野火)
活鯊に天麩羅油ぱちぱちと 長谷川櫂 蓬莱
竹の春吹かれとてとて天麩羅食ふ 攝津幸彦
草餅に草の天麩羅みどりの日 御子柴弘子
落葉降るさなか天麩羅匂ひけり 中嶋秀子
退屈も*たらの芽も天麩羅にせり 櫂未知子
餅あはひ天麩羅そばを皆たのむ 櫻井康敞
餅花の下を天麩羅そば通る 鈴木鷹夫 春の門
鱚天麩羅に笑ひ納めをいたしけり 辻桃子
稲の秋てんぷらの鍋鳴りはじむ 長谷川櫂
蓮枯れたりかくててんぷら蕎麦の味 久保田万太郎
長月のてんぷらあぶら古りにけり 辻桃子
黄菊白菊てんぷら揚がる市場の中 穴井太

- reference : haikureikudb -

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source : yoshi43.blog97.fc2.com

even the cats
enjoy their Tempura -
Spring in Edo


Gabi Greve, April 2016

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- Senryu -

てんぷらの店に筮(めどき)を立てて置き
tenpura no mise ni medoki o tatete oki

at the Tempura shop
they put up bamboo stick containers
for all to use


The bamboo sticks were put into a bamboo container and customers could take one out to eat their fill of Tempura.

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筮竹で判断させる天麩羅屋
seichiku de handan saseru tenpura ya

the Tempura cook
judges the food
by the bamboo stick


Since the fish was covered in batter and put in hot oil, the cook had no other choice to guess the situation by the babmoo stick still sticking out of the oil.

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小平次を竹鑓(たけやり)で突く天麩羅屋
koheiji o takeyari de tsuku tempuraya

at the Tempura shop
the spotted shad is pierced
by a bamboo spear


koheiji 小平次 is another word for kohada 小鰭 spotted shad

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- reference : wheatbaku.exblog.jp -

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source : www.6128080.com/sun/edo/ - Onodera Nenryou

To make good tempura, the heat of the oil has to be adjusted.
for fish, about 180 - 185℃, for vegetables only 160 - 180℃.

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #tempura #edomaetempura #tenpura #foodinedo - - - -
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8/17/2015

Robin D. Gill quotes

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]

. fûzoku 風俗 Fuzoku, entertainment and sex business .
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- Robin D. Gill -
- From Wee Tinkle To Woeful Torrent -


Inspired by the
. shoobengumi, shôben-gumi 小便組 Shobengumi, "the urine gang"  .
I got permission from Robin to post his pages about peeing here.


It is part of his book



The Woman Without a Hole -
& Other Risky Themes from Old Japanese Poems

To read it all here :
- source : books.google.co.jp -


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From Wee Tinkle To Woeful Torrent - - - シイシイ から ザアザア まで

小便の音 - - - The Sound of Piss

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娘シイ年増のはじゅウ 乳母のはザア 一五六
musume shii toshima no wa juu uba no wa zaa

daughters go shii
experienced women juu
and wet-nurses zaa

a maiden tinkles
mother showers, wet-nurse
just pours down!

This is very late Willow ku (bk 156) is poetry if Old McDonald Had a Farm is. Yet you can bet it made its author and editor happy, for chances are no senryu (or haiku) before it contained more than two piss noises in 17 syllabets. Such is the nature of competitive short-form literature. Moreover, onomatopoeia itself takes on the nature of a word game in Japanese where one may find whole dictionaries devoted to matching sounds both physical and psychological with their proper subject (or, is it object?). Perhaps the closest English equivalent would be the collective nouns of venery (as in hunting) assembled after Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who did it in a novel (where a young man was quizzed as to the proper terms for various groups of game), and thoroughly but not exhaustively supplemented by James Lipton (An Exaltation of Larks, or the venereal game: 1968). It turned into a parlour game. Old McDonald aside, English keeps the lion’s share of its extraordinarily good sound sense (it suffices to consider stop and shrimp) under wraps – I call it built-in as opposed to apparent mimesis – so such games combining aspects of matching, collecting and guessing, do not work.

an
Edo
observation:
girls go tinkle,
their mamas shower,
but wet-nurses can power
a hydro-electric plant !!!

Pardon the hyperbolic anachronism or anachronistic hyperbole as you wish. This example of one of the oddest themes to ever chapter a book come from Cuntologia (女陰万考) whose page on the subject starts with an explanation about why a woman’s urination was said to sound like a cataract (「女の小便滝の音」), namely, it gushes so powerfully for being far closer to the bladder than a man’s nozzle. I think I would call it oxygenated, for the sound sometimes resembles that of water coming from a tap with a filter. But such spigots were not around back then and because we moderns generally piss into water (I guess this makes us closer to raccoons, who do the same), males now sound as loud if not louder, in a less hissy way, for the longer distance to splashdown and the sound-box effect of the bowl.

しのをつく様にお乳母は小便し 摘 四
shino o tsuku yô ni uba wa shôben-shi

like a torrential downpour
the wet-nurse’s water
is an ear-sore

raining cats and dogs?
well, a wet-nurse
pisses hogs!

The wet-nurse, proverbially slack, as we see in another chapter, pisses true to character, or rather, stereotype. The shino in the original is a small variety of bamboo that combined with tsuku (stick/stab) denotes, as far as I could make out, a big bundle of slender projectiles flying together into something “downpour” literally translates as “sticks shino” and that idiomatically means a torrential cataract of a rain, what we might call “raining cats and dogs” but in Japanese is usually “raining spears.” I added “ear-sore” in one reading because this rain doesn’t always strike the ears as music (see Mother Goose: It’s raining, its pouring, the old man is snoring verse) and to bring out the insulting quality intrinsic to wet-nurse senryu. Directly after the above ku, Mr. Cuntology intro-duced a 7-7 epigram that transliterates as “affection-exhausts/ing piss/ing-sound” (aisô no tsukiru shôben no oto).

Where went the lovers’ bliss?

falling out of love to
the sound of piss
Love’s dead, the proof is this

you suddenly hear it
the sound of piss

love’s dirge

the sound of piss
from one who
no longer
cares

The verb in the original leaves room for ambiguity. I think it means that awareness of the sound of piss marks the death of love, but it may mean that the pisser is no longer trying to piss in a manner to please, or, at any rate not alienate the other, so the sound really is different.

cupid flown
discretion ceases
now she pisses as she
damn well pleases!

But most women in senryu did care:

なりつたけ娵小べんをほそくする
narittake yome shôben o hosoku suru   摘2-21

just married, she
would do all her pissing
through a pin-hole

a young wife
does her best to keep thin
her stream of piss

the bride tries
her best to keep a bridle
on her piss

the new wife
keeps her piss as narrow
as possible

The dietary joke in the second reading is an anachronism. In Japan, brides (young wives living with their husband’s family) had to struggle not to grow thin, for, if senryu are right, mother-in-laws preferred growing hair in closets (mold on hidden dumplings) to satisfying the appetite of their son’s wife. The bride is both struggling not to sound gross to her husband and, I would think, not to challenge

her mother-in-law with a bold display of sound.

たしなんた尼ハ小便しわくさせ 万 宝
tashinanda ama wa shôben shiwaku sase  13

prudently
the nun works to knit up
her pissing

decorously
the nun puts pleats in
her sheet of piss

to be discreet
sister puts pleat after pleat
into her piss

Shiwaku sase is “to wrinkle” or “put folds in.” This nun is embarrassed to reveal her gross humanity rather than one trying to sound demure and feminine.

小便をいきめば器量がどっとせず
shôben o ikimeba kiryô ga dotto sezu
(urine/piss[acc] strain-if/when looks/beauty plenty-does-not)

straining at pee
for all the world knows beauty
does not gush

squeezing her pee
for cats and dogs would mar
her beauty

a careful piss
her beauty won’t mean shit
if it bursts out

beauty’s boudoir
strains her pee lest it belie
her fragility

Usually the verb ikimu is used for straining at stool; here it means trying to restrict it rather than push it out faster, but both activities involve squeezing and breath-holding. First, I imagined a maid-servant who presumes to be a beauty, then a pretty mistress, a “Celia Pisses!” I took the Japanese from Cuntologia, but alas, it and, hence, my readings are probably wrong! A 1995 reprint from a prestigious publisher (岩波文庫), and a 1927 reprint (日本名著全集版) have one less syllabet – making it proper, for the above version was a syllabet over, something rare in the middle part of a senryu. “Ikimeba,” or “strain-if/when” becomes “imeba,” to have a strong aversion for, or “loathe-if/when.”
In this case, the allusion would be to a popular scam –popular in senryu at any rate – called “the piss team” (小便組 shôben-gumi), where an exceptionally beautiful woman becomes a mistress on extraordinarily reasonable terms, and within a week or two starts pissing in bed, then demands a high settlement fee to break off with her patron, i.e., the victim. Unfortunately, the final five syllabets, dotto sezu, have a number of readings. Using the same one used above, a figurative translation might be: “If they hate piss / they are not blessed with / drop-dead looks,” a round-about way of saying that one rarely gets lucky with beauties. But another idiomatic reading of dotto sezu, gives us –

小便をいめば器量がどっとせず   五
shôben o imeba kiryô ga dotto sezu
(urine/piss [acc] loathe-if/when looks/beauty cares-for-not)

if you loathe piss,
beauty is something
you can miss!

fear piss enough
and you will not dare
care for beauty

these beauties
will find nothing amiss
if you hate piss

The first and second readings seem weak of wit, so I prefer the last, which takes the “looks” (kiryô) for the person – something possible then, but not today. I.e., the beauties want someone who hates it so they can lose their job and gain that severance package. What’s funny is how attention is called to a perfectly normal dislike of piss in bed. But I am beginning to feel like a fool for wasting so much time on one stupid senryu – I even had one more reading: By definition he hates pee / A woman who doesn’t gush is a beauty! – and leave it only as an example of how a lack of pronouns can make some poems horribly polysemous. While all three imeba versions may be wrong, chances are that Mr. Cuntology misread. I went along with his ikimeba reading because it was surrounded by other ku about that same idea. As Laurence Sterne’s Tristam Shandy (1759-67) once explained:

“It is the nature of a hypothesis, when once a man has conceived it, that it assimilates everything to itself as proper nourishment; and, from the first minute of your begetting it, it generally grows stronger by every thing you see, hear, read, or understand. This is of great use.”
(Go read this old post-modern novel if you have not!).

If you listen for strained piss, you will hear it. Enough, one last ku to get rid of the piss-team and we will get back on the main path of this essay.

小便は古イと妾あわをふき   万
shôben wa furui to mekake awa o fuki

piss is old
so this mistress
spews foam

piss is old hat
so now mistresses are
foaming over

A confidence trick must be new to work. With bed-wetting so well-known, it was time to move on . . . to epilepsy. I suppose the poet invented this, for I encounter no more of these ku, while the piss-team continues in senryu for generations!

めつきりと・小便ほそふする娘 かぢ枕 宝暦六 
mekkiri-to shôben hososuru musume

a young maiden
all too obviously
thins her pee

Coming of Age in Senryu, or at least a 1756 zappai. I will not explain how the 7-5 plays on the letters of the adverb めっきり(obviously). Suddenly self-conscious, a young girl squeezes her piss. Do her parents hear that their daughter is no longer innocent? The sound is not given in the ku, but we are conscious of it. So women of various ages and professions all worried about how they sounded pissing. The author of Cuntology also gives a ku about a woman in the Court, I cannot understand, though I imagine it means someone has the job of covering the sound, as a radio might do for bashful moderns, and concludes his “Sound of Pissing” section with a word of sympathy for the high-stress lifestyle these women led, when even the natural pleasure of release in urination may not be enjoyed chibiri-chibiri (in drips and drabbles), when one is afraid to let it all out.

欲心の無い小便を下女は垂れ
yokushin no nai shôben o gejo wa tare
(desire/greed-heart’s not urine[acc]maid-as-for drip)

the maid-servant
lets loose a stream of piss
without avarice

Nor artifice, for it is the same thing. The verb, tare, normally used for male pissing, suggests a real stream of piss. But maids are generally reserved for sex in senryu. It is the wet-nurse who cannot piss without becoming a target for senryu:

あいくつわむしさと乳母ハたれて居る  摘 
ai kutsuwa-mushi sa to uba-wa tarete-iru 1-28

“it’s only a giant katydid”
says the nurse-maid
making water

あいくつわむしさと乳母ハたれて居る  摘
ai kutsuwa-mushi sato-uba wa tarete-iru 1-28

a giant katydid?
the country wet-nurse
is taking a piss!

Without the Chinese characters, we have yet another ambiguous reading for the first ku. The sa is an emphatic which I made “it’s only,” and the to means that what came before it was spoken (a verbal quote-mark, lacked by English), but together sato means “country.” Regardless, we may assume the “giant katydid” (Mecopoda elongata) does not say “Katy did!” but sounds like a cataract.

乳母たれる向ふでくろがほへて居る 万 安四
uba tareru mukô de kuro ga hoete-iru

nurse-maid pisses
and, over the way, hark!
blacky is barking

That is enough attention paid to the sound of piss in senryu, though I am sure there must be much more, and better, for Japanese prose was full of it – there are entire lines of onomatopoeia following a piss from start to finish! Honest to goodness, purely verbal musical scores that read like jazz scats. Here is one I recalled reading in Inoue Hisashi’s personal grammar+reader in Japanese (井上ひさし著『私版日本語読本』), kindly looked up & economically transcribed by Y, the partner or doppelganger of O (I don’t have it straight yet) who works in a NY bookstore – for I am currently exiled from my books – which has it in stock: シヤリ(+くりかえし記号4回)ザラ(+4回)シヤア(+4回)ヂウ(+4回)シイシ(+1回)トツクリ(+1回)ポトン、チヨビン (I forgot to ask its original source) 。
.
sharisharisharisharishari, zarazarazarazarazara, shashashashasha,
jujujujuju, shiishishiishi, tokkuri tokkuri, poton, chobin!


It seems the mimesis picks up in mid-urination and the sound is altered by the varying thickness of the flow – maybe something was going on within sight of the pisser – and, possibly by what the piss strikes, and it ends on some notes that indicate the manner in which the flow is shut-down, though I dare not try to read it.

サホ姫のしと/\降るや春の雨 
sao-hime no shito-shito furu ya haru no ame
teitoku 1570-1653 貞徳 崑山

princess spring is out again
making flowers bloom
fine pizzling rain

A original is only “Princess Sao’s is falling shito-shito: spring rain.” The idea of making flowers bloom comes from reading Alexander Pope on women-as-clouds & vice-versa and from reading a ku by Issa, in whose sundry collection of dialect (方言雑集:全集七) I found Teitoku’s ku. Issa’s ku may already be in another of my books and, lacking mimesis, does not really belong here, but it is my favorite of Issa’s half a dozen Goddesses pissing ku, so here it is:

さほ姫のばりやこぼしてさく菫   一茶
saohime no bari ya koboshite saku sumire   文政三

where princess sao
spilled her urine, there
bloom the violets!

Classic poetry credited rain and mist with dyeing flowers and leaves. But what a beautiful complement to Ben Franklin’s observation that eating pine nuts could make urine smell like violets – the scent of ideal urine (?) – in his Letter to the French Academy of Science suggesting study be given to improving the smell of farts! And, so long as we are off-subject, let me say that there are older pee poems in Japanese than Teitoku’s. The earliest I know is in the Manyôshû (9c). It is not about pissing but a rare example of something famously rare in Japanese, cussing. A lover upset at another’s unfaithfulness used piss (shiko) to modify this and that (one that was a bed, if I recall right) three times in a tiny 31 syllabet complaint – ancient Japanese used it as British did the word “bloody.” But Teitoku’s is the first clear piss mimesis of the type that would soon become ubiquitous in Edo era literature. that I know of, and, right next to it, Issa jotted down (bassackwards) the most famous of all, or the only classic pissing poem:

サホ姫の春立ながらしとをしてかすみの衣裾はぬれけり 一茶記 犬筑波集
sao-hime no haru tachinagara shito o shite kasumi no koromo suso o nurekeri [sic. ★]

Princess Sao
tinkles with the coming
of the spring

Wetting the hems
of her misty robes
With her spring
Princess Sao makes water
standing tall

Wetting the misty
hems of her robes

The standing=arriving [Spring] does not English. Reading the original, one thinks of Kyoto, where women, like men, pissed into collection troughs while standing. Neither this nor Bashô’s well-known late-fall shower (mura-shigure) that wanders about like a dog whizzing a wee bit here and a wee bit there (inu no kakebari), or Issa’s many pissing ku, use sound words. Usually, Issa uses plenty. Could he hold back when dealing with crude material lest his high ku be considered low?

雨だれは只さほ姫の夜尿かな  犬子集 (1633)
ame dare wa tada sao hime no yobari [or yojito]kana
(rain drops-as-for just sao princess’s night-piss!/?/’tis)

those rain drops?
just little princess sao
wetting her bed

The rude metaphor used in this ku, dating to about the same time as Teitoku’s, feels senryu, but is haiku in direction (nature described by the human).

つみ草に来てハこらへるいなた姫  万
tsumigusa ni kite wa koraeru inada-hime  宝九

draw-verse: it’s so scary!

plucking herbs
she holds it in all the while
a princess inada

princess inada
comes to pluck herbs but
must hold it in

There is no sound here but the chuckling of the poet. The main themes in pissing (or not pissing) by women in senryu are 1) wanting to sound feminine, or sounding otherwise, as explained above; 2) the gorgeous piss-gang (小便組 shôben-gumi) mistress who wets her bed on purpose to make a man dislike her and gain a severance fee; 3) men pissing somewhere they shouldn’t; 4) Things that happen when pissing – thoughts, civilities, observances of nature; 5) women, mostly blind, unaware they are being spied upon by a man, generally their servant; 6) fear of being violated by snakes if they do it in the country, and 7) Fear of doing it on worms (like snakes vindictive?). If I did not fear creating yet another 740 pg worst-seller (I already have two), I would have introduced more of each, but this wee sample must do. Pissing evidently did not piss-off the censors, for Blyth catches enough of 3) – perhaps the most amusing category – and 4), so I was able to let them go and instead chose to concentrate on sound, for its raw quality makes it sound senryu.

The above ku, from Karai Senryû’s earliest major collection, is one of the wittiest examples of 6). Princess Inada, more commonly Kushinada-hime, daughter of an ancient King, bound to be the next victim of the Leviathan, Yamato no Orochi, was saved when a suitor got the serpent drunk and cut it/him to bits. Please note that without the use/non-use of particles, in Japanese, the princess in the poem may be the princess, i.e. an imagined hap-pening after the mythological princess was married to her brave suitor (for noble women went out in the Spring for herbs), AND a Princess Inada, which is to say a clever idea for a name for all women who tend to hold it in on field trips (more likely fearing chiggers or leeches or poisonous plants than snakes). In English, the ku cannot have it both ways; it must be OR, one or the other, as determined by the use or non-use of an “a.” That is far more important than whether the syntax puts the Princess in the first line or the last, as it is in the original.

しゝの出ル穴ハ別さとさゝめこと   摘3-16
shishi no deru ana wa betsu sa to sasamegoto pinch
(“peepee’s leaving hole-as-for different [+emph]” whisper-words)

pillow talk:
telling him the pee hole
is different

“you know, the hole
for pee is not the same”
sweet nothings

“so you thought
the pee hole was the same!”
young lovers

I can recall an argument with friends in primary school about this same problem. Boys just do not know. Moreover, if women really worried about how they piss (as senryu would have it), you might think it reflected on the diameter of their vaginas, and one word for vagina in Japanese was the ninth hole 第九穴 (when anyone who counts the urethra separate would come up with ten, or twelve, counting tits). Shishi is a colloquial term with good sound quality. I did not do a chapter on holes as I save them for a whole book I will probably never write.

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~ eddies ~
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Other Onomatopoeia. More mimetic senryu in this book may be found in passim, but here, two fine examples should suffice for the sound of things other than pissing.

悪ふざけ障子をスポン/\抜き  85-22
waru-fuzake shôji o supon supon nuki

a bad prank:
popping out from
a paper wall

horse-play
pop! pop! through
a paper wall

Or, is it, rather “popping in” ? The original mimesis, supon, cannot be matched by English unless we add a moving s to pop, making it “spop!” or “spopping.” It does not allude to but evokes the suppon, a long-neck soft-shell snapping turtle identified with the penis and eaten or drunk (the blood) as a fortifier for men. This mimesis is not one of those commonly repeated, so I imagine two men, either doing it on a dare possibly to surprise a maid, or else, in their own rundown pad after painting a woman or women on the paper. Another reason for two or more men, rather than one, poking multiple holes is that cock-matches (mara-kurabe), contesting size, erective power (lifting strength) and hardness (punching through paper) were common, at least in picture scrolls of such fun (who can speak for reality?). There would be an old paper door, window or room partition – shôji can be any of these, and doors that slide are often nothing but partitions, ergo “wall” (scene of our pecker-through-the-mouse-hole jokes) – that is, easily spopped paper to make it tempting. Since Japanese tend to be neatnicks, such activity would take place at years-end, when the paper would be replaced anyway.

がさ/\といふととんぼうつるむ也   摘
gasagasa to iu to tonbô tsurumu nari 4-30
(rustling say and dragonflies mating is)

what makes
a rustling sound? mating
dragonflies

a dry sound?
it would be the fucking
dragonflies

This is a senryu often reprinted and probably has been Englished elsewhere. It starts in a manner that reminds us of listing, where one might be challenged to supply examples of “things that rustle,” but some readers might recall Saikaku’s gay(!) dragonflies as well.

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Issa’s Goddess/Violet Ku. Because this chapter concerns pissing I emphasized the Goddess but please note that Issa’s ku is, at heart, a violet (sumire) ku, excellent because it indirectly describes the place where violets are found, ground so damp another Issa ku explains, “I sit after / spreading out tissue paper: / violet-viewing” (鼻紙を敷て居 (すわ) れば菫哉 hanakami o shiite suwareba sumire kana). Issa did not actually say “viewing” and the tissue is literally “nose-paper,” but you get the idea: he didn’t want his seat to get wet. It was a mistake for the editors of Issa’s ALL to only include the ku in question under “Princess Sao” and forget to at least mention it in under the theme “violet.”
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More Pissing Ku type 3 and 4. The “Pissing on the Moon” chapter of A Dolphin in the Woods (in progress) has men pissing where they shouldn’t and my Fifth Season has them pissing while engaged in civilities. Please note, I do not have particular interest in making water; it just happens to be a favorite theme of the haiku master I know best, Issa.
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Pissing Type 5, or, Watching Blind Women Pee? I have half a dozen such before me now, of which my favorite has someone, almost surely the blind singer’s attendant, so eager to get a peek that he is tip-toeing (nuki-ashi). I also have a picture, with a poor senryu and hundreds of words of prose, showing a man legs spread wide like a giraffe at a waterhole, bent so low to get a good view that his chin is all but grazed by the jet of urine, while the fingers of one hand rest in the rivulet created by the same! The fingertips of his other hand are barely visible reaching around his massive cock in mid-ejaculation. The message for us? Even in a culture with a relaxed view of nudity, men got off by looking.

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Huge Serpent Lovers. If you find such myths and the way they are used in poetry today interesting, Yamato no Orochi appears in a number of translated sea cucumber haiku you may find in Rise, Ye Sea Slugs! (Paraverse Press, 2003)
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★ Issa’s Inu (Dog) Tsukuba Princess Pissing on her Robe. Since Issa, with his word-book, was concerned with the term used for pissing (shito suru) in the old haikai, he put the 5-7-5 that followed the 7-7 first, simply because it had the phrase. The original order is better. Hiroaki Sato skillfully precedes it with a linked verse from the slightly earlier Shinsen (new) Tsukubashû (1495), some call the start of honest-to-goodness haikai, where Monk Sôzei wonders “whether he’s looking at the inside or outside of the robe because the day has not fully broken.” Then he gives the opening linked-verse of the Inu (dog=pseudo) Tsukubashû (1536): “the robe of haze is wet at its hem / Princess Sao of spring pissed as she started.” He passes over the standing connection, but his “started” is itself a good pun – I use it several times in The Fifth Season with respect to Spring’s starting/standing – and his broader explanation is elegant:

The maeku (initial part) is innocuous enough; but, instead of explaining conventionally why the robe is wet, the respondent – it could have been Sôkan – says it is because the goddess of spring inopportunely succumbed to the call of nature. (One Hundred Frogs: 1983)

Other Japanese explanations where the haze stands for the vanishing waka replaced by the wet (full of bodily humors?) haikai. Then, in the heyday of haikai, in the 1633 Enoko (dog/puppy) collection, we have the more outrageous pissabed goddess we saw in the maintext. But so long as we are off-subject, a few more examples from Issa’s word-book, or “vernacular miscellany” (方言雑記) as it is called. On the same page as the pissing Princess: “Shiritasuki [shiridasuki],” a butt that looks like it has been criss-crossed by a tasuki sash/chord (see page 299). The OJD explains this means someone is so thin their butt gets folds. Pages before we learn the fine line between the privates and the anus is called “ants’ gate-crossing” (蟻の門渡り), i.e., a single file from gate to gate. And, before that, we find “chopenashi: when an old man etc. pinches a woman’s butt”(一茶全集七巻).

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One Meta-mimetic Senryu.
The following is so simple an observation that only an extraordinarily alert poet could catch it.
.
家毎に風は違った音を立て 素人
ie goto ni kaze wa chigatta oto o tate

the wind makes
a different sound
at each house

I found this ku in Blyth’s Japanese Life and Character . . , with no source given (Change “at” to “Round” & uncenter for his translation). Blyth writes “This is yet another example of how the poetry of senryu is different from that of haiku.” It is also an extraordinarily poetic ku. ◎What I mean by the title of this eddy, “meta-mimetic,” is that I wonder if people might listen more carefully to sounds other than the human because of their tendency to turn so many of them into onomatopoeia. The ku does not itself contain mimesis, but it may have been born of it. (Note: Japanese intellectuals can get quite conceited about their mimesis and, since I hate collective boasting as much as I hate individual boasting – unless it is damn funny hyperbole ala Davy Crockett – I have also pointed out that the existence of settled upon onomatopoeia for so many sounds may dull ears to the real thing. That argument and what I wrote above may both be true.) ◎ And, why so much use of mimesis/tic rather than onomatopoeia/tic? 1), it is shorter; 2), it includes psychological sound effects which are clearly recognized in Japanese but not in English; 3) it is easier to spell and remember if you only know what mime means. Try using the word. If others mimic you, soon we may be able to discuss sound more easily.

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~ 蛇足 ~

仮章題には、「シイちゃんからザアザ・ガボール迄」の方が良かったかしら? 




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. shoben, shooben (小便), the" small business" .
often pronouced shomben.
to pee, bari suru ばり, 尿 ( ばり ) する
piss-pot, shibin 尿瓶
piss bucket, shooben oke 小便桶
If you do it standing, it is tachishoben, tachi shôben , 立小便.


. shoobengumi, shôben-gumi 小便組 Shobengumi, "the urine gang"  .
- Introduction -

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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2/22/2015

ikakeya tinker

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. Repairmen in Edo 修理屋 .
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ikakeya 鋳掛屋 / 鋳掛け屋 / いかけや  tinker, repairing metal tools, pots and pans
ikakeshi 鋳掛け師

A popular job from the Edo to the Showa period. He repaired the metal home items, which were prone to damage, getting holes and splitting of all kinds.

Every little damage was repaired carefully, till a pot could not be used any longer.


『守貞謾稿』- Illustration from Morisada Manko

The tinker walked around in Edo and the villages of Japan, calling out for his service. He carried his tools in a wooden box and also had to carry a little  fuigo bellows. He had to heat the metal in a small fire and blend the hot metal over the split.

金属を「鋳て」(溶かして)「かける」から「いかけや」



During the Meiji and then Showa period the pots and pans were made of better quality to start with and easier to buy in the stores. So the job of the tinker slowly died out.



source : Cony のブログ


Until about 1965, the roadside tinkers were still working in Osaka 大阪.

They used to call out:

いかけ、鍋釜、バケツいか〜け
ikake nabe kama baketsu ikaaaake

the tinker is here -
pots and pans, buckets for the tinker



The word ikakeya いかけ屋 in Osaka was used to describe a happy couple that went out together. Since around 1810 there were a few female tinkers working in Osaka.

今日は徳さんとこ、芝居行くンかいな。いかけ屋やなあ

There is also a famous rakugo story from Kamigata (Osaka)

いかけ屋 Ikakeya
「鋳掛屋だけによくくっつくな」「鋳掛屋は鋳掛屋どうしくっつくな」



source : shobuen2

The village children surround the tinker and try to divert him from paying attention to his job. They ask him silly questions and wait for his answer.
When he asks the kids to go away, they never do. . . .
- - - More in the Japanese WIKIPEDIA !


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There is a famous proverb

月夜に釜を抜かれる
tsukiyo ni kama o nukareru

An iron pot is stolen in a moonlight night.

In a dark night, people would be careful and watch out for thieves, but on a moonlit night . . .

to be completely taken unawares, to be taken by surprise, to be off my guard

Even in the Edo period, the metal of pots and pans was worth to be stolen.

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- - - reference - Japanese WIKIPEDIA !


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -



source : blog.goo.ne.jp/aboo-kai

天高く いかけやなべ底たたく音
ten takaku ikakeya nabe soko tataku oto

bright autumn sky -
the sound of the tinker hitting
the bottom of the pot



. WKD : ten takashi 天高し "high sky", "high heaven" .
clear autumn sky
- - kigo for all autumn - -


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鍋鋳掛けすてっぺんから煙草にし
nabe ikake suteppen kara tabako ni shi

a pot for the tinker -
but first he takes a smoke
from his pipe





The people of Edo observed well. The tinker had to make the fire really hot before he could start to work, so he used that time to have a smoke himself.
source : jti - tobacco-world

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. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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11/01/2014

eleventh lunar month

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The Eleventh Lunar Month 十一月 juuichigatsu - 霜月 shimotsuki -
lit. "the frost month"

In the old lunar calendar of the Edo period

spring lasted from the first month to the third,
summer from the fourth month through the sixth,
autumn from the seventh month through the ninth,
winter from the tenth month through the twelfth.

. WKD : The Asian Lunar Calendar and the Saijiki .


. Edo Saijiki 江戸歳時記 .


source : art.jcc-okinawa.net/okinawa/edonosiki


under construction
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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -



source : tyoukoku.exblog.jp

. fuigo matsuri 鞴祭 bellows festival .
on the 8th day of the 11th lunar month

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tori no ichi, o-tori sama 酉の市(おとりさま)
- source : 江戸の歳時記 -



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. Edo Saijiki 江戸歳時記 .


. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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10/01/2014

tenth lunar month

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The Tenth Lunar Month 十月 juugatsu - 神無月 kannazuki -
lit. "Gods are absent"

In the old lunar calendar of the Edo period

spring lasted from the first month to the third,
summer from the fourth month through the sixth,
autumn from the seventh month through the ninth,
winter from the tenth month through the twelfth.

. WKD : The Asian Lunar Calendar and the Saijiki .


. Edo Saijiki 江戸歳時記 .


source : art.jcc-okinawa.net/okinawa/edonosiki


The tenth lunar month (now November), after the harvest when the Japanese gods had done their duty, they left their local shrines for a bit of a vacation. They would all go for an audience and to celebrate at the great shrine of Izumo, so the rest of Japan was "without gods".

. kami no rusu 神の留守 the gods are absent .


under construction
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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

bettara ichi market and Ebisu
 べったら市は、毎年10月19・20日の両日、日本橋大伝馬町の宝田恵比寿神社の大祭・恵比寿講に合わせて催される縁日

- source : 江戸の歳時記 -


. robiraki 炉開き "opening the hearth .
for the tea ceremony
On the first day of the boar in the month.



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. Edo Saijiki 江戸歳時記 .


. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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9/01/2014

ninth lunar month

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The Ninth Lunar Month 九月 kugatsu - 長月 nagatsuki -
lit. "long month"

In the old lunar calendar of the Edo period

spring lasted from the first month to the third,
summer from the fourth month through the sixth,
autumn from the seventh month through the ninth,
winter from the tenth month through the twelfth.

. WKD : The Asian Lunar Calendar and the Saijiki .


. Edo Saijiki 江戸歳時記 .


source : art.jcc-okinawa.net/okinawa/edonosiki


under construction
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chooyoo 重陽 (ちょうよう) "double prime number nine"
kiku no sekku 菊の節供 chrysanthemum ritual


. Chrysanthemum Festival .


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Kanda Myoojin Matsuri 神田明神祭り Kanda Myojin Festival
on the 15th day of the ninth lunar month, now on May 15


source and photos : kandamyoujin.or.jp/kandasai

The festival floats were richly decorated.

夏と秋二年に見せる金屏風
natsu no aki ninen ni miseru kinbyoobu

in summer and autumn
once every two years we see
the golden folding screens

Yanagidaru 71



In summer for the Sanno Festival and in autumn for the Kanda festival rich merchants put a golden folding screen in front or their shop, placed a wooden stand in front of it (sanpoo 三方) and put up some offerings of sacred rice wine (miki お神酒) .

. Kanda Myoojin 神田明神, Kanda-myōjin - 神田神社 Kanda-jinja.


. toojin ame uri 唐人飴売り Chinese-style candy vendor .
They came to sell their sweets at the Kanda Festival.

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Nezu Jinja Matsuri 根津神社例大祭
- source : 江戸の歳時記 -


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. Edo Saijiki 江戸歳時記 .


. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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7/31/2014

seventh lunar month

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The Seventh Lunar Month 七月 shichigatsu - 水無月 minazuki -
lit. "month without water"

In the old lunar calendar of the Edo period

spring lasted from the first month to the third,
summer from the fourth month through the sixth,
autumn from the seventh month through the ninth,
winter from the tenth month through the twelfth.

. WKD : The Asian Lunar Calendar and the Saijiki .


. Edo Saijiki 江戸歳時記 .


source : art.jcc-okinawa.net/okinawa/edonosiki


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chuugen, o-chuugen mid-year presents
- source : 江戸の歳時記 -



by Kitagawa Utamaro 歌麿 七夕
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

. Tanabata 七夕 Star Festival .


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. Edo Saijiki 江戸歳時記 .


. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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6/01/2014

sixth lunar month

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The Sixth Lunar Month 六月 rokugatsu - 水無月 minazuki -
lit. "month without water"

In the old lunar calendar of the Edo period

spring lasted from the first month to the third,
summer from the fourth month through the sixth,
autumn from the seventh month through the ninth,
winter from the tenth month through the twelfth.

. WKD : The Asian Lunar Calendar and the Saijiki .


. Edo Saijiki 江戸歳時記 .


source : art.jcc-okinawa.net/okinawa/edonosiki


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. doyoo 土用 doyo, dog days .



The first day of doyoo in midsummer (and midwinter) is called ushi no hi, the day of the ox, as in the 12 signs of the Japanese zodiac. It is customary to eat broiled eel (kabayaki, see the photo above) on the day of the ox in summer (doyoo no ushi no hi, now sometime in late July). This is because eel (unagi) is nutritious and rich in vitamin A, and provides strength and vitality to fight against the extremely hot and humid summer of Japan.
The man who invented this well-loved custom is the famous scientist of the late Edo period, Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内.

土用丑見ただけにしたウナギかな
doyoo ushi mita dake ni shita unagi kana

dog day
and this year I make do with looking at
broiled eel . . .


Eiji kun えいじくん 


土用丑 ウナギも自民も 上がり過ぎ

本年は どぜうで一杯 約交わす

源内も セシウム牛に 二の丑(足)を

source : www.sencle.net

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goyoogeikoo 御用稽古 "official training" of the samurai of Edo castle
swimming was especially taught to the elite of the group
okachigumi 御徒組 / 御徒方 shogun's foot guards 

suiei jooran 水泳上覧 day when the Shogun inspected the swimmers from his boat

Ota Nanpo (Nampo) - Shokusanjin 大田南畝 - 蜀山人 (1749-1823)
was famous for his swimming skills.



He took part in the swimming performance before 10th Shogun Ieharu 家治上覧 (1737 - 1786).
He is also known for promoting eating eal on the hottest Summer day (doyoo no hi).
- source : www.art-inn.jp/artinncolumn

He was also a great poet for satirical kyooka 狂歌 Kyoka, under the pen-name
neboke sensei 寝ぼけ先生 "Half-awake Teacher"  or Yomo no Akara 四方赤良



- quote
Ōta Nampo - Ōta Nanpo 大田 南畝
was the most oft-used penname of Ōta Tan, a late Edo period Japanese poet and fiction writer. He wrote primarily in the comedic forms of kyōshi, derived from comic Chinese verse, and kyōka, derived from waka poetry.
His pennames also include Yomo no Akara, Yomo Sanjin, Kyōkaen, and Shokusanjin (蜀山人).
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Ota Nampo - Painting of Daruma san .

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Mori Tetsuzan (1775-1841) and Ota Nampo (1749-1823)



A collaborative work by Mori Tetsuzan (1775-1841), a Shijo painter from Osaka and Ota Nampo (1749-1823). Nampo was an honest, diligent and loyal servant of bureaucracy in premodern Japan. This was the most obvious way of life for the off-springs of low-ranking warrior families as Nampo. But this was only his day job and one side of Ota Nampo's character. His true vocation was poetry. And it seems as the result of his rather serious day job that he chose humorous poetry as his domain. He produced hundreds of poems which add playful notes to everyday life.

Foreigners
have travelled so far
to see in the heavenly realms
the most exquisit
Mount Fuji.


- source : us6.forward-to-friend2.com



. Samurai, bushi, warrior 兵、武士、兵士 .

. Edo Castle 江戸城 .


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hooroku o-kyuu ほうろく灸 Horoku moxabustion



. hooroku plates for moxibustion .   



hoozuki ichi
- source : 江戸の歳時記 -

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. koorimizu uri 氷水売り vendors of "ice water" .
mizu-uri 水売 (みずうり) vendor of water
hiyamizu uri 冷水売(ひやみずうり) vendor of cold water

Ice was kept in special store rooms (himuro 氷室) built in Edo town.
This was not pure and many got ill. The proverb

toshiyori no hiyamizu 年寄りの冷や水  to do something imprudent for an old person
derived from this habit.


そこが江戸一荷の水も波で売り
sore ga Edo ikka no mizu mo nami de uri

that's Edo !
one load of water sold
with the waves . . .




4 mon coins had a pattern of waves on the backside. A load of water contained two barrels on the shoulder pole of a street vendor.

CLICK for more illustrations

. himuro 氷室 icehouse, ice cellar .

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. kyuuri fuuji きゅうり封じ / 胡瓜封じ cucumber service .   

The cucumber resembles a standing human being, therefore it is used in this ritual.


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natsu harai, natsu harae 夏祓 Summer purification
on the last day of the sixth lunar month

chi no wa, chinowa 茅の輪 -, 芽輪 - ちのわ sacred ring, purification hoop

. Purification Ritual (Ceremony) , harae 祓 .

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Sano Matsuri, Sanno Matsuri
- source : 江戸の歳時記 -

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. tokoroten 心太, 心天 jelly strips .   



tororoten uri ところてん売り vendors had a wooden box with lattice, to provoke a cool feeling.


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. yamabiraki 山開 "opening the mountain" .  
Climbing Mount Fuji was very popular in the Edo period. 
(sometimes listed in the 5th month)

From the first day of the sixth lunar month till the last day of the eighths months.
When they reached the mountain they threw in "saisen" money offerings into the crater. Coins are still found there.
During the Edo period this money was collected and used at the Asama shrines.


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:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Edo Saijiki 江戸歳時記 .


. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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