12/21/2015

Bakufu Edo Government

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. Edo Bakufu articles .
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Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government and Administration
Tokugawa bakufu 徳川幕府 Tokugawa Government




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The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the
Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) and
the Edo bakufu (江戸幕府), was the last feudal Japanese military government which existed between 1603 and 1867.
The heads of government were the shoguns, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern (Kinsei (近世)).

The bakuhan taisei (幕藩体制) was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku, or "tent," is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government" — that is, the shogunate. The han were the domains headed by daimyo.

1 History
2 Government
2.1 Shogunate and domains
2.2 Shogun and the Emperor
2.3 Shogun and foreign trade
2.4 Shogun and Christianity

3 Institutions of the shogunate
3.1 Rōjū and wakadoshiyori (roojuu, roju 老中)
3.2 Ōmetsuke and metsuke (oometsuke 大目付)
3.3 San-bugyō (san bugyoo) - three administrators
3.4 Tenryō, gundai and daikan (Tenryo 天領)
3.5 Gaikoku bugyō (gaikoku bugyoo)

4 Late Tokugawa Shogunate (1853–1867)
5 List of the Tokugawa shoguns
- source : wikipedia

karoo 家老 Karo, chief retainer
He stayed at the domain and looked after the regional affairs on behalf of the Daimyo.

under construction
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- - - - - keywords including BAKU 幕 - - - - -

Bakuchoo Sensoo 幕長戦争 Bakucho Senso war
between the Bakufu and the 長州 Choshu Domain
Chōshū Rebellion
also called 長州征討 Choshu Seito, 長州征伐, 長州出兵, 長州戦争
In the Kinmon Incident on 20 August 1864, troops from Chōshū Domain attempted to take control of Kyoto and the Imperial Palace in order to pursue the objective of Sonnō Jōi. This also led to a punitive expedition by the Tokugawa government, the First Chōshū expedition (長州征討).
第一次長州征討 First Chōshū expedition
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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幕府放鷹制度 rules about takagari 鷹狩り hawk hunting, falconry (BF)
. takagari 鷹狩 hunting with hawks and falcons .

bakufu kansen 幕府艦船 Bakufu ships (BF)
bakufu kansenn 幕府官船

. bakufu goyootashi 幕府御用達 craftsmen working for the Bakufu government .

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. bakuhan taisei 幕藩体制 Bakuhan system .

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Bakumatsu 幕末 end period of the Bakufu (1853 - 1867)

. Bakumatsu 幕末 写真 photo collection .

. Bakumatsu aera 幕末の人  people visiting Japan (1853 - 1867) .

幕末のジャーナリズムー Bakumatsu Jurnalism
. kawaraban 瓦版 Edo newspaper, handbill, broadside .

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. bakuryoo 幕領 Bakuryo government land, bakufu-owned land, .
bakufu chokkatsu chi 政府直轄地 / bakufu chokkatsu ryoo 幕府直轄領
shogun's direct holdings, personal land- holdings, personal fief of the Tokugawa
tenryoo, tenryō 天領 Tenryo Government Land "Land of Heaven"


. mizubugyoo, mizu bugyō 水奉行 Waterworks administrator .

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A Shogun (将軍 Shōgun) "general", lit. "military commander"
was a hereditary military dictator in Japan during the period from 1192 to 1867, with some caveats. In this period, the shoguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a formality. The Shogun held almost absolute power over territories through military means, in contrast to the concept of a colonial governor in Western culture who was appointed by a king.
Sei-i Taishōgun (征夷大将軍, "Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians"
..... in reality shōguns dictated orders to everyone including the reigning Emperor.
Kamakura shogunate (1192–1333)
Ashikaga shogunate (1336–1573)
Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1868)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shoogun senge  将軍宣下 appointment to shogun
imperial authorization for shogunal investiture

江戸幕府の征夷大将軍‎ The Tokugawa Shoguns

Tokugawa Ieyasu 徳川家康 (1543–1616) - the first Shogun
..... He received the title sei-i taishōgun in 1603
Tokugawa Hidetada 徳川秀忠 (1579–1632)
Tokugawa Iemitsu 徳川家光 (1604–1651)
Tokugawa Ietsuna 徳川家綱 (1641–1680)
Tokugawa Tsunayoshi 徳川綱吉 (1646–1709)

Tokugawa Ienobu 徳川家宣 (1662–1712)
Tokugawa Ietsugu 徳川家継 (1709–1716)
Tokugawa Yoshimune 徳川吉宗 (1684–1751)
Tokugawa Ieshige 徳川家重 (1712–1761)
Tokugawa Ieharu 徳川家治 (1737–1786)

Tokugawa Ienari 徳川家斉 (1793–1853)
Tokugawa Ieyoshi 徳川家慶 (1793-1853)
Tokugawa Iesada 徳川家定 (1824–1858)
Tokugawa Iemochi 徳川家茂 (1846–1866)
Tokugawa Yoshinobu 徳川慶喜 (1837–1913) - the last Shogun

Tokugawa Tsunenari 徳川恆孝 (1940 - ) the 18th generation
His son, Tokugawa Iehiro , is a University of Michigan-educated translator.

- Tokugawa Branch Families
Tokugawa Mitsukuni of the Mito domain
Tokugawa Nariaki of the Mito domain
Tokugawa Mochiharu of the Hitotsubashi branch
Tokugawa Munetake of the Tayasu branch.

- - - - - The Matsudaira clan (松平氏 Matsudaira-shi)
Matsudaira Motoyasu changed his name to Tokugawa Ieyasu
Other branches were formed in the decades after Ieyasu, which bore the Matsudaira surname. Some of those branches were also of daimyo status.
Matsudaira Katamori of the Aizu branch.
Matsudaira Sadanobu, of Shirakawa
- - - - - 4 Key genealogies
4.1 Main line (Tokugawa shogun)
4.2 Hoshina-Matsudaira clan (Aizu)
4.3 Yūki-Matsudaira clan (Echizen) - Fukui Domain and Tsuyama Domain
4.4 Ochi-Matsudaira clan (Hamada)
4.5 Hisamatsu-Matsudaira clan (Kuwana)
4.6 Ogyū-Matsudaira clan (Okutono)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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tairoo, tairō 大老 Tairo "Great Elder" - chief councillor
roughly comparable to the office of prime minister.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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A COMPLICATED PATCHWORK
The system for maintaining law and order during the Edo period differed fundamentally from our modern system in that law enforcement and criminal justice were carried out by the same organs. That is to say, one agency or office carried out the functions that are today performed separately by police, prosecutors, and the courts. This means that the administrative and judicial functions of government were merged rather than deliberately separated as they are in modern democratic states.

Although the Tokugawa shogunate held sway over the daimyô (lords) of all the country’s domains, the administration of each of these domains was left to the individual daimyô; in principle, the shogunate administered only its own domains. However, since the administrative apparatus of each domain, including law enforcement and criminal justice, closely resembled the system established by the shogunate, an examination of the latter system should be sufficient to provide an overview of law enforcement in the Edo period.

The top administrative post under the shôgun was that of rôjû, or senior councillors. (At times a tairô, or chief councillor, was appointed as a superior to the rôjû, but this was not a permanent post.) Typically, the shogunate appointed four or five rôjû from among the fudai daimyô, lords of the domains that Ieyasu, the first Tokugawa shôgun, had originally granted to his loyal vassals in the early seventeenth century. The rôjû generally took turns managing the shogunate’s administrative affairs according to a monthly rotation system, although they came together to confer on matters of importance. Ranking just below the rôjû were the wakadoshiyori, or junior councillors. They were also chosen from among the fudai daimyô and likewise served according to a monthly rotation. Since the rôjû and wakadoshiyori together made up the top administrative organ of the Tokugawa government, they were inevitably involved in matters pertaining to law enforcement and criminal justice, whether directly or indirectly.

Next in importance in the central administrative apparatus were the metsuke (inspectors) and ômetsuke (inspectors general), whose main job was to monitor and control the activities of the ruling warrior class. The ômetsuke, reporting directly to the rôjû, monitored the daimyô, while the metsuke, who were under the supervision of the wakadoshiyori, focused on the shôgun’s direct retainers—the hatamoto, or bannermen, and the gokenin, or housemen. Both were selected from among the hatamoto. With its reliance on peer monitoring, the metsuke system might be compared to the military police of a modern army or the internal affairs bureau of a police department.

The highest offices with direct police and judicial authority were the three bugyô, or commissioners, who reported to the rôjû. While many of the positions within the vast shogunal bureaucracy had originated as military posts in the era of civil unrest prior to the Edo period, the posts of the three bugyô were created after the shogunate was established in Edo, and they had a distinctly civilian flavor.

The first and highest-ranking of the three was the jisha bugyô (commissioner of temples and shrines), who had authority over the lands of all the temples and shrines in the country, the priests and monks attached to those institutions, and the people living within their precincts. In addition to wielding general administrative authority over these lands and people, the jisha bugyô also adjudicated civil suits, investigated crimes, and tried suspected criminals associated with the temples and shrines.

The central job of the kanjô bugyô (commissioner of accounts) was fiscal management, but the holder of this post also wielded police authority with regard to serious crimes carried out within most of the shogunate’s direct holdings. This is because the authority of the gundai or daikan who directly governed those areas (the name depended on the size of the holding) extended only to the collection of taxes from local farmers and the prosecution and adjudication of civil cases and certain minor criminal cases; in all other criminal cases, the accused, together with the record of the preliminary investigation, was sent to the higher court in Edo, namely the kanjô bugyô. Since the kanjô bugyô thus combined the authority of a finance minister and a chief justice, only the most capable people could fill the post, and they were kept very busy. Four people ordinarily filled it on a monthly rotating basis.
- source : japanecho.com/sum/2004 -

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. nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name .

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- - - - - Alphabetical Index of Keywords 用語解説 - - - - -

- AAA - / - BBB - / - CCC - / - DDD - / - EEE -

- FFF - / - GGG - / - HHH - / - I I I - / - JJJ -

- KK KK - / - LLL - / - MMM - / - NNN - / - OOO -

- PPP - / - QQQ - / - RRR - / - SSS - / - TTT -

- UUU - / - VVV - / - WWW - / - XXX - / - YYY - / - ZZZ -


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江戸幕府大事典 by 大石学
将軍・老中・火付盗賊改・畳奉行・鷹匠、江戸城 ( 門・櫓・堀) ・陣屋・奉行所、参勤交代・幕府の儀式...。
家康から慶喜まで、265年にわたり日本を治めた江戸幕府。最新の成果で描く概論と、職制・陣屋・儀式などの用語解説で、幕府の基礎情報を集成。役職存在期間一覧、索引などの付録も充実した.
年中行事 - 官僚制 - 建築物
役職については、支配・役高・詰間などの基本情報から職務内容・改廃・主要人物なども解説。施設(陣屋・奉行所・役所・牢屋・刑場など)については、現在地・構造のほか、設置から廃止までの沿革も詳述する

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. Bakufu Meeting with PowerPoint .

. ninsoku yoseba 人足寄場 rehabilitation prison .
Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 and
Law Enforcement in the Edo Period

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

葛がくれ幕府御用の銅の道
kuzugakure bakufu goyoo no doo no michi

hidden in Kuzu
the copper road
of the Bakufu


品川鈴子 Shinagawa Suzuko



. doozan 銅山 Dozan copper mines in Japan .
Besshi copper mine 別子銅山 - Ehime
Ashio copper mine 足尾銅山 - Tochigi

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浜木綿の奔放に裂け幕府跡
hamayuu no honbo ni sake bakufu ato

北見さとる Kitami Satoru

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .


. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. samurai, warriour, tsuwamono, bushi 侍, 兵、武士、兵士 .


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